cytochrome c


Gene Symbol: cytochrome c
Description: cytochrome c1
Alias: MC3DN6, UQCR4, cytochrome c1, heme protein, mitochondrial, complex III subunit 4, complex III subunit IV, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 4, cytochrome c-1, ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex cytochrome c1 subunit
Species: human
Products:     cytochrome c

Top Publications

  1. Gaignard P, Menezes M, Schiff M, Bayot A, Rak M, Ogier de Baulny H, et al. Mutations in CYC1, encoding cytochrome c1 subunit of respiratory chain complex III, cause insulin-responsive hyperglycemia. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..component of complex III, mediates the transfer of electrons from the Rieske iron-sulfur protein to cytochrome c. Cytochrome c1 is present at reduced levels in the skeletal muscle and skin fibroblasts of affected individuals...
  2. Liu Z, Wang H, Long J, Fang W. [Construction of a lentivirus interfering vector targeting Cyc1 and its interfering efficiency in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:2629-32 pubmed
    ..Cyc1 is highly expressed in NPC cells. The lentivirus vector constructed can markedly inhibit the expression of Cyc1 in NPC cells, which provides assistance in the investigation of the function and molecular mechanism of Cyc1 in NPC. ..
  3. Gebeh A, Marczylo E, Amoako A, Willets J, Konje J. Variation in stability of endogenous reference genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from healthy and ectopic pregnant women. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:2810-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that arbitrary selection of reference genes for normalisation in RT-qPCR studies in ectopic pregnancy without validation, risk producing inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged. ..
  4. Carlson S, Howarth D, Donoghue M. Diversification of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales): implications for the evolution of capitulum inflorescences. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:325 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhao Z, Hu J, Chen S, Luo Z, Luo D, Wen J, et al. Evolution of CYCLOIDEA-like genes in Fabales: Insights into duplication patterns and the control of floral symmetry. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2019;132:81-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first systematic analysis of the CYC-like genes in Fabales and could form the basis for further study of molecular mechanisms controlling floral symmetry in non-model plants of Fabales. ..
  6. Zhao W, Wang H, Liu J, Zhang Z, Zhu S, Zhou B. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex abnormal expressions and fusion disorder are involved in fluoride-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in ovarian granulosa cells. Chemosphere. 2019;215:619-625 pubmed publisher
  7. Srivastav M, Agarwal N, Natarajan K. Multiple Evolutionarily Conserved Domains of Cap2 Are Required for Promoter Recruitment and Iron Homeostasis Gene Regulation. mSphere. 2018;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the bZIP, HAP4L, and the C-terminal domain are each required for Cap2 transcriptional activity. Thus, Cap2 employs multiple, disparate protein domains for regulation of iron homeostasis in C. albicans. ..
  8. Kaitu u Lino T, Hastie R, Cannon P, Lee S, Stock O, Hannan N, et al. Stability of absolute copy number of housekeeping genes in preeclamptic and normal placentas, as measured by digital PCR. Placenta. 2014;35:1106-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whilst there was some variation, we confirm absolute mRNA copy number of GAPDH, TOP1, CYC1 and YWHAZ in placenta does not significantly alter between these cohorts, or across gestation. ..
  9. Kalo D, Roth Z. Effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes--The bovine model. Reprod Toxicol. 2015;53:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations are associated with the previously reported reduced developmental competence of MEHP-treated bovine oocytes, and reveal the risk associated with acute exposure. ..

More Information


  1. Chrysovergis K, Wang X, Kosak J, Lee S, Kim J, Foley J, et al. NAG-1/GDF-15 prevents obesity by increasing thermogenesis, lipolysis and oxidative metabolism. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38:1555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..hNAG-1 modulates metabolic activity by increasing the expression of key thermogenic and lipolytic genes in BAT and WAT. hNAG-1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target in preventing and treating obesity and insulin resistance. ..
  2. Mordaunt D, Jolley A, Balasubramaniam S, Thorburn D, Mountford H, Compton A, et al. Phenotypic variation of TTC19-deficient mitochondrial complex III deficiency: a case report and literature review. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167:1330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, all reported TTC19 mutations are nonsense mutations. The severity of clinical manifestations however does not specifically correlate with the residual complex III enzyme activities. ..
  3. Grube S, Göttig T, Freitag D, Ewald C, Kalff R, Walter J. Selection of suitable reference genes for expression analysis in human glioma using RT-qPCR. J Neurooncol. 2015;123:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed at testing a panel of nine reference genes [beta-2-microglobulin, cytochrome c-1 (CYC1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine guanine ..
