CYP2C9

Summary

Gene Symbol: CYP2C9
Description: cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9
Alias: CPC9, CYP2C, CYP2C10, CYPIIC9, P450IIC9, cytochrome P-450 S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase, cytochrome P-450MP, cytochrome P450 2C9, cytochrome P450 PB-1, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, microsomal monooxygenase, xenobiotic monooxygenase
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The frequency and effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 polymorphisms in patients receiving warfarin
    Arash Rafii Tabrizi
    Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 194:267-73. 2002
  2. ncbi A novel functional VKORC1 promoter polymorphism is associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in warfarin sensitivity
    Hsiang Yu Yuan
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hum Mol Genet 14:1745-51. 2005
  3. ncbi Association of CYP2C9 gene polymorphism with bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy
    Marina Samardzija
    Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 32:557-64. 2008
  4. pmc A genome-wide association study confirms VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 as principal genetic determinants of warfarin dose
    Fumihiko Takeuchi
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000433. 2009
  5. ncbi Randomized trial of genotype-guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiating oral anticoagulation
    Jeffrey L Anderson
    Cardiovascular Department, LDS Hospital, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Circulation 116:2563-70. 2007
  6. ncbi The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen
    Elizabeth A Sconce
    School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    Blood 106:2329-33. 2005
  7. ncbi Interactions between CYP2C9 and UGT1A6 polymorphisms and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal cancer prevention
    Wade S Samowitz
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:894-901. 2006
  8. ncbi A prospective study of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P-450 2C9 enzyme and the risk for distal colorectal adenoma
    Andrew T Chan
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:704-12. 2004
  9. doi A genome-wide association study of acenocoumarol maintenance dosage
    Martina Teichert
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Hum Mol Genet 18:3758-68. 2009
  10. pmc Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk
    Michelle Cotterchio
    Population Studies and Surveillance, Cancer Care Ontario, 620 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 2L7
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:3098-107. 2008

Detail Information

Publications225 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The frequency and effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 polymorphisms in patients receiving warfarin
    Arash Rafii Tabrizi
    Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 194:267-73. 2002
    ..to warfarin therapy, we determined the frequency and functional effects of polymorphisms of the predominant cytochrome P450 subfamily responsible for warfarin metabolism (eg, CYP2C9) in an ethnically defined U.S. patient population.
  2. ncbi A novel functional VKORC1 promoter polymorphism is associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in warfarin sensitivity
    Hsiang Yu Yuan
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hum Mol Genet 14:1745-51. 2005
    ..We determined DNA sequence variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 in 16 Chinese patients having warfarin sensitivity (< or = 1...
  3. ncbi Association of CYP2C9 gene polymorphism with bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy
    Marina Samardzija
    Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 32:557-64. 2008
    ..this study was to determine the association of bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy with polymorphism of CYP2C9 gene (alleles 1, 2 and 3). The CYP2C9 is the main enzyme for warfarin metabolism...
  4. pmc A genome-wide association study confirms VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 as principal genetic determinants of warfarin dose
    Fumihiko Takeuchi
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000433. 2009
    ..another approximately 12% by two non-synonymous SNPs (*2, *3) in the cytochrome P450 warfarin-metabolizing gene CYP2C9. We initially tested each of 325,997 GWAS SNPs for association with warfarin dose by univariate regression and ..
  5. ncbi Randomized trial of genotype-guided versus standard warfarin dosing in patients initiating oral anticoagulation
    Jeffrey L Anderson
    Cardiovascular Department, LDS Hospital, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Circulation 116:2563-70. 2007
    ..Pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin is a promising application of "personalized medicine" but has not been adequately tested in randomized trials...
  6. ncbi The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen
    Elizabeth A Sconce
    School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    Blood 106:2329-33. 2005
    ..This study investigated the contribution of age, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, and body size to warfarin-dose requirements...
  7. ncbi Interactions between CYP2C9 and UGT1A6 polymorphisms and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal cancer prevention
    Wade S Samowitz
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:894-901. 2006
    ..between UGT1A6 variants or variants of another enzyme that metabolizes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9), and NSAIDs in the prevention of colorectal cancer have not been studied extensively.
  8. ncbi A prospective study of genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P-450 2C9 enzyme and the risk for distal colorectal adenoma
    Andrew T Chan
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:704-12. 2004
    ..The cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9) enzyme is involved in the metabolism of several drugs, including possibly aspirin, and such carcinogens as ..
  9. doi A genome-wide association study of acenocoumarol maintenance dosage
    Martina Teichert
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Hum Mol Genet 18:3758-68. 2009
    ..0 x 10(-123)). The lowest P-value on chromosome 10 was obtained by rs4086116 within cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) (P = 3.3 x 10(-24))...
