cystatin C

Summary

Gene Symbol: cystatin C
Description: cystatin C
Alias: ARMD11, HEL-S-2, cystatin-C, bA218C14.4 (cystatin C), cystatin 3, epididymis secretory protein Li 2, gamma-trace, neuroendocrine basic polypeptide, post-gamma-globulin
Species: human
Products:     cystatin C

Top Publications

  1. Rigalleau V, Beauvieux M, Le Moigne F, Lasseur C, Chauveau P, Raffaitin C, et al. Cystatin C improves the diagnosis and stratification of chronic kidney disease, and the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2008;34:482-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CysC assay helps in the diagnosis and stratification of CKD and leads to better estimates of GFR in diabetic patients without any substantial increase in complexity. ..
  2. Singh D, Whooley M, Ix J, Ali S, Shlipak M. Association of cystatin C and estimated GFR with inflammatory biomarkers: the Heart and Soul Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1087-92 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C is a marker of kidney function that may also be associated with inflammation...
  3. Wahlbom M, Wang X, Lindström V, Carlemalm E, Jaskolski M, Grubb A. Fibrillogenic oligomers of human cystatin C are formed by propagated domain swapping. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18318-26 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C and the prion protein have been shown to form dimers via three-dimensional domain swapping, and this process has also been hypothesized to be involved in amyloidogenesis...
  4. Surendar J, Indulekha K, Aravindhan V, Ganesan A, Mohan V. Association of cystatin-C with metabolic syndrome in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (CURES-97). Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12:907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Regression analysis showed a linear increase in cys-C levels with increasing number of metabolic abnormalities. Cys-C levels are highly correlated with the number of metabolic abnormalities in Asian Indians. ..
  5. Brzin J, Popovic T, Turk V, Borchart U, Machleidt W. Human cystatin, a new protein inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984;118:103-9 pubmed
    ..Very probably human cystatin is identical with human gamma-trace, a microprotein of known sequence but hitherto unknown function. ..
  6. Shi G, Sukhova G, Grubb A, Ducharme A, Rhode L, Lee R, et al. Cystatin C deficiency in human atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:1191-7 pubmed
    ..We show here that, whereas cystatin C is normally expressed in vascular wall smooth muscle cells (SMCs), this cysteine protease inhibitor is severely ..
  7. Jeon Y, Kim M, Huh J, Mok J, Song S, Kim S, et al. Cystatin C as an early biomarker of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:258-63 pubmed publisher
    This study was done to evaluate clinical usefulness of cystatin C levels of serum and urine in predicting renal impairment in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the association between albuminuria and serum/..
  8. Janowski R, Kozak M, Jankowska E, Grzonka Z, Grubb A, Abrahamson M, et al. Human cystatin C, an amyloidogenic protein, dimerizes through three-dimensional domain swapping. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:316-20 pubmed
    The crystal structure of human cystatin C, a protein with amyloidogenic properties and a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, reveals how the protein refolds to produce very tight two-fold symmetric dimers while retaining the secondary ..
  9. Pasinetti G, Ungar L, Lange D, Yemul S, Deng H, Yuan X, et al. Identification of potential CSF biomarkers in ALS. Neurology. 2006;66:1218-22 pubmed
    ..Protein sequence analysis identified the 13.4-kDa protein species as cystatin C and the 4.8-kDa protein species as a peptic fragment of the neurosecretory protein VGF...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Knight E, Verhave J, Spiegelman D, Hillege H, de Zeeuw D, Curhan G, et al. Factors influencing serum cystatin C levels other than renal function and the impact on renal function measurement. Kidney Int. 2004;65:1416-21 pubmed
    ..Serum cystatin C has been proposed as a potentially superior marker than serum creatinine, because serum cystatin C level is ..
  2. Urbonaviciene G, Shi G, Urbonavicius S, Henneberg E, Lindholt J. Higher cystatin C level predicts long-term mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216:440-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C and cathepsins could play a role in different processes and stages of the atherosclerotic disease...
  3. Maetzler W, Schmid B, Synofzik M, Schulte C, Riester K, Huber H, et al. The CST3 BB genotype and low cystatin C cerebrospinal fluid levels are associated with dementia in Lewy body disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19:937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cystatin C (CysC) is a carrier of soluble Abeta (42) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and reduces Abeta plaque formation...
  4. Chuo L, Sheu W, Pai M, Kuo Y. Genotype and plasma concentration of cystatin C in patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;23:251-7 pubmed
    A polymorphism locating at position 73 of cystatin C (CST3) exon 1 was suggested to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), but with contradictory results...