  4. Wen X, Wu J, Chang J, Zhang P, Wang J, Zhang Y, et al. Effect of exercise intensity on isoform-specific expressions of NT-PGC-1 α mRNA in mouse skeletal muscle. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:402175 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate the regulatory role for NT-PGC-1α-a in mitochondrial biogenesis and adaptation of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise. ..
  5. Ikushima S, Zhao Y, Boeke J. Development of a Tightly Controlled Off Switch for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Regulated by Camphor, a Low-Cost Natural Product. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:1983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae. The switch, named the Camphor-Off switch, activates expression of a reporter gene in camphor-free media and represses it with micromolar concentrations of camphor. ..
  6. Swaminathan A, Beilharz T. Epitope-tagged yeast strains reveal promoter driven changes to 3'-end formation and convergent antisense-transcription from common 3' UTRs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work holds a cautionary note for studies utilizing tagged strains for quantitative biology, but also provides a new model for the study of promoter driven rewiring of 3' -end formation and regulatory non-coding transcription. ..
  7. Wollam J, Mahata S, Riopel M, Hernandez Carretero A, Biswas A, Bandyopadhyay G, et al. Chromogranin A regulates vesicle storage and mitochondrial dynamics to influence insulin secretion. Cell Tissue Res. 2017;368:487-501 pubmed publisher
  8. Butt H, Sylvius N, Salem M, Wild J, Dattani N, Sayers R, et al. Microarray-based Gene Expression Profiling of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;52:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These were modulated by aneurysm exclusion from the circulation and expressed in matched aortic biopsies and smooth muscle cultures. These observations further support the key roles for these pathways in the pathogenesis of AAA. ..
  9. Bharadwaj M, Zhou Y, Molina A, Criswell T, Lu B. Examination of bioenergetic function in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp2l) mutant mice. Redox Biol. 2014;2:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial respiration is not diminished in isolated mitochondria and cells from mutant mice. Our data suggest that respiratory deficiency is not the cause of the observed Immp2l mutant phenotypes. ..
  10. Kar P, Chawla H, Saha S, Tandon N, Goswami R. Identification of reference housekeeping-genes for mRNA expression studies in patients with type 1 diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;417:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, geometric mean of CYC1, ?-actin, YHWAZ, HPRT, and ?2M needs to be used for ideal normalization of mRNA in type-1-diabetes. Similar studies are required in other population. ..
  11. Zhang Y, Serratore N, Briggs S. N-ICE plasmids for generating N-terminal 3 × FLAG tagged genes that allow inducible, constitutive or endogenous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2017;34:223-235 pubmed publisher
    ..We have validated the N-ICE plasmid system by N-terminal tagging two non-essential genes (SET1 and SET2) and two essential genes (ERG11 and PKC1). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  12. Anastasio N, Tarailo Graovac M, Al Khalifah R, Legault L, Drögemöller B, Ross C, et al. Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency with Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemia Mimicking Neonatal Diabetes. JIMD Rep. 2017;31:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was homozygous for the c.643C>T (p.Leu215Phe) variant in CYC1, a nuclear gene which encodes cytochrome c 1 , a subunit of respiratory chain complex III...
  13. Huang Y, Chang N. PPARα modulates gene expression profiles of mitochondrial energy metabolism in oral tumorigenesis. Biomedicine (Taipei). 2016;6:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that PPARα exhibits a great potential for anti-oral cancer therapies by modulating cancer cell mitochondrial energy metabolism. ..
  14. Kopp S, Sahana J, Islam T, Petersen A, Bauer J, Corydon T, et al. The role of NFκB in spheroid formation of human breast cancer cells cultured on the Random Positioning Machine. Sci Rep. 2018;8:921 pubmed publisher
    ..An interaction analysis of 47 investigated genes suggested that HMOX-1 and NFκB variants are activated, when multicellular spheroids are formed. ..
  15. Yu Z, Zhang Y, Liu N, Yuan J, Lin L, ZhuGe Q, et al. Roles of Neuroglobin Binding to Mitochondrial Complex III Subunit Cytochrome c1 in Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neurotoxicity in Primary Neurons. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:3249-3257 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular signaling cascade may be at least part of the mechanisms of Ngb neuroprotection against OGD-induced neurotoxicity. ..
  16. Robbins J, Absalon S, Streva V, Dvorin J. The Malaria Parasite Cyclin H Homolog PfCyc1 Is Required for Efficient Cytokinesis in Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates a conserved PfCyc1/PfMAT1/PfMRK complex in malaria and suggests that it functions as a schizont stage-specific regulator of the P. falciparum life cycle. ..
  17. Miyata N, Miyoshi T, Yamaguchi T, Nakazono T, Tani M, Kuge O. VID22 is required for transcriptional activation of the PSD2 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2015;472:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that VID22 is required for transcriptional activation of the PSD2 gene. ..
  18. Watanabe K, Yabe M, Kasahara K, Kokubo T. A Random Screen Using a Novel Reporter Assay System Reveals a Set of Sequences That Are Preferred as the TATA or TATA-Like Elements in the CYC1 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129357 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the variation of these sequences differs significantly from that of the PIC assembly sites on the genome, presumably depending on promoter structures and reflecting the gene-specific function of these sequences. ..
  19. Fatemi F, Miri S, Jahani S. Effect of metal sulfide pulp density on gene expression of electron transporters in Acidithiobacillus sp. FJ2. Arch Microbiol. 2017;199:521-530 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that Acidithiobacillus sp. FJ2 could leach the uranium even in high pulp density (50%) by modulation in rus operon gene responses. ..
  20. Ai C, Liang Y, Miao B, Chen M, Zeng W, Qiu G. Identification and Analysis of a Novel Gene Cluster Involves in Fe2+ Oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, a Typical Biomining Acidophile. Curr Microbiol. 2018;75:818-826 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel two-cytochrome-encoding gene cluster (named tce gene cluster) encoding a high-molecular-weight cytochrome c (AFE_1428) and a c4-type cytochrome c552 (AFE_1429) in A...
  21. Song W, Li J, Liang Q, Marchisio M. Can terminators be used as insulators into yeast synthetic gene circuits?. J Biol Eng. 2016;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it seems preferable to avoid the insulation of non-weak promoters when building synthetic gene circuit in yeast S. cerevisiae. ..
  22. Kalo D, Roth Z. Low level of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate reduces oocyte developmental competence in association with impaired gene expression. Toxicology. 2017;377:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Taken together, the findings suggest that low levels of phthalate must be taken into consideration in risk assessments. ..
  23. del Pozo T, Gutiérrez García R, Latorre M, Gonzalez M, Suazo M. Identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies in human cell lines under copper and zinc exposure. Biometals. 2016;29:935-44 pubmed publisher
  24. Kathiresan M, English A. Targeted proteomics identify metabolism-dependent interactors of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase: implications in stress response and heme trafficking. Metallomics. 2016;8:434-43 pubmed publisher
    Recently we discovered that cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) functions primarily as a mitochondrial H2O2 sensor and heme donor in yeast cells...
  25. Cummings C, Walder J, Treeful A, Jemmerson R. Serum leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 binds cytochrome c and inhibits antibody detection of this apoptotic marker in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis. 2006;11:1121-9 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome c (Cyt c) has been implicated as a serum marker for aberrant apoptosis and, thus, has considerable clinical potential...
  26. Li J, Liang Q, Song W, Marchisio M. Nucleotides upstream of the Kozak sequence strongly influence gene expression in the yeast S. cerevisiae. J Biol Eng. 2017;11:25 pubmed publisher
    ..A deeper understanding of the role of the 5'-UTR in gene expression would improve criteria for choosing and using promoters inside yeast synthetic gene circuits. ..
  27. Lum J, Cohen O, Nie Z, Weaver J, Gomez T, Yao X, et al. Vpr R77Q is associated with long-term nonprogressive HIV infection and impaired induction of apoptosis. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1547-54 pubmed
    ..These data highlight the pathophysiologic role of Vpr in HIV-induced immune disease and suggest a novel mechanism of LTNP. ..
  28. Nishikimi M, Ohta S, Suzuki H, Tanaka T, Kikkawa F, Tanaka M, et al. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the precursor to human cytochrome c1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:3577 pubmed
  29. Riwaldt S, Monici M, Graver Petersen A, Birk Jensen U, Evert K, Pantalone D, et al. Preparation of A Spaceflight: Apoptosis Search in Sutured Wound Healing Models. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the performed methods defining analytical protocols proved to be applicable for post-flight analyzes of tissue specimens after sample return. ..
  30. Freitag D, Koch A, Lawson McLean A, Kalff R, Walter J. Validation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Human Meningiomas under Different Experimental Settings. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:5787-5797 pubmed publisher
  31. Nishikimi M, Suzuki H, Ohta S, Sakurai T, Shimomura Y, Tanaka M, et al. Isolation of a cDNA clone for human cytochrome c1 from a lambda gt11 expression library. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987;145:34-9 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of an insert DNA revealed a high degree of homology with the sequence of bovine cytochrome c1. ..
