Gene Symbol: DC SIGN
Description: CD209 molecule
Alias: CDSIGN, CLEC4L, DC-SIGN, DC-SIGN1, CD209 antigen, C-type lectin domain family 4 member L, HIV gpl20-binding protein, dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin 1, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin, dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)-3 grabbing non-integrin
Species: human
Products:     DC SIGN

Top Publications

  1. Sakuntabhai A, Turbpaiboon C, Casademont I, Chuansumrit A, Lowhnoo T, Kajaste Rudnitski A, et al. A variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with severity of dengue disease. Nat Genet. 2005;37:507-13 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CD209 has a crucial role in dengue pathogenesis, which discriminates between severe dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. This may have consequences for therapeutic and preventive strategies. ..
  2. Yu X, Vasiljevic S, Mitchell D, Crispin M, Scanlan C. Dissecting the molecular mechanism of IVIg therapy: the interaction between serum IgG and DC-SIGN is independent of antibody glycoform or Fc domain. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings lead us to suggest that IVIg therapy does not involve binding of IgG Fc to DC-SIGN and that alternative cell-surface lectins are required for the antiinflammatory activity of sFc. ..
  3. Sainz J, Segura Catena J, Jurado M. [Association between genetic polymorphism in the promotor region of CD209 and propensity to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis]. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010;32 Suppl A:9-13 pubmed
    ..1921). These results suggest that the variant DC-SIGN-139(A/G) in the DC-SIGN gene promoter influences the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and may therefore be used as a genetic biomarker to stratify patients according to risk. ..
  4. Lin G, Simmons G, Pohlmann S, Baribaud F, Ni H, Leslie G, et al. Differential N-linked glycosylation of human immunodeficiency virus and Ebola virus envelope glycoproteins modulates interactions with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Virol. 2003;77:1337-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, the virus-producing cell type is an important factor in dictating both N-glycan status and virus interactions with DC-SIGN(R), which may impact virus tropism and transmissibility in vivo. ..
  5. Van Liempt E, Bank C, Mehta P, García Vallejo J, Kawar Z, Geyer R, et al. Specificity of DC-SIGN for mannose- and fucose-containing glycans. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6123-31 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN is selective in its recognition of specific types of fucosylated glycans and subsets of oligomannose- and complex-type N-glycans. ..
  6. Hodges A, Sharrocks K, Edelmann M, Baban D, Moris A, Schwartz O, et al. Activation of the lectin DC-SIGN induces an immature dendritic cell phenotype triggering Rho-GTPase activity required for HIV-1 replication. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:569-77 pubmed
    ..Activation of LARG in DCs exposed to HIV was required for the formation of virus-T cell synapses. Thus, HIV sequestration by and stimulation of DC-SIGN helps HIV evade immune responses and spread to cells. ..
  7. Nunez C, Oliver J, Mendoza J, Gómez Garcia M, Taxonera C, Gomez L, et al. CD209 in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study in the Spanish population. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:75 pubmed
    ..However, it could be involved in the etiology or pathology of Ulcerative Colitis in HLA-DR3-positive individuals but further studies are necessary. ..
  8. Martina B, Koraka P, van den Doel P, Rimmelzwaan G, Haagmans B, Osterhaus A. DC-SIGN enhances infection of cells with glycosylated West Nile virus in vitro and virus replication in human dendritic cells induces production of IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha. Virus Res. 2008;135:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that DC-SIGN enhances infection of cells by WNV glycosylated strains, which may at least in part explain the higher pathogenicity of glycosylated L1 strains versus most non-glycosylated L2 strains. ..
  9. Boggiano C, Manel N, Littman D. Dendritic cell-mediated trans-enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity is independent of DC-SIGN. J Virol. 2007;81:2519-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, DC-SIGN is not required for DC-mediated trans-enhancement of HIV infectivity. ..

More Information

Publications146 found, 100 shown here

  1. Baumann J, Park C, Mantis N. Recognition of secretory IgA by DC-SIGN: implications for immune surveillance in the intestine. Immunol Lett. 2010;131:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify DC-SIGN as a putative receptor for SIgA, and reveal a mechanism by which DCs could collaborate with M cells in immune surveillance at mucosal surfaces. ..
  2. Geijtenbeek T, Krooshoop D, Bleijs D, van Vliet S, van Duijnhoven G, Grabovsky V, et al. DC-SIGN-ICAM-2 interaction mediates dendritic cell trafficking. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:353-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, DC-SIGN is central to the unusual trafficking capacity of DCs, further supported by the expression of DC-SIGN on precursors in blood and on immature and mature DCs in both peripheral and lymphoid tissues. ..
  3. Lozach P, Lortat Jacob H, de Lacroix de Lavalette A, Staropoli I, Foung S, Amara A, et al. DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are high affinity binding receptors for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20358-66 pubmed
    ..High affinity interaction of viral glycoproteins with oligomeric lectins might represent a strategy by which HCV targets to and concentrates in the liver and infects dendritic cells. ..
  4. Nonaka M, Ma B, Murai R, Nakamura N, Baba M, Kawasaki N, et al. Glycosylation-dependent interactions of C-type lectin DC-SIGN with colorectal tumor-associated Lewis glycans impair the function and differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:3347-56 pubmed
  5. Mummidi S, Catano G, Lam L, Hoefle A, Telles V, Begum K, et al. Extensive repertoire of membrane-bound and soluble dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin 1 (DC-SIGN1) and DC-SIGN2 isoforms. Inter-individual variation in expression of DC-SIGN transcripts. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:33196-212 pubmed
    ..e. the immunological synapse. ..
  6. Dominguez Soto A, Sierra Filardi E, Puig Kröger A, Pérez Maceda B, Gomez Aguado F, Corcuera M, et al. Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin expression on M2-polarized and tumor-associated macrophages is macrophage-CSF dependent and enhanced by tumor-derived IL-6 and IL-10. J Immunol. 2011;186:2192-200 pubmed publisher
  7. Wu L, Martin T, Vazeux R, Unutmaz D, Kewalramani V. Functional evaluation of DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies reveals DC-SIGN interactions with ICAM-3 do not promote human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Virol. 2002;76:5905-14 pubmed
    ..While these findings do not discount the role of intercellular contact in facilitating HIV-1 transmission, our in vitro data indicate that DC-SIGN interactions with ICAM-3 do not promote DC-SIGN-mediated virus transmission. ..
  8. Ryan E, Marshall A, Magaletti D, Floyd H, Draves K, Olson N, et al. Dendritic cell-associated lectin-1: a novel dendritic cell-associated, C-type lectin-like molecule enhances T cell secretion of IL-4. J Immunol. 2002;169:5638-48 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the function of DCAL-1 on DCs and B cells may act as a T cell costimulatory molecule, which skews CD4(+) T cells toward a Th2 response by enhancing their secretion of IL-4. ..
  9. He B, Qiao X, Klasse P, Chiu A, Chadburn A, Knowles D, et al. HIV-1 envelope triggers polyclonal Ig class switch recombination through a CD40-independent mechanism involving BAFF and C-type lectin receptors. J Immunol. 2006;176:3931-41 pubmed
    ..Chronic activation of B cells through this CD40-independent pathway could impair protective T cell-dependent Ab responses by inducing immune exhaustion. ..
  10. Kashima S, Rodrigues E, Azevedo R, da Cruz Castelli E, Mendes Junior C, Yoshioka F, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209) gene promoter polymorphisms in a Brazilian population and their association with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:927-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the variation observed in SNPs -336 and -139 indicates that this lectin may be of crucial importance in the susceptibility/transmission of HTLV-1 infections. ..
  11. Naarding M, Dirac A, Ludwig I, Speijer D, Lindquist S, Vestman E, et al. Bile salt-stimulated lipase from human milk binds DC-SIGN and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transfer to CD4+ T cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3367-74 pubmed
    ..Identifying the specific molecular interaction between the different forms may aid in the future design of antimicrobial agents. ..
  12. Ben Ali M, Barreiro L, Chabbou A, Haltiti R, Braham E, Neyrolles O, et al. Promoter and neck region length variation of DC-SIGN is not associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Tunisian patients. Hum Immunol. 2007;68:908-12 pubmed
    ..Our data showed therefore that neither promoter variants nor length variation in the neck region of DC-SIGN is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Tunisian patients. ..
  13. Sol Foulon N, Moris A, Nobile C, Boccaccio C, Engering A, Abastado J, et al. HIV-1 Nef-induced upregulation of DC-SIGN in dendritic cells promotes lymphocyte clustering and viral spread. Immunity. 2002;16:145-55 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights into how HIV-1 spreads from DCs to T lymphocytes and manipulates immune responses. They help explain how Nef may act as a virulence factor in vivo. ..
  14. Arrighi J, Pion M, Wiznerowicz M, Geijtenbeek T, Garcia E, Abraham S, et al. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of DC-SIGN expression inhibits human immunodeficiency virus transmission from dendritic cells to T cells. J Virol. 2004;78:10848-55 pubmed
    ..The present system should have broad applications for studying the function of DC-SIGN in the pathogenesis of HIV as well as other pathogens also recognized by this receptor. ..
  15. Feinberg H, Mitchell D, Drickamer K, Weis W. Structural basis for selective recognition of oligosaccharides by DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. Science. 2001;294:2163-6 pubmed
  16. Pohlmann S, Zhang J, Baribaud F, Chen Z, Leslie G, Lin G, et al. Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins interact with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Virol. 2003;77:4070-80 pubmed
    ..HCV interactions with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR may contribute to the establishment or persistence of infection both by the capture and delivery of virus to the liver and by modulating dendritic cell function. ..
  17. Zeituni A, Jotwani R, CARRION J, Cutler C. Targeting of DC-SIGN on human dendritic cells by minor fimbriated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains elicits a distinct effector T cell response. J Immunol. 2009;183:5694-704 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis strains, respectively, suggesting distinct immunomodulatory roles for the two adhesins of P. gingivalis. ..
  18. Su S, Gurney K, Lee B. Sugar and spice: viral envelope-DC-SIGN interactions in HIV pathogenesis. Curr HIV Res. 2003;1:87-99 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent studies on DC-SIGN's structure and function in an effort to present testable models of DC-SIGN's role in HIV pathogenesis. ..
  19. Schaefer M, Reiling N, Fessler C, Stephani J, Taniuchi I, Hatam F, et al. Decreased pathology and prolonged survival of human DC-SIGN transgenic mice during mycobacterial infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:6836-45 pubmed
    ..Based on our in vivo data, we propose that instead of favoring the immune evasion of mycobacteria, human DC-SIGN may have evolved as a pathogen receptor promoting protection by limiting tuberculosis-induced pathology. ..
  20. Hatch S, Archer J, Gummuluru S. Glycosphingolipid composition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is a crucial determinant for dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. J Virol. 2009;83:3496-506 pubmed publisher
  21. Sanders R, de Jong E, Baldwin C, Schuitemaker J, Kapsenberg M, Berkhout B. Differential transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by distinct subsets of effector dendritic cells. J Virol. 2002;76:7812-21 pubmed
    ..The ICAM-1-LFA-1 interaction is known to be important for immunological cross talk between DC and T cells, and our results indicate that this cell-cell contact is exploited by HIV-1 for efficient transmission. ..
  22. Colmenares M, Puig Kröger A, Pello O, Corbi A, Rivas L. Dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), a C-type surface lectin in human DCs, is a receptor for Leishmania amastigotes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36766-9 pubmed
    ..Our finding has important implications for Leishmania host-cell interaction and the immunoregulation of cutaneous leishmaniasis. ..
  23. Xu Y, Liu W, Dong J, Liu W, Feng Q, Chen L, et al. Sequencing of DC-SIGN promoter indicates an association between promoter variation and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in cantonese. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:161 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our study indicated that DC-SIGN promoter variants appear to be involved in the susceptibility to NPC and the detailed mechanism of this effect need further studies. ..
  24. Lekkerkerker A, Ludwig I, van Vliet S, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T. Potency of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 antibodies to inhibit the interaction of DC-SIGN with HIV-1 gp120. Virology. 2004;329:465-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN binding to gp120 enhanced CD4 binding, suggesting that DC-SIGN induces conformational changes in gp120, which may provide new targets for neutralizing antibodies. ..
  25. Stax M, Naarding M, Tanck M, Lindquist S, Hernell O, Lyle R, et al. Binding of human milk to pathogen receptor DC-SIGN varies with bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) gene polymorphism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17316 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed variation in DC-SIGN binding properties among milk samples may have implications for the risk of mucosal transmission of pathogens during breastfeeding. ..
  26. Sabatte J, Faigle W, Ceballos A, Morelle W, Rodríguez Rodrígues C, Remes Lenicov F, et al. Semen clusterin is a novel DC-SIGN ligand. J Immunol. 2011;187:5299-309 pubmed publisher
  27. Lozach P, Burleigh L, Staropoli I, Navarro Sanchez E, Harriague J, Virelizier J, et al. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-mediated enhancement of dengue virus infection is independent of DC-SIGN internalization signals. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23698-708 pubmed
  28. Moris A, Nobile C, Buseyne F, Porrot F, Abastado J, Schwartz O. DC-SIGN promotes exogenous MHC-I-restricted HIV-1 antigen presentation. Blood. 2004;103:2648-54 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results highlight new aspects of DC-SIGN interactions with HIV-1. The lectin does not significantly protect captured virions against degradation and promotes MHC-I exogenous presentation of HIV-1 antigens. ..
  29. Serrano Gomez D, Dominguez Soto A, Ancochea J, Jimenez Heffernan J, Leal J, Corbi A. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin mediates binding and internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by dendritic cells and macrophages. J Immunol. 2004;173:5635-43 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the involvement of DC-SIGN in the initial stages of pulmonary infection as well as in fungal spreading during invasive aspergillosis. ..
  30. Groot F, Geijtenbeek T, Sanders R, Baldwin C, Sanchez Hernandez M, Floris R, et al. Lactoferrin prevents dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission by blocking the DC-SIGN--gp120 interaction. J Virol. 2005;79:3009-15 pubmed
    ..DC-mediated capture of a bLF-resistant HIV-1 variant that was selected during long-term culturing in T cells could still be blocked by bLF. This underscores the usefulness of bLF as a microbicide drug to prevent HIV-1 transmission. ..
  31. Barreiro L, Patin E, Neyrolles O, Cann H, Gicquel B, Quintana Murci L. The heritage of pathogen pressures and ancient demography in the human innate-immunity CD209/CD209L region. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;77:869-86 pubmed
  32. Gomez L, Anaya J, Sierra Filardi E, Cadena J, Corbí A, Martin J. Analysis of DC-SIGN (CD209) functional variants in patients with tuberculosis. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:808-11 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the studied polymorphisms are not relevant risk factors for developing tuberculosis in Northwestern Colombian individuals. ..
  33. Saeland E, de Jong M, Nabatov A, Kalay H, Geijtenbeek T, van Kooyk Y. MUC1 in human milk blocks transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from dendritic cells to T cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that repetitive units of Lewis X, within the mucin domain, play an important role in inhibiting transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child...
  34. Stax M, van Montfort T, Sprenger R, Melchers M, Sanders R, van Leeuwen E, et al. Mucin 6 in seminal plasma binds DC-SIGN and potently blocks dendritic cell mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. Virology. 2009;391:203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we demonstrate that purified mucin 6 binds DC-SIGN and successfully inhibits viral transfer. Mucin 6 in seminal plasma may therefore interfere with the sexual transmission of HIV-1 and other DC-SIGN co-opting viruses. ..
  35. Geijtenbeek T, Engering A, van Kooyk Y. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin on dendritic cells that unveils many aspects of dendritic cell biology. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71:921-31 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss the carbohydrate/protein recognition profile and other features of DC-SIGN that contribute to the potency of DC to control immunity. ..
  36. Hsu S, Chen C, Tsai S, Kawasaki H, Hung C, Chu Y, et al. Functional interaction of common allergens and a C-type lectin receptor, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), on human dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7903-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that allergens are able to interact with DC-SIGN and induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in MDDCs via, in part, Raf-1 signaling pathways. ..
  37. Halary F, Amara A, Lortat Jacob H, Messerle M, Delaunay T, Houles C, et al. Human cytomegalovirus binding to DC-SIGN is required for dendritic cell infection and target cell trans-infection. Immunity. 2002;17:653-64 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights into the molecular interactions contributing to cell infection by CMV and extend DC-SIGN implication in virus propagation. ..
  38. Geijtenbeek T, van Kooyk Y. DC-SIGN: a novel HIV receptor on DCs that mediates HIV-1 transmission. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003;276:31-54 pubmed
  39. Despres P, Sakuntabhai A, Julier C. [A variant in the CD209 (DC-SIGN) promoter is associated with severity of dengue disease]. Med Sci (Paris). 2005;21:905-6 pubmed
  40. Alvarez C, Lasala F, Carrillo J, Muniz O, Corbi A, Delgado R. C-type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN mediate cellular entry by Ebola virus in cis and in trans. J Virol. 2002;76:6841-4 pubmed
    ..Our data underscore a role for DC-SIGN and L-SIGN in the infective process and pathogenicity of Ebola virus infection. ..
  41. Turville S, Wilkinson J, Cameron P, Dable J, Cunningham A. The role of dendritic cell C-type lectin receptors in HIV pathogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:710-8 pubmed
    ..The exact details of these processes are currently the subject of intense study. ..
  42. Nunez C, Rueda B, Martinez A, Maluenda C, Polanco I, Lopez Nevot M, et al. A functional variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with DQ2-negative celiac disease in the Spanish population. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4397-400 pubmed
    ..026, OR = 3.71). The -336G CD209 allele seems to be involved in CD susceptibility in HLA-DQ2 (-) patients. Our results might suggest a possible role of pathogens in the onset of a minor group of CD patients. ..
  43. Olesen R, Wejse C, Velez D, Bisseye C, Sodemann M, Aaby P, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209), pentraxin 3 and vitamin D receptor gene variants associate with pulmonary tuberculosis risk in West Africans. Genes Immun. 2007;8:456-67 pubmed
    ..78, 95% CI 0.63-0.98). Our findings support previous data showing that VDR SNPs modulate the risk for TB in West Africans and suggest that variation within DC-SIGN and PTX3 also affect the disease outcome. ..
  44. Böckle B, Solder E, Kind S, Romani N, Sepp N. DC-sign+ CD163+ macrophages expressing hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 are located within chorion villi of the placenta. Placenta. 2008;29:187-92 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that these cells may fulfil a function in innate responses against pathogens as well as be involved in the homeostasis of hyaluronan metabolism in the rapidly differentiating placenta. ..
  45. Londrigan S, Turville S, Tate M, Deng Y, Brooks A, Reading P. N-linked glycosylation facilitates sialic acid-independent attachment and entry of influenza A viruses into cells expressing DC-SIGN or L-SIGN. J Virol. 2011;85:2990-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that human C-type lectins (DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) can mediate attachment and entry of influenza viruses independently of cell surface SA. ..
  46. Kwon D, Gregorio G, Bitton N, Hendrickson W, Littman D. DC-SIGN-mediated internalization of HIV is required for trans-enhancement of T cell infection. Immunity. 2002;16:135-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that HIV binds to DC-SIGN to gain access to an intracellular compartment that contributes to augmentation or retention of viral infectivity. ..
  47. Schjetne K, Thompson K, Aarvak T, Fleckenstein B, Sollid L, Bogen B. A mouse C kappa-specific T cell clone indicates that DC-SIGN is an efficient target for antibody-mediated delivery of T cell epitopes for MHC class II presentation. Int Immunol. 2002;14:1423-30 pubmed
    ..These results strongly argue that DC-SIGN-specific mAb are channeled into the MHC class II presentation pathway. Thus, DC-SIGN could be an efficient target for antibody-mediated delivery of T cell epitopes in vaccine development. ..
  48. Ludwig I, Lekkerkerker A, Depla E, Bosman F, Musters R, Depraetere S, et al. Hepatitis C virus targets DC-SIGN and L-SIGN to escape lysosomal degradation. J Virol. 2004;78:8322-32 pubmed
  49. Ceccaldi P, Delebecque F, Prevost M, Moris A, Abastado J, Gessain A, et al. DC-SIGN facilitates fusion of dendritic cells with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected cells. J Virol. 2006;80:4771-80 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results indicate that DC-SIGN facilitates HTLV-1 infection and fusion of DCs through an ICAM-dependent mechanism. ..
  50. Chan K, Xu M, Ching J, So T, Lai S, Chu C, et al. CD209 (DC-SIGN) -336A>G promoter polymorphism and severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:702-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This association is in keeping with the role of CD209 in modulating immune response to viral infection. The relevance of these findings for other infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions would be worth investigating. ..
  51. Geijtenbeek T, van Vliet S, Koppel E, Sanchez Hernandez M, Vandenbroucke Grauls C, Appelmelk B, et al. Mycobacteria target DC-SIGN to suppress dendritic cell function. J Exp Med. 2003;197:7-17 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN has a broader pathogen recognition profile than previously shown, suggesting that DC-SIGN may represent a molecular target for clinical intervention in infections other than HIV-1. ..
  52. Arrighi J, Pion M, Garcia E, Escola J, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T, et al. DC-SIGN-mediated infectious synapse formation enhances X4 HIV-1 transmission from dendritic cells to T cells. J Exp Med. 2004;200:1279-88 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a novel explanation for the role of DC-SIGN in the transfer and enhancement of HIV infection from DCs to T cells, a crucial step for HIV transmission and pathogenesis. ..
  53. Krutzik S, Tan B, Li H, Ochoa M, Liu P, Sharfstein S, et al. TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells. Nat Med. 2005;11:653-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, TLR-induced differentiation of monocytes into either macrophages or dendritic cells seems to crucially influence effective host defenses in human infectious disease. ..
  54. Bashirova A, Geijtenbeek T, van Duijnhoven G, van Vliet S, Eilering J, Martin M, et al. A dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-related protein is highly expressed on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and promotes HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 2001;193:671-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that L-SIGN may play an important role in the interaction between liver sinusoidal endothelium and trafficking lymphocytes, as well as function in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. ..
  55. Soilleux E, Morris L, Lee B, Pohlmann S, Trowsdale J, Doms R, et al. Placental expression of DC-SIGN may mediate intrauterine vertical transmission of HIV. J Pathol. 2001;195:586-92 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have suggested that this trophoblast layer is frequently breached during pregnancy. It is therefore proposed that DC-SIGN may facilitate the transplacental transmission of HIV. ..
  56. Hong P, Flummerfelt K, de Parseval A, Gurney K, Elder J, Lee B. Human immunodeficiency virus envelope (gp120) binding to DC-SIGN and primary dendritic cells is carbohydrate dependent but does not involve 2G12 or cyanovirin binding sites: implications for structural analyses of gp120-DC-SIGN binding. J Virol. 2002;76:12855-65 pubmed
    ..These results have implications for antiviral therapeutics and for ongoing efforts to finely map the glycan structures on gp120 responsible for DC-SIGN binding. ..
  57. van Montfort T, Nabatov A, Geijtenbeek T, Pollakis G, Paxton W. Efficient capture of antibody neutralized HIV-1 by cells expressing DC-SIGN and transfer to CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2007;178:3177-85 pubmed
  58. Yu H, Chang W, Wang L, Lin Y, Liang C, Yang K, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209) promoter -336 A/G (rs4804803) polymorphism associated with susceptibility of Kawasaki disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:634835 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the promoter variant of DC-SIGN gene was not associated with the occurrence of IVIG resistance, CAL formation in KD. The G allele of DC-SIGN promoter -336 (rs4804803) is a risk allele in the development of KD. ..
  59. Liu H, Hwangbo Y, Holte S, Lee J, Wang C, Kaupp N, et al. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in CCR5, CCR2, stromal cell-derived factor-1, RANTES, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin in seronegative individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1055-8 pubmed
    ..2% in ES individuals vs. 0.0% in HIV-1-seropositive individuals; P=.011). ..
  60. Bernhard O, Lai J, Wilkinson J, Sheil M, Cunningham A. Proteomic analysis of DC-SIGN on dendritic cells detects tetramers required for ligand binding but no association with CD4. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51828-35 pubmed
  61. Kwan W, Navarro Sanchez E, Dumortier H, Decossas M, Vachon H, dos Santos F, et al. Dermal-type macrophages expressing CD209/DC-SIGN show inherent resistance to dengue virus growth. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e311 pubmed publisher
  62. Gringhuis S, van der Vlist M, van den Berg L, den Dunnen J, Litjens M, Geijtenbeek T. HIV-1 exploits innate signaling by TLR8 and DC-SIGN for productive infection of dendritic cells. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of either pathway abrogated replication and prevented HIV-1 transmission. Thus, HIV-1 subverts crucial components of the immune system for replication that might be targeted to prevent infection and dissemination. ..
  63. Geijtenbeek T, Kwon D, Torensma R, van Vliet S, van Duijnhoven G, Middel J, et al. DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells. Cell. 2000;100:587-97 pubmed
    ..We propose that DC-SIGN efficiently captures HIV-1 in the periphery and facilitates its transport to secondary lymphoid organs rich in T cells, to enhance infection in trans of these target cells. ..
  64. Navarro Sanchez E, Altmeyer R, Amara A, Schwartz O, Fieschi F, Virelizier J, et al. Dendritic-cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin is essential for the productive infection of human dendritic cells by mosquito-cell-derived dengue viruses. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:723-8 pubmed
    ..Mosquito-cell-derived DVs may have differential infectivity for DC-SIGN-expressing cells. We suggest that the differential use of DC-SIGN by viral envelope glycoproteins may account for the immunopathogenesis of DVs. ..
  65. Serrano Gomez D, Sierra Filardi E, Martinez Nunez R, Caparros E, Delgado R, Muñoz Fernández M, et al. Structural requirements for multimerization of the pathogen receptor dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (CD209) on the cell surface. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3889-903 pubmed
  66. Sainz J, Lupiáñez C, Segura Catena J, Vazquez L, Rios R, Oyonarte S, et al. Dectin-1 and DC-SIGN polymorphisms associated with invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32273 pubmed publisher
  67. Mitchell D, Fadden A, Drickamer K. A novel mechanism of carbohydrate recognition by the C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. Subunit organization and binding to multivalent ligands. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28939-45 pubmed
    ..Binding to clustered oligosaccharides may also explain the interaction of these receptors with the gp120 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1, which contributes to virus infection. ..
  68. Su S, Hong P, Baik S, Negrete O, Gurney K, Lee B. DC-SIGN binds to HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 in a distinct but overlapping fashion compared with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19122-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, DC-SIGN appears to bind in a distinct but overlapping manner to gp120 when compared with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. ..
  69. Gringhuis S, den Dunnen J, Litjens M, Van het Hof B, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T. C-type lectin DC-SIGN modulates Toll-like receptor signaling via Raf-1 kinase-dependent acetylation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Immunity. 2007;26:605-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, this pathway is involved in regulation of adaptive immunity by DCs to bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. ..
  70. Vannberg F, Chapman S, Khor C, Tosh K, Floyd S, Jackson Sillah D, et al. CD209 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis disease. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1388 pubmed publisher
    ..This is consistent with evidence that Mycobacteria can utilize DC-SIGN binding to suppress the protective pro-inflammatory immune response. ..
  71. Singh S, Stephani J, Schaefer M, Kalay H, Garcia Vallejo J, Den Haan J, et al. Targeting glycan modified OVA to murine DC-SIGN transgenic dendritic cells enhances MHC class I and II presentation. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data demonstrate that DC-SIGN transgenic mice are valuable tool for optimisation and efficiency testing of DC vaccination strategies that are designed to target in particular the human DC-SIGN receptor. ..
  72. Lee B, Leslie G, Soilleux E, O DOHERTY U, Baik S, Levroney E, et al. cis Expression of DC-SIGN allows for more efficient entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses via CD4 and a coreceptor. J Virol. 2001;75:12028-38 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical and confocal microscopy data indicated that DC-SIGN was coexpressed and colocalized with CD4 and CCR5 on alveolar macrophages, underscoring the physiological significance of these cis enhancement effects. ..
  73. Tailleux L, Schwartz O, Herrmann J, Pivert E, Jackson M, Amara A, et al. DC-SIGN is the major Mycobacterium tuberculosis receptor on human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:121-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, as for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is captured by the same receptor, DC-SIGN-mediated entry of M. tuberculosis in DCs in vivo is likely to influence bacterial persistence and host immunity. ..
  74. Rappocciolo G, Hensler H, Jais M, Reinhart T, Pegu A, Jenkins F, et al. Human herpesvirus 8 infects and replicates in primary cultures of activated B lymphocytes through DC-SIGN. J Virol. 2008;82:4793-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the expression of DC-SIGN is essential for productive HHV-8 infection of and replication in B cells. ..
  75. Plazolles N, Humbert J, Vachot L, Verrier B, Hocke C, Halary F. Pivotal advance: The promotion of soluble DC-SIGN release by inflammatory signals and its enhancement of cytomegalovirus-mediated cis-infection of myeloid dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:329-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results confirm that sDC-SIGN, like its well-known, counterpart mDC-SIGN, may play a pivotal role in CMV-mediated pathogenesis. ..