  5. Grubb A, Bjork J, Nyman U, Pollak J, Bengzon J, Ostner G, et al. Cystatin C, a marker for successful aging and glomerular filtration rate, is not influenced by inflammation. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011;71:145-9 pubmed publisher
    The plasma level of cystatin C is a better marker than plasma creatinine for successful aging...
  6. Mi W, Pawlik M, Sastre M, Jung S, Radvinsky D, Klein A, et al. Cystatin C inhibits amyloid-beta deposition in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1440-2 pubmed
    Using transgenic mice expressing human cystatin C (encoded by CST3), we show that cystatin C binds soluble amyloid-beta peptide and inhibits cerebral amyloid deposition in amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice...
  7. Arpegård J, Ostergren J, de Faire U, Hansson L, Svensson P. Cystatin C--a marker of peripheral atherosclerotic disease?. Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:397-401 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that Cystatin C, besides its function as a marker of glomerular filtration, could be an independent marker of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on this topic are few and results have been indecisive...
  8. Premaratne E, MacIsaac R, Finch S, Panagiotopoulos S, Ekinci E, Jerums G. Serial measurements of cystatin C are more accurate than creatinine-based methods in detecting declining renal function in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:971-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C-and creatinine-based methods were compared with (99m)-technetium-diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) plasma clearance (isotopic glomerular filtration rate [iGFR]) for detecting declining renal function...
  9. Rodziewicz Motowidło S, Iwaszkiewicz J, Sosnowska R, Czaplewska P, Sobolewski E, Szymanska A, et al. The role of the Val57 amino-acid residue in the hinge loop of the human cystatin C. Conformational studies of the beta2-L1-beta3 segments of wild-type human cystatin C and its mutants. Biopolymers. 2009;91:373-83 pubmed publisher
    Human cystatin C (HCC) is one of the amyloidogenic proteins to be shown to oligomerize via a three-dimensional domain swapping mechanism...
  10. Benussi L, Ghidoni R, Steinhoff T, Alberici A, Villa A, Mazzoli F, et al. Alzheimer disease-associated cystatin C variant undergoes impaired secretion. Neurobiol Dis. 2003;13:15-21 pubmed
    CST3 is the coding gene for cystatin C (CysC). CST3 B/B homozygosity is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease...
  11. Stevens L, Schmid C, Greene T, Li L, Beck G, Joffe M, et al. Factors other than glomerular filtration rate affect serum cystatin C levels. Kidney Int. 2009;75:652-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C is an endogenous glomerular filtration marker hence its serum level is affected by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
  12. Yashiro M, Kamata T, Segawa H, Kadoya Y, Murakami T, Muso E. Comparisons of cystatin C with creatinine for evaluation of renal function in chronic kidney disease. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2009;13:598-604 pubmed publisher
    Because of the limitations of creatinine (Cr) as a marker for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), cystatin C (CysC) has been proposed as an alternative substance. The aim here was to clarify the characteristics of CysC compared with Cr...
  13. Ghidoni R, Benussi L, Glionna M, Desenzani S, Albertini V, Levy E, et al. Plasma cystatin C and risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:985-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental and clinical data have suggested that cystatin C (CysC) is protective against the development of AD...
  14. Yamamoto Watanabe Y, Watanabe M, Jackson M, Akimoto H, Sugimoto K, Yasujima M, et al. Quantification of cystatin C in cerebrospinal fluid from various neurological disorders and correlation with G73A polymorphism in CST3. Brain Res. 2010;1361:140-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C (CC) is a cysteine protease inhibitor abundantly expressed in the central nervous system...
  15. Reffelmann T, Krebs A, Ittermann T, Empen K, Hummel A, Dorr M, et al. Mild renal dysfunction as a non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor?-Association of cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate with flow-mediated vasodilation. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211:660-6 pubmed publisher
    ..artery (cuff occlusion of the forearm for 5 min) and glomerular filtration rate, estimated on the basis of serum cystatin C levels, was analyzed under consideration of various cardiovascular risk factors...
  16. Lopes M, Araújo L, Passos M, Nishida S, Kirsztajn G, Cendoroglo M, et al. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C in octogenarians and nonagenarians. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:265 pubmed publisher
    ..Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and the Berlin Initiative Study (BIS) equations based on creatinine and/or cystatin C in octogenarians and nonagenarians...
  17. Retnakaran R, Connelly P, Harris S, Zinman B, Hanley A. Cystatin C is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Aboriginal youth. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22:1007-13 pubmed
    Serum concentration of cystatin C, a marker of glomerular filtration, has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the pathophysiology underlying this association remains unclear...