  32. Han Y, Sun S, Zhao M, Zhang Z, Gong S, Gao P, et al. CYC1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer. Dis Markers. 2016;2016:3528064 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome c-1 (CYC1) is an important subunit of mitochondrial complex III. However, its role in tumor progression is unclear. We found that CYC1 was upregulated in breast tumor tissues, especially in tissues with lymph node metastasis...
  33. Valnot I, Kassis J, Chretien D, de Lonlay P, Parfait B, Munnich A, et al. A mitochondrial cytochrome b mutation but no mutations of nuclearly encoded subunits in ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase (complex III) deficiency. Hum Genet. 1999;104:460-6 pubmed
    Ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase (complex III) deficiency represents a clinically heterogeneous group of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders that can theoretically be subject to either a nuclear or a mitochondrial mode of ..
  34. Jacotot E, Ferri K, El Hamel C, Brenner C, Druillennec S, Hoebeke J, et al. Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein rR and Bcl-2. J Exp Med. 2001;193:509-19 pubmed
    ..This inner MMP precedes outer MMP to cytochrome c. Vpr52-96-induced matrix swelling and inner MMP both are prevented by preincubation of purified mitochondria ..
  35. Sifroni K, Damiani C, Stoffel C, Cardoso M, Ferreira G, Jeremias I, et al. Mitochondrial respiratory chain in the colonic mucosal of patients with ulcerative colitis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;342:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, complexes II, III, and IV were decreased around 50-60% in the colonic mucosal of UC patients. Based on the present findings, we hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in pathogenesis of UC. ..
  36. Li G, Fu D, Liang W, Fan L, Chen K, Shan L, et al. CYC1 silencing sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;34:2070-80 pubmed publisher
    ..also showed that CYC1 silencing significantly reduces complex III activity and potentiates TRAIL-induced cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation in OS cells, suggesting that CYC1 silencing acts via the mitochondria-..
  37. Wen J, Garg N. Oxidative modification of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in response to the stress of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;37:2072-81 pubmed
    ..cruzi infection. These data also suggest involvement of the specific susceptibility of the protein subunits, and not generalized mitochondrial oxidative damage in respiratory chain impairment of chagasic hearts. ..
  38. An J, Chen Y, Huang Z. Critical upstream signals of cytochrome C release induced by a novel Bcl-2 inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19133-40 pubmed
    b>Cytochrome c release is a central step in the apoptosis induced by many death stimuli. Bcl-2 plays a critical role in controlling this step...
  39. Zhu Y, Li M, Wang X, Jin H, Liu S, Xu J, et al. Caspase cleavage of cytochrome c1 disrupts mitochondrial function and enhances cytochrome c release. Cell Res. 2012;22:127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..underlying mechanism, explaining how activated caspase could feedback to attack mitochondria to amplify further cytochrome c (cyto.c) release. We discovered that cytochrome c1 (cyto...
  40. Watanabe K, Kokubo T. SAGA mediates transcription from the TATA-like element independently of Taf1p/TFIID but dependent on core promoter structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188435 pubmed publisher
  41. Xu D, Liu A, Wang X, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Tan Z, et al. Identifying suitable reference genes for developing and injured mouse CNS tissues. Dev Neurobiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results identified GUS and YWHAZ as the best combination of two reference genes for expression data normalization in CNS developmental studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2017...
  42. Moon H, Yang J. Role of HIV Vpr as a regulator of apoptosis and an effector on bystander cells. Mol Cells. 2006;21:7-20 pubmed
    ..The facts that Vpr has cytotoxic effect on both infected cells and bystander cells, and that it exhibits both pro- and anti-apoptotic activity may explain its role in viral survival and disease progression. ..
  43. Barraza C, Solari C, Marcovich I, Kershaw C, Galello F, Rossi S, et al. The role of PKA in the translational response to heat stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185416 pubmed publisher
  44. Kadam C, Abhang S. Apoptosis Markers in Breast Cancer Therapy. Adv Clin Chem. 2016;74:143-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis markers in breast cancer include circulating soluble FasL, granzyme B, and cytochrome c that increase following chemotherapy...
  45. Suzuki H, Hosokawa Y, Nishikimi M, Ozawa T. Structural organization of the human mitochondrial cytochrome c1 gene. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:1368-74 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of a leader sequence coding for a presequence clearly separated into two parts by an intron. ..
  46. Brenner C, Kroemer G. The mitochondriotoxic domain of Vpr determines HIV-1 virulence. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1455-7 pubmed
  47. Muthumani K, Zhang D, Hwang D, Kudchodkar S, Dayes N, Desai B, et al. Adenovirus encoding HIV-1 Vpr activates caspase 9 and induces apoptotic cell death in both p53 positive and negative human tumor cell lines. Oncogene. 2002;21:4613-25 pubmed
    ..We observed that apoptosis was induced through the mitochondrial pathway as we observed changes in the cytochrome c content accompanied by caspase 9 activation...
  48. Muthumani K, Hwang D, Desai B, Zhang D, Dayes N, Green D, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37820-31 pubmed
    ..These effects were coincident with the disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and induction of cytochrome c release by Vpr. The Vpr-induced signaling pathway did not induce CD95 or CD95L expression...
  49. Tafani M, Karpinich N, Hurster K, Pastorino J, Schneider T, Russo M, et al. Cytochrome c release upon Fas receptor activation depends on translocation of full-length bid and the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10073-82 pubmed
    ..permeability transition (MPT) was documented by the cyclosporin A (CyA) sensitivity of the release of cytochrome c, the release of malate dehydrogenase from the mitochondrial matrix, the loss of the mitochondrial membrane ..
  50. Smith H, Ahmed A, Millett F. Electrostatic interaction of cytochrome c with cytochrome c1 and cytochrome oxidase. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:4984-90 pubmed
    The reactions of horse heart cytochrome c with succinate-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome oxidase were studied as a function of ionic strength using both spectrophotometric and oxygen electrode assay techniques...
  51. Fan L, Zhu C, Qiu R, Zan P, Zheng Z, Xu T, et al. MicroRNA-661 Enhances TRAIL or STS Induced Osteosarcoma Cell Apoptosis by Modulating the Expression of Cytochrome c1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1935-1946 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-661 overexpression enhanced TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis and promoted the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which induced caspase-9 activation, and these effects were abolished by a caspase-3 inhibitor...
  52. Chishiki M, Takagi K, Sato A, Miki Y, Yamamoto Y, Ebata A, et al. Cytochrome c1 in ductal carcinoma in situ of breast associated with proliferation and comedo necrosis. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:1510-1519 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that the center of DCIS is poorly oxygenated, these results indicate that CYC1 plays important roles in cell proliferation and comedo necrosis through the elevated oxidative phosphorylation activity in human DCIS. ..
  53. Feichtinger R, Brunner Krainz M, Alhaddad B, Wortmann S, Kovacs Nagy R, Stojakovic T, et al. Combined Respiratory Chain Deficiency and UQCC2 Mutations in Neonatal Encephalomyopathy: Defective Supercomplex Assembly in Complex III Deficiencies. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:7202589 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance with previous observations, the presence of assembled complex III is required for the stability or assembly of complexes I and IV, which might be related to respirasome/supercomplex formation. ..
  54. Yuan J, Murrell G, Trickett A, Wang M. Involvement of cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human tendon fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1641:35-41 pubmed
    ..b>Cytochrome c and caspase-3 protein expression were detected by Western blotting...
  55. Duncan A, Ozawa T, Suzuki H, Rozen R. Assignment of the gene for the cytochrome c1 subunit of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (CYC1) to human chromosome 8q24.3. Genomics. 1994;19:400-1 pubmed
  56. Kristof E, Doan Xuan Q, Sárvári A, Klusóczki Á, Fischer Posovszky P, Wabitsch M, et al. Clozapine modifies the differentiation program of human adipocytes inducing browning. Transl Psychiatry. 2016;6:e963 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data altogether suggest that novel pharmacological stimulation of these masked beige adipocytes can be a future therapeutic target for the treatment of SGA-induced weight gain. ..
  57. Shimomura Y, Nishikimi M, Ozawa T. Novel purification of cytochrome c1 from mitochondrial Complex III. Reconstitution of antimycin-insensitive electron transfer with the iron-sulfur protein and cytochrome c1. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:15075-80 pubmed
    ..The isolated iron-sulfur protein catalyzes reduction of cytochrome c by ubiquinol, which is insensitive to antimycin, at a rate of 0...
  58. Ichikawa Y, Morohashi N, Tomita N, Mitchell A, Kurumizaka H, Shimizu M. Sequence-directed nucleosome-depletion is sufficient to activate transcription from a yeast core promoter in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;476:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrated that NDR formation dictated by DNA sequences is sufficient for transcriptional activation from the core promoter in vivo. ..
  59. Tanaka Y, Ashikari T, Shibano Y, Amachi T, Yoshizumi H, Matsubara H. Construction of a human cytochrome c gene and its functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biochem. 1988;103:954-61 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequences of a partial cDNA and three pseudogenes of human cytochrome c were determined...
  60. Nishikimi M, Suzuki H, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A, Yoshida M, Ozawa T. Assignment of the human cytochrome c1 gene to chromosome 8. Biochem Int. 1988;16:655-60 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that the gene for human cytochrome c1 is located on chromosome 8. ..