  76. Wang J, Janas A, Olson W, Kewalramani V, Wu L. CD4 coexpression regulates DC-SIGN-mediated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2007;81:2497-507 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CD4, which is present at various levels in DC-SIGN-positive primary cells, is a key regulator of HIV-1 transmission. ..
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    ..Conformationally intact envelopes that are DC-SIGN binding deficient can be used to probe the in vivo biological functions of DC-SIGN. ..
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    ..The existence of a DC-SIGN-related gene calls for reinterpretation of the HIV data to consider possible DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR hetero-oligomerization. ..
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    ..Therefore DC-SIGN(+) blood DCs can be the first target for HIV-1 upon transmission via blood; they can capture minute amounts of HIV-1 through DC-SIGN and transfer HIV-1 to infect target T cells in trans. ..
  80. Burleigh L, Lozach P, Schiffer C, Staropoli I, Pezo V, Porrot F, et al. Infection of dendritic cells (DCs), not DC-SIGN-mediated internalization of human immunodeficiency virus, is required for long-term transfer of virus to T cells. J Virol. 2006;80:2949-57 pubmed
    ..We suggest that such a mechanism, rather than intracellular storage of incoming virus, accounts for the long-term transfer of HIV to CD4+ T cells and may contribute to the spread of infection by DCs. ..
  81. Binley J, Ngo Abdalla S, Moore P, Bobardt M, Chatterji U, Gallay P, et al. Inhibition of HIV Env binding to cellular receptors by monoclonal antibody 2G12 as probed by Fc-tagged gp120. Retrovirology. 2006;3:39 pubmed
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    ..Transmission of HIV-1 from B cells to T cells through this DC-SIGN pathway could be important in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. ..
  83. Mezger M, Steffens M, Semmler C, Arlt E, Zimmer M, Kristjanson G, et al. Investigation of promoter variations in dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) (CD209) and their relevance for human cytomegalovirus reactivation and disease after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:228-34 pubmed
    ..Screening of patients following allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for the presence of these defined genetic polymorphisms might help to predict the individual risk of hCMV reactivation and disease. ..
  84. Ochoa M, Loncaric A, Krutzik S, Becker T, Modlin R. "Dermal dendritic cells" comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that dermal dendritic-appearing macrophages comprise a novel part of the innate immune response in the resident skin immune system. ..
  85. Maeda N, Nigou J, Herrmann J, Jackson M, Amara A, Lagrange P, et al. The cell surface receptor DC-SIGN discriminates between Mycobacterium species through selective recognition of the mannose caps on lipoarabinomannan. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5513-6 pubmed
  86. van Die I, van Vliet S, Nyame A, Cummings R, Bank C, Appelmelk B, et al. The dendritic cell-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN is a receptor for Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens and recognizes the glycan antigen Lewis x. Glycobiology. 2003;13:471-8 pubmed
  87. Cambi A, Figdor C. Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003;15:539-46 pubmed
    ..Although major differences in the cytoplasmic domains of these receptors might predict their function, recent findings show that differences in glycosylation of ligands can dramatically alter C-type lectin-like receptor usage. ..
  88. Feinberg H, Guo Y, Mitchell D, Drickamer K, Weis W. Extended neck regions stabilize tetramers of the receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1327-35 pubmed
  89. Chaudhary O, Rajsekar K, Ahmed I, Verma R, Bala M, Bhasin R, et al. Polymorphic variants in DC-SIGN, DC-SIGNR and SDF-1 in high risk seronegative and HIV-1 patients in Northern Asian Indians. J Clin Virol. 2008;43:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..DC-SIGNR was highly polymorphic and 11 genotypes were observed among the different study groups. The precise role of the polymorphic variants of DC-SIGNR needs to be elucidated in the population. ..
  90. Zheng R, Zhou Y, Qin L, Jin R, Wang J, Lu J, et al. Relationship between polymorphism of DC-SIGN (CD209) gene and the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in an eastern Chinese population. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:183-6 pubmed publisher
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    ..This implies that adaptation of pathogens to target DC-SIGN might support pathogen survival. ..
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    ..Our study reveals another level of plasticity in tailoring adaptive immunity to pathogens. ..