  18. Bertram L, McQueen M, Mullin K, Blacker D, Tanzi R. Systematic meta-analyses of Alzheimer disease genetic association studies: the AlzGene database. Nat Genet. 2007;39:17-23 pubmed
    ..67 for protective alleles). Our database provides a powerful tool for deciphering the genetics of Alzheimer disease, and it serves as a potential model for tracking the most viable gene candidates in other genetically complex diseases. ..
  19. Crawford F, Freeman M, Schinka J, Abdullah L, Gold M, Hartman R, et al. A polymorphism in the cystatin C gene is a novel risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2000;55:763-8 pubmed
    To investigate whether or not a coding polymorphism in the cystatin C gene (CST3) contributes risk for AD...
  20. Lertnawapan R, Bian A, Rho Y, Raggi P, Oeser A, Solus J, et al. Cystatin C is associated with inflammation but not atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2012;21:279-87 pubmed publisher
    Even mild renal impairment is associated with increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality. Cystatin C, a novel measure of renal function, is more sensitive than conventional creatinine-based measures for the detection of subtle ..
  21. Okura T, Jotoku M, Irita J, Enomoto D, Nagao T, Desilva V, et al. Association between cystatin C and inflammation in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:584-8 pubmed publisher
    Serum cystatin C is not only a marker of renal function but also acts as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular damage, heart failure, and death...
  22. Kaeser S, Herzig M, Coomaraswamy J, Kilger E, Selenica M, Winkler D, et al. Cystatin C modulates cerebral beta-amyloidosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1437-9 pubmed
    The CST3 Thr25 allele of CST3, which encodes cystatin C, leads to reduced cystatin C secretion and conveys susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease...
  23. Janowski R, Kozak M, Abrahamson M, Grubb A, Jaskolski M. 3D domain-swapped human cystatin C with amyloidlike intermolecular beta-sheets. Proteins. 2005;61:570-8 pubmed
    Oligomerization of human cystatin C (HCC) leads to amyloid deposits in brain arteries, and this process is greatly accelerated with a naturally occurring L68Q variant...
  24. Horio M, Imai E, Yasuda Y, Watanabe T, Matsuo S. Performance of serum cystatin C versus serum creatinine as a marker of glomerular filtration rate as measured by inulin renal clearance. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2011;15:868-76 pubmed publisher
    Serum cystatin C was recently proposed as an alternative marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), with a suggested better performance than creatinine. However, detailed studies are limited...
  25. Mussap M, Plebani M. Biochemistry and clinical role of human cystatin C. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2004;41:467-550 pubmed
    Low molecular-mass plasma proteins play a key role in health and disease. Cystatin C is an endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitor belonging to the type 2 cystatin superfamily...
  26. Levy E, Jaskolski M, Grubb A. The role of cystatin C in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and stroke: cell biology and animal models. Brain Pathol. 2006;16:60-70 pubmed
    A variant of the cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin C, forms amyloid deposited in the cerebral vasculature of patients with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Icelandic type (HCHWA-I), leading to cerebral hemorrhages ..
  27. Placha G, Poznik G, Dunn J, Smiles A, Krolewski B, Glew T, et al. A genome-wide linkage scan for genes controlling variation in renal function estimated by serum cystatin C levels in extended families with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55:3358-65 pubmed
    ..GFR was estimated from serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine in 406 diabetic and 428 nondiabetic relatives...
  28. Bokarewa M, Abrahamson M, Levshin N, Egesten A, Grubb A, Dahlberg L, et al. Cystatin C binds serum amyloid A, downregulating its cytokine-generating properties. J Rheumatol. 2007;34:1293-301 pubmed
    To assess the interaction between cystatin C (CysC) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA)...
  29. Herget Rosenthal S, van Wijk J, Bröcker Preuss M, Bokenkamp A. Increased urinary cystatin C reflects structural and functional renal tubular impairment independent of glomerular filtration rate. Clin Biochem. 2007;40:946-51 pubmed
    The ratio of the urinary mass concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine (UcysC/Ucrea)>/=11.3 mg/mmol has recently been proposed as an accurate marker for the detection of GFR</=60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)...
  30. Szymanska A, Radulska A, Czaplewska P, Grubb A, Grzonka Z, Rodziewicz Motowidło S. Governing the monomer-dimer ratio of human cystatin c by single amino acid substitution in the hinge region. Acta Biochim Pol. 2009;56:455-63 pubmed
    ..We studied the role of loop L1 in the dimerization of human cystatin C using mutational analysis...