  10. pmc Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk
    Michelle Cotterchio
    Population Studies and Surveillance, Cancer Care Ontario, 620 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 2L7
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:3098-107. 2008
    ..b>CYP2C9 and NAT2 variants were associated with colorectal cancer risk...
  11. ncbi Use of pharmacogenetics and clinical factors to predict the maintenance dose of warfarin
    Brian F Gage
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine Campus Box 8005, 660 S Euclid Ave St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Thromb Haemost 91:87-94. 2004
    ..Using polymerase chain reaction, we genotyped each participant for the presence of 8 polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C9 system. Using multiple regression, we quantified the association between warfarin dose and all factors...
  12. ncbi Genotypes of the cytochrome p450 isoform, CYP2C9, and the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 conjointly determine stable warfarin dose: a prospective study
    John F Carlquist
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Department, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    J Thromb Thrombolysis 22:191-7. 2006
    ..e., CYP2C9) and activity (i.e., vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1-VKORC1)...
  13. ncbi The association of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms with colorectal carcinoma in Han Chinese
    Ling Hong Liao
    Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
    Clin Chim Acta 380:191-6. 2007
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 is an important enzyme involved in xenobiotics metabolism. This study investigated the association of CYP2C9 gene coding region polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Chinese Han population.
  14. doi Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk
    Emma L Northwood
    Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St James s University Hospital
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 20:315-26. 2010
    ....
  15. doi CYP4F2 genetic variant (rs2108622) significantly contributes to warfarin dosing variability in the Italian population
    Paola Borgiani
    Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy
    Pharmacogenomics 10:261-6. 2009
    ..Numerous papers have shown the important contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants to this variability...
  16. ncbi Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2C9 with bound warfarin
    Pamela A Williams
    Astex Technology, 436 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0QA, UK
    Nature 424:464-8. 2003
    ..Human CYP450 proteins CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are the major drug-metabolizing isoforms, and contribute to the oxidative metabolism ..
  17. ncbi Influence of coagulation factor, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, and cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements
    Christina L Aquilante
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 79:291-302. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C9 in a Caucasian and a black African population
    M G Scordo
    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology at Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 52:447-50. 2001
    b>CYP2C9 is a major enzyme in human drug metabolism and the polymorphism observed in the corresponding gene may affect the therapeutic outcome during treatment with several drugs...
  19. pmc Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 1173C/T genotype on the risk of hemorrhagic complications in African-American and European-American patients on warfarin
    N A Limdi
    Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:312-21. 2008
    The association of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 1173C/T genotype and risk of hemorrhage among African Americans and European Americans is presented...
  20. ncbi Frequency of CYP2C9 polymorphisms affecting warfarin metabolism in a large anticoagulant clinic cohort
    Majid Moridani
    School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
    Clin Biochem 39:606-12. 2006
    To assess allele frequency and genotype distribution of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in patients (n = 189) attending an anticoagulant clinic in comparison to control patients (n = 177) and also to assess if the patients with variant genotypes ..
  21. pmc Polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene are strongly associated with warfarin dosage requirements in patients receiving anticoagulation
    T Li
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    J Med Genet 43:740-4. 2006
    ..However, the use of this common agent is fraught with complications and little is known regarding inter-individual variation in warfarin response...
  22. ncbi A warfarin-dosing model in Asians that uses single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and cytochrome P450 2C9
    Lai San Tham
    Department of Haematology Oncology, National University Hospital, and Translational Interface, Oncology Research Institute, Singapore
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:346-55. 2006
    ..in the Asian population, we hypothesize that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9*3) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) at position 381, used to infer VKORC1haplotype in ..
  23. doi VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients
    G Oner Ozgon
    University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:889-94. 2008
    The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative influence of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP 2C9) polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients.
  24. ncbi Warfarin dosing and cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms
    Hylton V Joffe
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Thromb Haemost 91:1123-8. 2004
    Two cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) polymorphisms, CYP2C9*2 and *3, metabolize warfarin inefficiently...
  25. ncbi Factors influencing warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans
    Kathryn M Momary
    Mercer University College of Pharmacy, 3001 Mercer University Dr, Atlanta, GA, 30341 4155, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 8:1535-44. 2007
    ....
  26. pmc VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans
    Nita A Limdi
    Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1719 6th Avenue South, CIRC 312, Birmingham AL 35294 0021, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 9:1445-58. 2008
    Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African-Americans compared with European-Americans...
  27. ncbi Contribution of age, body weight, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype to the anticoagulant response to warfarin: proposal for a new dosing regimen in Chinese patients
    Liyan Miao
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology Research Lab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63:1135-41. 2007
    The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and age, body size, and weight of the patients to the warfarin dose requirement in a Chinese population.
  28. doi Validation of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on interindividual warfarin maintenance dose: a prospective study in Chinese patients
    Sheng Wen Huang
    Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:226-34. 2009
    ..To develop a warfarin-dosing algorithm that could be combined with pharmacogenomic and demographic factors, and to evaluate its effectiveness in a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial...
  29. ncbi Factors affecting the interindividual variability of warfarin dose requirement in adult Korean patients
    Hyun Jung Cho
    Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, 50 Irwon dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul, 135 710, Korea
    Pharmacogenomics 8:329-37. 2007
    ..Asian patients require a much lower maintenance dose compared with Caucasians; the explanation for these differences remains unknown...
  30. ncbi CYP2C9 genotypes and dose requirements during the induction phase of oral anticoagulant therapy
    Flora Peyvandi
    Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Via Pace 9, 20122 Milan, Italy
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 75:198-203. 2004
    Variant alleles of the CYP2C9 gene encoding the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme (2C9*2 [Arg144Cys] and 2C9*3 [Ile359Leu]) are known to increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and decrease the mean daily dose required to maintain the ..
  31. pmc Intramolecular heme ligation of the cytochrome P450 2C9 R108H mutant demonstrates pronounced conformational flexibility of the B-C loop region: implications for substrate binding
    Arthur G Roberts
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Biochemistry 49:8700-8. 2010
    ..et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65, 842-850] revealed some unusual properties of the R108H mutant of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), including elevated thermostability relative to that of CYP2C9, as well as a UV-visible absorbance ..
  32. doi Genetic determinants of warfarin dosing in the Han-Chinese population
    M T Michael Lee
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan
    Pharmacogenomics 10:1905-13. 2009
    Warfarin, a widely prescribed oral anticoagulant, is used for the prevention of thromboembolism. Polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have been shown to be associated with warfarin dose requirements...
  33. ncbi Dosage recommendation of phenytoin for patients with epilepsy with different CYP2C9/CYP2C19 polymorphisms
    Chin Chuan Hung
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Ther Drug Monit 26:534-40. 2004
    To search for the optimal dosage of phenytoin in patients with epilepsy based on the metabolic activities of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms, a total of 169 patients receiving phenytoin treatment for more than 1 month were recruited...
  34. ncbi Association of pharmacokinetic (CYP2C9) and pharmacodynamic (factors II, VII, IX, and X; proteins S and C; and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase) gene variants with warfarin sensitivity
    Eriko Shikata
    Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan
    Blood 103:2630-5. 2004
    We analyzed mutations of 7 vitamin K-dependent protein and cytochrome P450 2C9 genes in 45 patients and investigated whether any contribute to the large interpatient variability in the warfarin dose-effect relationship...
  35. doi Prospective study of warfarin dosage requirements based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes
    M S Wen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 84:83-9. 2008
    Polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have been shown to be associated with warfarin dose requirements and could be used to predict warfarin dose...
  36. ncbi Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP1A1, NAT2 and of P-glycoprotein in a Russian population
    Elena A Gaikovitch
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinic Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20 21, 10098 Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:303-12. 2003
    ..However, little is known of the frequency distribution of the major allelic variants in the Russian population...
  37. ncbi Genetic modulation of oral anticoagulation with warfarin
    M Margaglione
    Unita di Aterosclerosi e Trombosi, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, S Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
    Thromb Haemost 84:775-8. 2000
    Cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 gene variants have been associated with hyperresponsiveness to small doses of warfarin and a higher bleeding complication rate...
  38. ncbi Biochemistry and molecular biology of the human CYP2C subfamily
    J A Goldstein
    National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
    Pharmacogenetics 4:285-99. 1994
    ..Four members of this subfamily have been identified in humans: CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19...
  39. pmc Cytochrome P4502C9: an enzyme of major importance in human drug metabolism
    J O Miners
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University School of Medicine, Bedford Park, SA, Australia
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 45:525-38. 1998
    Accumulating evidence indicates that CYP2C9 ranks amongst the most important drug metabolizing enzymes in humans. Substrates for CYP2C9 include fluoxetine, losartan, phenytoin, tolbutamide, torsemide, S-warfarin, and numerous NSAIDs...
  40. pmc The effect of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C8 polymorphism on the disposition of (R)-ibuprofen enantiomer in healthy subjects
    Carmen Martinez
    Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s n, E 06071 Badajoz, Spain
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 59:62-9. 2005
    To study the effect of CYP2C8*3, the most common CYP2C8 variant allele on the dis-position of (R)-ibuprofen and the association of CYP2C8*3 with variant CYP2C9 alleles.
  41. ncbi Influence of the CYP2C9 AND CYP2C19 polymorphisms on phenytoin hydroxylation in healthy individuals from south India
    J Rosemary
    Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research JIPMER, Pondicherry, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:665-70. 2006
    Phenytoin, a widely used anti-epileptic drug, is metabolized mainly by CYP2C9 (90%) and partly by CYP2C19 (10%) to its major metabolite 5-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-5- phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH)...
  42. pmc A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose
    Gregory M Cooper
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA98195, USA
    Blood 112:1022-7. 2008
    Warfarin dosing is correlated with polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) and the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes...
  43. ncbi Warfarin and cytochrome P450 2C9 genotype: possible ethnic variation in warfarin sensitivity
    Carmel Kealey
    University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pharmacology and Center for Pharmacogenetics, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 8:217-25. 2007
    ..The aim was to evaluate the influence of two CYP2C9 functional polymorphisms (*2 and *3) on warfarin dose in African-Americans, an unstudied population and Caucasians,..
  44. ncbi Common genetic variants of microsomal epoxide hydrolase affect warfarin dose requirements beyond the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9
    Ronen Loebstein
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:365-72. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi The effect of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 on phenytoin dose requirement
    J van der Weide
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, St Jansdal Hospital, Harderwijk, The Netherlands
    Pharmacogenetics 11:287-91. 2001
    The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 catalyses the metabolism of numerous therapeutic agents, including the anti-epileptic drug phenytoin...
  46. ncbi CYP2C9 allelic variants: ethnic distribution and functional significance
    Hong Guang Xie
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 6602, USA
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54:1257-70. 2002
    Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C9 CYP2C9 is a polymorphically expressed enzyme responsible for the metabolism of several clinically important drugs, some with a low therapeutic index...
  47. ncbi Association between the CYP2C9 polymorphism and the drug metabolism phenotype
    Elizabeta Topic
    Clinical Institute of Chemistry, School of Medicine, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
    Clin Chem Lab Med 42:72-8. 2004
    b>CYP2C9, an isoform of the cytochrome P450 enzyme, is involved in the metabolism of most of the drugs of choice for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders...
  48. pmc The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting
    Mia Wadelius
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
    Blood 113:784-92. 2009
    Genetic variants of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) are known to influence warfarin dose, but the effect of other genes has not been fully elucidated...
  49. ncbi In-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on warfarin metabolism and dose
    Guoying Tai
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:475-81. 2005
    To determine the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of the CYP2C9*11 polymorphism on (S)-warfarin metabolism.
  50. ncbi CYP2C9 haplotype structure in European American warfarin patients and association with clinical outcomes
    David L Veenstra
    Department of Pharmacy, Environmental Health, Genome Sciences, and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 77:353-64. 2005
    The goal of this study was to define the haplotype structure of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 gene in a European American population and evaluate associations between CYP2C9 haplotypes and anticoagulation-related outcomes.
  51. ncbi Polymorphism in CYP2C9 as a non-critical factor of warfarin dosage adjustment in Korean patients
    Sukhyang Lee
    Graduate School of Clinical Pharmacy, Sookmyung Womens University, Seoul 140 742, Korea
    Arch Pharm Res 26:967-72. 2003
    Cytochrome P4502C9(CYP2C9) is largely responsible for terminating anticoagulant effect by hydroxylation of S-warfarin to inactive metabolites...
  52. ncbi Genetic polymorphism in exon 4 of cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 may be associated with warfarin sensitivity in Chinese patients
    A Y Leung
    Division of Haematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong
    Blood 98:2584-7. 2001
    b>CYP2C9 polymorphisms reported in Caucasians (Arg144Cys in exon 3 and Ile359Leu in exon 7) are extremely uncommon in Chinese persons...
  53. ncbi Role of pharmacodiagnostic of CYP2C9 variants in the optimization of warfarin therapy in Malaysia: a 6-month follow-up study
    H Ngow
    Department of Internal Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Pahang, Malaysia
    Xenobiotica 38:641-51. 2008
    1. A retrospective study was conducted to explore the importance of CYP2C9 genotyping for the initiation and maintenance therapy of warfarin in clinical practice...
  54. ncbi The frequency of cytochrome P450 2C9 genetic variants in the Russian population and their associations with individual sensitivity to warfarin therapy
    Sofya N Pchelina
    Saint Petersburg Pavlov State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St Petersburg, Russia
    Thromb Res 115:199-203. 2005
  55. ncbi 5'-Flanking region polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and their relationship to S-warfarin metabolism in white and Japanese patients
    Harumi Takahashi
    Department of Pharmacotherapy, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo, Japan
    Blood 103:3055-7. 2004
    ..therapeutic anticoagulation, but this can be only partly explained by genetic variability in the coding region of CYP2C9-a critical enzyme in the drug's metabolism. Accordingly, analysis of the -2...
  56. ncbi Developmental expression of human hepatic CYP2C9 and CYP2C19
    Sevasti B Koukouritaki
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 4801, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:965-74. 2004
    ..To determine developmental expression patterns, liver microsomal CYP2C9 and -2C19 were measured (n = 237; ages, 8 weeks gestation-18 years) by Western blotting and with diclofenac or ..
  57. ncbi Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy
    Mitchell K Higashi
    University of Washington, Department of Pharmacy, Box 357630, Health Sciences Bldg, Room H 375A, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    JAMA 287:1690-8. 2002
    ..The principal enzyme involved in warfarin metabolism is CYP2C9, and 2 relatively common variant forms with reduced activity have been identified, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3...
  58. doi Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales
    Johanna Sistonen
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:170-9. 2009
    b>CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 belong to a subfamily of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, associated mainly with the metabolism of exogenous compounds in the human body...
  59. doi Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement
    Ho Sook Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:103-12. 2009
    The effect of CYP2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genotypes was evaluated for the early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement.
  60. ncbi Genotypes of vitamin K epoxide reductase, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, and cytochrome P450 2C9 as determinants of daily warfarin dose in Japanese patients
    Rina Kimura
    Research Institute, Japan
    Thromb Res 120:181-6. 2007
    ..four genes, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), calumenin (CALU), and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) to the warfarin maintenance dose required in Japanese patients following ischemic stroke...
  61. ncbi Genetic and environmental risk factors for oral anticoagulant overdose
    C Verstuyft
    Department of Pharmacology, Saint Antoine Paris VI University and Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, 184 rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012, Paris, France
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 58:739-45. 2003
    b>Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) allelic variant carriers have been shown to experience hyper-responsiveness to small doses of oral anticoagulants (OAs) (warfarin or acenocoumarol) and a higher bleeding rate.
  62. pmc Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism
    Mia Wadelius
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Hum Genet 121:23-34. 2007
    ..In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, ..
  63. doi The role of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms on anticoagulant therapy after heart valve replacement
    Hatice Yildirim
    Department of Biochemistry, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey
    Med Princ Pract 17:464-7. 2008
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms after heart valve replacement in a group of patients on warfarin therapy.
  64. ncbi Allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 2C9: baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, structural characterization, substrate stereoselectivity, and prochiral selectivity of the wild-type and I359L mutant forms
    R L Haining
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 333:447-58. 1996
    The purpose of the present studies was to define the role of the I359L allelic variant of CYP2C9 in the metabolism of the low therapeutic index anticoagulant warfarin, by performing in vitro kinetic studies with the two enantiomers of the ..
  65. ncbi Warfarin metabolism and anticoagulant effect: a prospective, observational study of the impact of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism in the presence of drug-disease and drug-drug interactions
    Mordechai Muszkat
    Division o f Medicine, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    Clin Ther 29:427-37. 2007
    ..However, it is not known whether the CYP2C9 genotype contributes to the variability in warfarin dosage in the presence of drug-disease and drug-drug ..
  66. ncbi CYP2C9 genotypes and the quality of anticoagulation control with warfarin therapy among Brazilian patients
    M V Lima
    Departamento de Medicina Clinica, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:9-15. 2008
    To evaluate the impact of the two most common CYP2C9 variant alleles (*2 and *3) on the maintenance dose of warfarin and on the quality of anticoagulation control in Brazilians.
  67. ncbi CYP2C9 genotype-guided warfarin prescribing enhances the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation: a prospective randomized controlled study
    Y Caraco
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Division of Medicine, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:460-70. 2008
    Warfarin anticoagulation effect is characterized by marked variability, some of which has been attributed to CYP2C9 polymorphisms...
  68. pmc Impact of age, CYP2C9 genotype and concomitant medication on the rate of rise for prothrombin time during the first 30 days of warfarin therapy
    Russell A Wilke
    Department of Internal Medicine, Marshfield Clinic, WI 54449, USA
    Clin Med Res 3:207-13. 2005
    ..To characterize the impact of several important clinical variables on the rate of anticoagulation during warfarin initiation (i.e., the first 30 days)...
  69. doi Hepatic metabolism and transporter gene variants enhance response to rosuvastatin in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the GEOSTAT-1 Study
    Kristian M Bailey
    Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Circ Cardiovasc Genet 3:276-85. 2010
    ..Pharmacogenetics aims to maximize benefits and minimize risks of drug treatment. Our objectives were to examine the influence of common variants of hepatic metabolism and transporter genes on the lipid-lowering response to statin therapy...
  70. ncbi The predictive value of MDR1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms for phenytoin plasma levels
    R Kerb
    Epidauros Biotechnology AG, Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, Bernried, Germany
    Pharmacogenomics J 1:204-10. 2001
    ..differences in dose response can partially be explained by known genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic enzyme CYP2C9 but a large deal of individual variability remains still unexplained...
  71. ncbi Malaysian Indians are genetically similar to Caucasians: CYP2C9 polymorphism
    Z Zainuddin
    Pharmacogenetics Research Group, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, INFORMM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
    J Clin Pharm Ther 31:187-91. 2006
    b>CYP2C9 is one of the major drug metabolizing enzymes for many drugs including warfarin, NSAIDs and losartan. It is polymorphic in many populations...
  72. pmc CYP2C9*8 is prevalent among African-Americans: implications for pharmacogenetic dosing
    Stuart A Scott
    Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Pharmacogenomics 10:1243-55. 2009
    ..differ among racial groups, most pharmacogenetic algorithms for genotype-guided warfarin dosing only include two CYP2C9 alleles (*2 and *3) and a single VKORC1 allele (g.-1639G>A or g.1173C>T) commonly found among Caucasians...
  73. pmc Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9 in a Korean population
    Jung Woo Bae
    Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 60:418-22. 2005
    To determine the frequencies of the variant alleles and the genotypes of CYP2C9 in a Korean population.
  74. ncbi CYP2C9 polymorphism: prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia
    H A Ngow
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Jalan Istana, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia
    Singapore Med J 50:490-3. 2009
    Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 among different populations in different geographical regions could be different...
  75. pmc Functional analysis of phenylalanine residues in the active site of cytochrome P450 2C9
    Carrie M Mosher
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Biochemistry 47:11725-34. 2008
    The two published crystal structures of cytochrome P450 2C9, complexed with ( S)-warfarin or flurbiprofen, implicate a cluster of three active site phenylalanine residues (F100, F114, F476) in ligand binding...
  76. doi Genetic factors contribute to patient-specific warfarin dose for Han Chinese
    Ting Liang Wang
    Mochtar Riady Institute for Nanotechnology, Jl Boulevard Jend Sudirman, No 1688, Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia
    Clin Chim Acta 396:76-9. 2008
    ..To address the association of genetic factors and warfarin dosage for ethnic Han Chinese, we genotyped six candidate genes involved in the warfarin interactive pathway with focus on SNPs with reported association with warfarin dose...
  77. ncbi Identification of a novel variant CYP2C9 allele in Chinese
    Dayong Si
    College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, China
    Pharmacogenetics 14:465-9. 2004
    ..SNPs in the CYP2C9 gene have increasingly been recognized as determinants of the metabolic phenotype that underlies interindividual ..
  78. ncbi No evidence that polymorphisms in CYP2C8, CYP2C9, UGT1A6, PPARdelta and PPARgamma act as modifiers of the protective effect of regular NSAID use on the risk of colorectal carcinoma
    Louise E McGreavey
    Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 15:713-21. 2005
    ..Our objective was to investigate whether or not a number of the polymorphic genes involved in the metabolism of NSAIDs, including cytochrome P450 s (CYPs), act as modifiers of this protective effect...
  79. ncbi CYP2D6 genotype, antidepressant use, and tamoxifen metabolism during adjuvant breast cancer treatment
    Yan Jin
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:30-9. 2005
    ....
  80. ncbi Estimation of warfarin maintenance dose based on VKORC1 (-1639 G>A) and CYP2C9 genotypes
    Yusheng Zhu
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Clin Chem 53:1199-205. 2007
    b>CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with decreased S-warfarin clearance and lower maintenance dosage. Decreased expression of VKORC1 resulting from the -1639G>A substitution has also been implicated in lower warfarin dose requirements...
  81. ncbi Cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics as a predictor of toxicity and clinical response to pulse cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis
    Kazuki Takada
    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 50:2202-10. 2004
    ..We conducted a retrospective cohort study to test whether genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes are associated with the toxicity of, and clinical response to, cyclophosphamide in patients with lupus nephritis...
  82. ncbi Association of cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics to polymorphic cytochrome P450 2C19
    R Timm
    Institute of Pharmacology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Germany
    Pharmacogenomics J 5:365-73. 2005
    ..using a global and a population pharmacokinetic model considering functionally relevant polymorphisms of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, and GSTA1...
  83. ncbi The impact of CYP2C9 genetics and oral contraceptives on cytochrome P450 2C9 phenotype
    Mia Sandberg
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, SE 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Drug Metab Dispos 32:484-9. 2004
    b>CYP2C9-dependent drug metabolism is subject to large interindividual variation. To some extent, this is explained by genetic polymorphism with expression of enzyme variants that differ in catalytic activity...
  84. doi Relationship between CYP2C8 genotypes and diclofenac 5-hydroxylation in healthy Spanish volunteers
    P Dorado
    CICAB Extremadura University Hospital and Medical School, SES, Badajoz, Spain
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:967-70. 2008
    ..5-hydroxylation, while, in vitro, the 4'-hydroxylation and 3'-hydroxylation seem to be mediated mainly by CYP2C9. We have demonstrated the relevance of CYP2C9 genotypes for diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation in healthy volunteers, so ..
  85. ncbi Breast cancer treatment outcome with adjuvant tamoxifen relative to patient CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes
    Werner Schroth
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstrasse 112, D 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 25:5187-93. 2007
    ..We investigated the predictive value of genetic variants of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and three other cytochrome P450 enzymes for tamoxifen treatment outcome...
  86. ncbi Several-fold increase in risk of overanticoagulation by CYP2C9 mutations
    Jonatan D Lindh
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 78:540-50. 2005
    Our objective was to prospectively study the impact of CYP2C9 polymorphism (*2 and *3) on the risk of overanticoagulation during the induction phase of warfarin therapy.
  87. ncbi Different contributions of polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 to intra- and inter-population differences in maintenance dose of warfarin in Japanese, Caucasians and African-Americans
    Harumi Takahashi
    Department of Pharmacotherapy, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo, Japan
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 16:101-10. 2006
    ..and pharmacodynamic factors associated with population differences in warfarin doses needed to achieve anticoagulation, in particular the possible involvement of genetic variability in vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) and CYP2C9.
  88. ncbi An analysis of the relative effects of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants on anticoagulation related outcomes in warfarin-treated patients
    Lisa M Meckley
    University of Washington, Department of Pharmacy, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Thromb Haemost 100:229-39. 2008
    The objective of this study was to assess the relative influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genetic variants on several clinical outcomes related to warfarin treatment...
  89. pmc Laboratory and clinical outcomes of pharmacogenetic vs. clinical protocols for warfarin initiation in orthopedic patients
    P A Lenzini
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 6:1655-62. 2008
    ..Warfarin is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery. During warfarin initiation, out-of-range International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and adverse events are common...
  90. ncbi CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism analysis might be necessary in patients with Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G2021A mutation(s)
    Allen Leung
    Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
    Diagn Mol Pathol 16:184-6. 2007
    ..Patients with either Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, or VKORC1*2 genotype (c...
  91. ncbi Allelic and functional variability of cytochrome P4502C9
    C R Bhasker
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Flinders University of South Australia, Australia
    Pharmacogenetics 7:51-8. 1997
    ..nucleotide substitutions are known to result in a different amino acid at one of four sites in cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) namely: residue 144: Arg/Cys; residue 358: Tyr/Cys; residue 359: Ile/Leu and residue 417: Gly/Asp...
  92. ncbi Pharmacogenetic screening for polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in a Dutch population
    T M Bosch
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Diagn Ther 10:175-85. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to explore the frequencies of polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, DPYD, UGT1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1) and drug transporters (ABCB1[MDR1] and ABCC2[..
  93. ncbi Linkage between the CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms
    Umit Yasar
    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 299:25-8. 2002
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and 2C9 are polymorphic enzymes. The CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9*2 are the major variant alleles in Caucasian populations...
  94. pmc Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2: no relationship to the CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism in humans
    Julia Kirchheiner
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Centre Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:51-61. 2003
    The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 catalyses the 4'-hydroxylation of the nonsteroidal analgesic drug diclofenac in humans...
  95. ncbi Transcriptional activation of CYP2C9, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha requires coactivators peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha and steroid receptor coactivator 1
    Celia P Martinez-Jimenez
    Unidad de Hepatologia Experimental, Centro de Investigacion, Hospital La Fe, Avenida de Campanar, 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 70:1681-92. 2006
    ..Reporter assays with a chimeric CYP2C9-LUC construct demonstrated that the sole transfection of coactivators induced luciferase activity in HepG2 cells...
  96. ncbi CYP2C9 genotypes and diclofenac metabolism in Spanish healthy volunteers
    Pedro Dorado
    Department of Pharmacology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Extremadura, Av De Elvas s n, 06071 Badajoz, Spain
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:221-5. 2003
    This study analyzed the frequency of CYP2C9 variant alleles and evaluated the impact of CYP2C9 genotype on diclofenac metabolism in a Spanish population.
  97. ncbi The influence of sequence variations in factor VII, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex genes on warfarin dose requirement
    Darja Herman
    Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Vrazov trg 2, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Thromb Haemost 95:782-7. 2006
    ..dose required to achieve the desired anticoagulant response can only partly be explained by polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene, suggesting that additional genetic factors such as polymorphisms in genes involved in blood coagulation may ..
  98. ncbi Interethnic and intraethnic variability of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in healthy individuals
    Elena Garcia-Martin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
    Mol Diagn Ther 10:29-40. 2006
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily members CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 are polymorphically expressed enzymes that are involved in the metabolic inactivation of several drugs, including, among others, antiepileptics, NSAIDs, oral hypoglycemics, and ..
  99. doi Influence of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of racemic and enantiomeric forms of ibuprofen in healthy volunteers
    Rosario López-Rodríguez
    Clinical Pharmacology Service, Instituto Teofilo Hernando, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Pharmacol Res 58:77-84. 2008
    ..incidence of alleles CYP2C8*1 to *5 in a Spanish population; (ii) to test the impact of such alleles, and those of CYP2C9, on the metabolism of racemic ibuprofen, R-ibuprofen and S-ibuprofen; and (iii) to discern whether those metabolic ..
  100. doi Global pharmacogenetics: genetic substructure of Eurasian populations and its effect on variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes
    Oksana Makeeva
    Tomsk Research Institute of Medical Genetics, The Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 10 Nab Ushaiky, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
    Pharmacogenomics 9:847-68. 2008
    ..To study the frequency distribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) functional genetic variants in five Eurasian populations from the territory of Siberia in Russia...
  101. ncbi Relative impact of covariates in prescribing warfarin according to CYP2C9 genotype
    Michael A Hillman
    Department of Care Management, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA
    Pharmacogenetics 14:539-47. 2004
    ..Patients possessing variants (*2 and *3) of the cytochrome P450 2C9 gene require reduced maintenance doses compared to those having wild-type alleles (*1)...

Research Grants65

  1. Pharmacogenetics of ADRs: Warfarin Toxicity
    ALLAN EDWARD RETTIE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the previous funding period the focus was primarily on genetic variation within the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2C9, because it controls metabolic clearance of the more potent (S) enantiomer of the racemic drug...
  2. Pharmacogenetics of ADRs: Warfarin Toxicity
    Allan Rettie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the previous funding period the focus was primarily on genetic variation within the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2C9, because it controls metabolic clearance of the more potent (S) enantiomer of the racemic drug...
  3. PHARMACOGENETICS IN SURGICAL CRITICAL CARE
    Bradley Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Warfarin is metabolized by two distinct subfamilies of the cytochrome P450 complex: CYP2A6 and CYP2C9. Common polymorphisms of these enzymes result in impaired warfarin metabolism...
  4. Modeling Genotype and other Factors to Enhance the Safety of Warfarin Prescribing
    Michael Caldwell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by clinical factors including gender, age, body surface area, diabetes status, heart valves, concomitant use of CYP2C9 inducers, and genetic factors including CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype...
  5. Modeling Genotype and other Factors to Enhance the Safety of Warfarin Prescribing
    Michael Caldwell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by clinical factors including gender, age, body surface area, diabetes status, heart valves, concomitant use of CYP2C9 inducers, and genetic factors including CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype...
  6. Warfarin Pharmacogenomics in the rat (Rattus norvegicus)
    HANS MICHAEL KOHN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that the rat is a valid model for the human condition because the highly publicized warfarin-interacting genes Cyp2c9 and Vkorc1 emerged from preliminary analyses. However, novel sex-specific effects were observed...
  7. Warfarin Pharmacogenomics in the rat (Rattus norvegicus)
    HANS KOHN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that the rat is a valid model for the human condition because the highly publicized warfarin-interacting genes Cyp2c9 and Vkorc1 emerged from preliminary analyses. However, novel sex-specific effects were observed...
  8. Development of a Personalized Medicine Interface for the Safe and Effective Treat
    KRISTEN REYNOLDS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Patient genotypes at two loci, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, will be utilized, as variants of these genes are closely associated with the reduced effectiveness of ..
  9. Pharmacogenetics of ADRs: Warfarin Toxicity
    Allan Rettie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The Iong-term aim of this research is to determine the clinical consequences of genetic variability within the human CYP2C9 gene among subjects of diverse ethnic origins, and to understand molecular mechanisms that underlie genetically-..
  10. Ethnic Variations in Antidepressant Response
    RUSSELL POLAND; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..affecting the function of the serotonin transporter will predict responses to CU', whereas polymorphism of CYP2C 19 will be associated with the side effect profiles and pharmacokinetics of CIT...
  11. GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN THE EPOXYGENASE PATHWAY IN HYPERTENSION
    Albert Dreisbach; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..acid (11,12-EET), the putative endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)is formed by the enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C8, and converted to its corresponding dihydroxy metabolite (DHET) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)...
  12. Novel Computational Methods for Modeling Cytochrome P450 Mediated Drug Metabolism
    MARKUS ALEXANDER LILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The new computational methods will be applied to two CYP enzymes (CYP2C9, 3A4) important in drug metabolism...
  13. Drug Metabolism and Chronic Liver Disease
    Robert Branch; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Part 1: A cocktail to include: caffeine (CYP1A2), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), mephenytoin (CYP2C19), debrisoquine (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and dapsone (acetylation)...
  14. Probe Drugs for Botanical-Drug Interactions
    Gregory Reed; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..probes for enzymes that metabolize and transport most clinically used drugs: caffeine (CYP1A2), losartan (CYP2C9), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6?also probes for CYP3A4), buspirone (CYP3A4), and fexofenadine (P-gp), in addition to ..