  31. Aydogdu M, Gursel G, Sancak B, Yeni S, Sarı G, Tasyurek S, et al. The use of plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Cystatin C in early diagnosis of septic acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Dis Markers. 2013;34:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..compare the roles of plasma and urine concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Cystatin C for early diagnosis of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) in adult critically ill patients...
  32. Shlipak M, Mattes M, Peralta C. Update on cystatin C: incorporation into clinical practice. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62:595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Emerging evidence has shown that cystatin C may improve classification of glomerular filtration rate for defining chronic kidney disease in certain clinical ..
  33. Lindahl P, Abrahamson M, Bjork I. Interaction of recombinant human cystatin C with the cysteine proteinases papain and actinidin. Biochem J. 1992;281 ( Pt 1):49-55 pubmed
    The interaction between recombinant human cystatin C and the cysteine proteinases papain and actinidin was studied by spectroscopic, kinetic and equilibrium methods. The absorption, near-u.v.c.d...
  34. Wan Z, Wang J, You S, Liu H, Zhu B, Zang H, et al. Cystatin C is a biomarker for predicting acute kidney injury in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:9432-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate serum cystatin C level as an early biomarker for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF)...
  35. Meng L, Yang Y, Qi L, Wang X, Xu G, Zhang B. Elevated serum cystatin C is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in people with relatively normal renal function. J Nephrol. 2012;25:426-30 pubmed publisher
    Serum level of cystatin C could predict morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular disease in patients with coronary heart disease...
  36. Staun Ram E, Miller A. Cathepsins (S and B) and their inhibitor Cystatin C in immune cells: modulation by interferon-? and role played in cell migration. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;232:200-6 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the modulation of Cathepsin S, Cathepsin B and Cystatin C expression in immune cells by interferon (IFN)-?, and their role in cell migration. Cathepsin levels were increased in monocytic and T line cells upon activation...
  37. Choe J, Park S, Kim S. Serum cystatin C is a potential endogenous marker for the estimation of renal function in male gout patients with renal impairment. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the diagnostic efficacy of serum cystatin C compared to that of serum creatinine levels and identified the relating factors associated with changes in serum ..
  38. Ge C, Ren F, Lu S, Ji F, Chen X, Wu X. Clinical prognostic significance of plasma cystatin C levels among patients with acute coronary syndrome. Clin Cardiol. 2009;32:644-8 pubmed publisher
    This article aims to investigate the changes of plasma cystatin C concentration (PcyC), and to evaluate the relationship between PcyC and acute coronary syndrome...
  39. Wang J, Sim A, Wang X, Salonikas C, Moriatis M, Naidoo D, et al. Relations between markers of renal function, coronary risk factors and the occurrence and severity of coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:853-9 pubmed
    ..73 m(2), we assessed relations between severity of CAD and levels of plasma cystatin C, creatinine, eGFR, lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and ..
  40. Ghiso J, Saball E, Leoni J, Rostagno A, Frangione B. Binding of cystatin C to C4: the importance of sense-antisense peptides in their interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1288-91 pubmed
    ..that the antisense peptide Ser-Tyr-Asp-Leu complementary to the segment Gln-Ile-Val-Ala-Gly (residues 55-59) in cystatin C (an inhibitor of cysteine proteases) is located at positions 611-614 of the beta chain of human C4, the fourth ..
  41. Abrahamson M, Olafsson I, Palsdottir A, Ulvsback M, Lundwall A, Jensson O, et al. Structure and expression of the human cystatin C gene. Biochem J. 1990;268:287-94 pubmed
    The structural organization of the gene for the human cysteine-proteinase inhibitor cystatin C was studied...
  42. Sokol J, Schiemann W. Cystatin C antagonizes transforming growth factor beta signaling in normal and cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2004;2:183-95 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C (CystC) is a secreted cysteine protease inhibitor that regulates bone resorption, neutrophil chemotaxis, and tissue inflammation, as well as resistance to bacterial and viral infections...
  43. Kolodziejczyk R, Michalska K, Hernandez Santoyo A, Wahlbom M, Grubb A, Jaskolski M. Crystal structure of human cystatin C stabilized against amyloid formation. FEBS J. 2010;277:1726-37 pubmed publisher
    Human cystatin C (HCC) is a family 2 cystatin inhibitor of papain-like (C1) and legumain-related (C13) cysteine proteases...
  44. Lee S, Park S, Ko S, Yim H, Ahn Y, Yoon K, et al. Insulin resistance and inflammation may have an additional role in the link between cystatin C and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Metabolism. 2010;59:241-6 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that serum cystatin C level is not only a sensitive marker for renal dysfunction but also a predictive marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanism of this connection is not fully understood...
  45. Sundelof J, Arnlov J, Ingelsson E, Sundstrom J, Basu S, Zethelius B, et al. Serum cystatin C and the risk of Alzheimer disease in elderly men. Neurology. 2008;71:1072-9 pubmed publisher
    Multiple lines of research suggest that increased cystatin C activity in the brain protects against the development of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  46. Abrahamson M, Jonsdottir S, Olafsson I, Jensson O, Grubb A. Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy: identification of the disease-causing mutation and specific diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction based analysis. Hum Genet. 1992;89:377-80 pubmed
    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by amyloidosis, dementia and fatal cerebral hemorrhage of young adults. A method for rapid and simple diagnosis of HCCAA is described...
  47. Ma Y, Li Q, Wang J, Xu Z, Song C, Zhuang R, et al. Cystatin C, a novel urinary biomarker for sensitive detection of acute kidney injury during haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Biomarkers. 2010;15:410-7 pubmed publisher
    To explore the value of cystatin C for evaluating acute kidney injury (AKI) in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the concentrations of cystatin C in serum and urine samples from HFRS patients were determined...
  48. Palsdottir A, Abrahamson M, Thorsteinsson L, Arnason A, Olafsson I, Grubb A, et al. Mutation in cystatin C gene causes hereditary brain haemorrhage. Lancet. 1988;2:603-4 pubmed
    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, is deposited as amyloid fibrils in the cerebral arteries of patients and leads to massive brain ..
  49. Sastre M, Calero M, Pawlik M, Mathews P, Kumar A, Danilov V, et al. Binding of cystatin C to Alzheimer's amyloid beta inhibits in vitro amyloid fibril formation. Neurobiol Aging. 2004;25:1033-43 pubmed
    The colocalization of cystatin C, an inhibitor of cysteine proteases, with amyloid beta (Abeta) in parenchymal and vascular amyloid deposits in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may reflect cystatin C involvement in ..
  50. Eriksson P, Deguchi H, Samnegard A, Lundman P, Boquist S, Tornvall P, et al. Human evidence that the cystatin C gene is implicated in focal progression of coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:551-7 pubmed
    ..The potential significance of imbalance in expression between cathepsins and their inhibitor cystatin C in cardiovascular disease has been highlighted by the demonstration of cystatin C deficiency in human ..
  51. Hwang S, Yang Q, Meigs J, Pearce E, Fox C. A genome-wide association for kidney function and endocrine-related traits in the NHLBI's Framingham Heart Study. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8 Suppl 1:S10 pubmed
    ..These data will serve as a valuable resource for replication as more SNPs associated with kidney function and endocrine traits are identified. ..
  52. Gursoy A, Tasci Y, Celik H, Caglar G, Kiseli M, Candar T, et al. The prognostic value of first-trimester cystatin C levels for gestational complications. J Perinat Med. 2016;44:295-9 pubmed publisher
    This study is designed to evaluate predictive value of first-trimester cystatin C levels for long-term pregnancy complications...
  53. Perlenfein T, Mehlhoff J, Murphy R. Insights into the mechanism of cystatin C oligomer and amyloid formation and its interaction with β-amyloid. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11485-11498 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C (CysC) is a versatile and ubiquitously-expressed member of the cysteine protease inhibitor family that is present at notably high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid...
  54. Monastero R, Camarda C, Cefalù A, Caldarella R, Camarda L, Noto D, et al. No association between the cystatin C gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study in an Italian population. J Alzheimers Dis. 2005;7:291-5 pubmed
    b>Cystatin C is an amyloidogenic protein found together with beta-amyloid in cerebral arteriolar walls of both patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and conghopilic amyloid angiopathy...
  55. Lee Y, Chen S, Shyu L, Lee M, Wu T, Tsao S, et al. Significant elevation of plasma cathepsin B and cystatin C in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:630-5 pubmed publisher
    We identified the relationship between plasma level changes of cathepsin B and cystatin C before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
  56. Kim D, Kang H, Choi H, Cho H, Kim E, Keum B, et al. Serum cystatin C level is a useful marker for the evaluation of renal function in patients with cirrhotic ascites and normal serum creatinine levels. Korean J Hepatol. 2011;17:130-8 pubmed publisher
    Several studies suggested that serum cystatin C (CysC) is more useful than serum creatinine (Cr) for the assessment of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis...