CYP2C9

Summary

Gene Symbol: CYP2C9
Description: cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 9
Alias: CPC9, CYP2C, CYP2C10, CYPIIC9, P450IIC9, cytochrome P450 2C9, cytochrome P-450 S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase, cytochrome P-450MP, cytochrome P450 PB-1, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, microsomal monooxygenase, xenobiotic monooxygenase
Species: human
Products:     CYP2C9

Top Publications

  1. Samardzija M, Topic E, Stefanovic M, Zibar L, Samardzija G, Balen S, et al. Association of CYP2C9 gene polymorphism with bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy. Coll Antropol. 2008;32:557-64 pubmed
    ..this study was to determine the association of bleeding as a complication of warfarin therapy with polymorphism of CYP2C9 gene (alleles 1, 2 and 3). The CYP2C9 is the main enzyme for warfarin metabolism...
  2. Lopez Rodriguez R, Novalbos J, Gallego Sandín S, Román Martínez M, Torrado J, Gisbert J, et al. Influence of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of racemic and enantiomeric forms of ibuprofen in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Res. 2008;58:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..incidence of alleles CYP2C8*1 to *5 in a Spanish population; (ii) to test the impact of such alleles, and those of CYP2C9, on the metabolism of racemic ibuprofen, R-ibuprofen and S-ibuprofen; and (iii) to discern whether those metabolic ..
  3. Gan G, Phipps M, Lee M, Lu L, Subramaniam R, Bee P, et al. Contribution of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in the interethnic variability of warfarin dose in Malaysian populations. Ann Hematol. 2011;90:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult patients who attended an anticoagulation clinic with stable INR were recruited. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype were sequenced, and clinical characteristics were assessed...
  4. Scott S, Edelmann L, Kornreich R, Desnick R. Warfarin pharmacogenetics: CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict different sensitivity and resistance frequencies in the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jewish populations. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CYP2C9( *)2 (p.R144C), CYP2C9( *)3 (p.I359L), and the VKORC1 promoter (g...
  5. Li C, Schwarz U, Ritchie M, Roden D, Stein C, Kurnik D. Relative contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and early INR response to the prediction of warfarin sensitivity during initiation of therapy. Blood. 2009;113:3925-30 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 strongly affect steady-state warfarin dose. However, these variants also affect early international normalized ratio (INR) values during warfarin initiation...
  6. Borgiani P, Ciccacci C, Forte V, Sirianni E, Novelli L, Bramanti P, et al. CYP4F2 genetic variant (rs2108622) significantly contributes to warfarin dosing variability in the Italian population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous papers have shown the important contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants to this variability...
  7. Takeuchi F, McGinnis R, Bourgeois S, Barnes C, Eriksson N, Soranzo N, et al. A genome-wide association study confirms VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 as principal genetic determinants of warfarin dose. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000433 pubmed publisher
    ..another approximately 12% by two non-synonymous SNPs (*2, *3) in the cytochrome P450 warfarin-metabolizing gene CYP2C9. We initially tested each of 325,997 GWAS SNPs for association with warfarin dose by univariate regression and ..
  8. Yang L, Ge W, Yu F, Zhu H. Impact of VKORC1 gene polymorphism on interindividual and interethnic warfarin dosage requirement--a systematic review and meta analysis. Thromb Res. 2010;125:e159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..is significantly associated with the polymorphism of certain genes, including Cytochrome P450 complex subunit 2C9 (CYP2C9), Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1 (VKORC1), Gamma-Glutamyl Carboxylase (GGCX) and Apolipoprotein E (..
  9. Scott S, Khasawneh R, Peter I, Kornreich R, Desnick R. Combined CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 frequencies among racial and ethnic groups. Pharmacogenomics. 2010;11:781-91 pubmed publisher
    CYP4F2*3 (p.V433M) has been associated with higher warfarin dose requirements; however, its frequency, like other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants, has not been systematically assessed in major racial/ethnic populations...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Haschke Becher E, Kirchheiner J, Trummer O, Grünbacher G, Kainz A, Boehm B, et al. Impact of CYP2C8 and 2C9 polymorphisms on coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in the LURIC cohort. Pharmacogenomics. 2010;11:1359-65 pubmed publisher
    As data on the cardiovascular risk associated with CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms is controversial, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of subjects enrolled in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study...
  2. Dorado P, Cavaco I, Cáceres M, Piedade R, Ribeiro V, LLerena A. Relationship between CYP2C8 genotypes and diclofenac 5-hydroxylation in healthy Spanish volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;64:967-70 pubmed publisher
    ..5-hydroxylation, while, in vitro, the 4'-hydroxylation and 3'-hydroxylation seem to be mediated mainly by CYP2C9. We have demonstrated the relevance of CYP2C9 genotypes for diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation in healthy volunteers, so ..
  3. Ekhart C, Doodeman V, Rodenhuis S, Smits P, Beijnen J, Huitema A. Influence of polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of known allelic variants in the CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 genes on the pharmacokinetics of the anticancer agent, ..
  4. Mirghani R, Chowdhary G, Elghazali G. Distribution of the major cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 genetic variants in a Saudi population. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011;109:111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The CYP2C9 is a genetically polymorphic enzyme...
  5. Kim H, Lee S, Oh M, Jang Y, Kim E, Han I, et al. Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:103-12 pubmed publisher
    The effect of CYP2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genotypes was evaluated for the early-phase and steady-state warfarin dosing in Korean patients with mechanical heart valve replacement...
  6. Huang S, Chen H, Wang X, Huang L, Xu D, Hu X, et al. Validation of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on interindividual warfarin maintenance dose: a prospective study in Chinese patients. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The final multiple linear regression model included age, body surface area, VKORC1, and CYP2C9 genotype. The study showed that the hazard ratio for the time to reach stable dose was 1...
  7. Gage B, Eby C, Johnson J, Deych E, Rieder M, Ridker P, et al. Use of pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to predict the therapeutic dose of warfarin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..25 m(2)), CYP2C9(*)3 (-33% per allele), CYP2C9(*)2 (-19% per allele), age (-7% per decade), target international normalized ratio (..
  8. Ngow H, Wan Khairina W, Teh L, Lee W, Harun R, Ismail R, et al. CYP2C9 polymorphism: prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia. Singapore Med J. 2009;50:490-3 pubmed
    Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 among different populations in different geographical regions could be different...
  9. Djaffar Jureidini I, Chamseddine N, Keleshian S, Naoufal R, Zahed L, Hakime N. Pharmacogenetics of coumarin dosing: prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in the Lebanese population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011;15:827-30 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP2C9) and the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) are known to contribute to variability in sensitivity to coumarins...
  10. Kudzi W, Dodoo A, Mills J. Characterisation of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in a Ghanaian population. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:124 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 variants in Ghanaians...
  11. Cavallari L, Langaee T, Momary K, Shapiro N, Nutescu E, Coty W, et al. Genetic and clinical predictors of warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;87:459-64 pubmed publisher
    ..whether, in African-American patients, additional vitamin K oxidoreductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), CYP4F2, or apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms contribute to variability in the warfarin ..
  12. Limdi N, Arnett D, Goldstein J, Beasley T, McGwin G, Adler B, et al. Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose, anticoagulation attainment and maintenance among European-Americans and African-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:511-26 pubmed publisher
    The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose, time to target International Normalized Ratio (INR), time to stabilization, and risk of over-anticoagulation (INR: > 4) was assessed after adjustment for clinical factors, ..
  13. Northwood E, Elliott F, Forman D, Barrett J, Wilkie M, Carey F, et al. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..02, test for trend) and vegetable (P=0.001, test for trend) consumption. P450 CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes had reduced CRA risk compared with homozygotes for the reference allele [odds ratio (OR): 0...
  14. Wang T, Li H, Tjong W, Chen Q, Wu G, Zhu H, et al. Genetic factors contribute to patient-specific warfarin dose for Han Chinese. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;396:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study population, SNP rs1799853 of CYP2C9, rs1687390 of ORM1-2, and rs2069919 of PROC showed no variation...
  15. Makeeva O, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Goldstein D, Grossman I. Global pharmacogenetics: genetic substructure of Eurasian populations and its effect on variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:847-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Unrelated healthy Tuvinians, Buryats, Altaians, Yakuts and Russians (n = 87-88) were genotyped for CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6...
  16. Ferder N, Eby C, Deych E, Harris J, Ridker P, Milligan P, et al. Ability of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose during the initial weeks of therapy. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:95-100 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes predict therapeutic warfarin dose at initiation of therapy; however, the predictive ability of genetic information after a week or longer is unknown...
  17. Shuldiner A, O Connell J, Bliden K, Gandhi A, Ryan K, Horenstein R, et al. Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy. JAMA. 2009;302:849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..73; P < .001). Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 10q24 within the CYP2C18-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP2C8 cluster were associated with diminished clopidogrel response, with a high degree of statistical ..
  18. Liu Y, Jeong H, Takahashi H, Drozda K, Patel S, Shapiro N, et al. Decreased warfarin clearance associated with the CYP2C9 R150H (*8) polymorphism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;91:660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to examine whether the CYP2C9*8 allele impacts warfarin clearance in African-American patients...
  19. Cleary S, Cotterchio M, Shi E, Gallinger S, Harper P. Cigarette smoking, genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:1000-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0...
  20. Dorado P, Beltrán L, Machín E, Peñas LLedó E, Teran E, Llerena A. Losartan hydroxylation phenotype in an Ecuadorian population: influence of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism, habits and gender. Pharmacogenomics. 2012;13:1711-7 pubmed publisher
    To describe for the first time CYP2C9 hydroxylation phenotype with CYP2C9 genotypes in a Hispanic (Ecuadorian) population using losartan; and the relevance of gender, tobacco, ethanol and caffeine consumption on the enzyme hydroxylation ..
  21. Yin T, Maekawa K, Kamide K, Saito Y, Hanada H, Miyashita K, et al. Genetic variations of CYP2C9 in 724 Japanese individuals and their impact on the antihypertensive effects of losartan. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:1549-57 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2C9, a drug-metabolizing enzyme, converts the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan to its active form, which is responsible for its antihypertensive effect...
  22. Wadelius M, Chen L, Lindh J, Eriksson N, Ghori M, Bumpstead S, et al. The largest prospective warfarin-treated cohort supports genetic forecasting. Blood. 2009;113:784-92 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) are known to influence warfarin dose, but the effect of other genes has not been fully elucidated...
  23. Meckley L, Wittkowsky A, Rieder M, Rettie A, Veenstra D. An analysis of the relative effects of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants on anticoagulation related outcomes in warfarin-treated patients. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:229-39 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to assess the relative influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genetic variants on several clinical outcomes related to warfarin treatment...
  24. McClain M, Palomaki G, Piper M, Haddow J. A rapid-ACCE review of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 alleles testing to inform warfarin dosing in adults at elevated risk for thrombotic events to avoid serious bleeding. Genet Med. 2008;10:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary data suggest overall analytic sensitivity and specificity will be 98% or higher for CYP2C9 genotyping, but strength of evidence for analytic validity is low, especially for VKORC1 testing...
  25. Markatos C, Grouzi E, Politou M, Gialeraki A, Merkouri E, Panagou I, et al. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 allelic variants influence acenocoumarol dose requirements in Greek patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:1631-8 pubmed publisher
    To identify the frequencies of the polymorphisms CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1-1639 G>A in the Greek population and investigate whether these polymorphisms and patient demographics (age, sex and comedication) could explain the ..
  26. Jorgensen A, FitzGerald R, Oyee J, Pirmohamed M, Williamson P. Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on patient response to warfarin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44064 pubmed publisher
    ..Finding the correct dose is difficult due to large inter-individual variability. Two genes, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, have been associated with this variability, leading to genotype-guided dosing tables in warfarin ..
  27. Schwarz U, Ritchie M, Bradford Y, Li C, Dudek S, Frye Anderson A, et al. Genetic determinants of response to warfarin during initial anticoagulation. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:999-1008 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants of the enzyme that metabolizes warfarin, cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9), and of a key pharmacologic target of warfarin, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), contribute to differences in patients' responses to various ..
  28. Wu A, Wang P, Smith A, Haller C, Drake K, Linder M, et al. Dosing algorithm for warfarin using CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping from a multi-ethnic population: comparison with other equations. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the allele and haplotype frequencies of genes for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on 167 Caucasian, African-American, Asian and Hispanic patients on warfarin...
  29. Ngow H, Teh L, Langmia I, Lee W, Harun R, Ismail R, et al. Role of pharmacodiagnostic of CYP2C9 variants in the optimization of warfarin therapy in Malaysia: a 6-month follow-up study. Xenobiotica. 2008;38:641-51 pubmed
    1. A retrospective study was conducted to explore the importance of CYP2C9 genotyping for the initiation and maintenance therapy of warfarin in clinical practice...
  30. Schelleman H, Brensinger C, Chen J, Finkelman B, Rieder M, Kimmel S. New genetic variant that might improve warfarin dose prediction in African Americans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;70:393-9 pubmed publisher
    Variants in the CYP2C9 (i.e. *2 and *3) and VKORC1 (i.e. 1173C/T or -1639G/A) genes have been shown to influence warfarin dose requirements...
  31. Kesavan R, Narayan S, Adithan C. Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin-induced neurological toxicity in Indian epileptic patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:689-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2C9 and 2C19 (CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, respectively) genetic polymorphisms play an important role in phenytoin (PHT) metabolism...
  32. Lee M, Chen C, Chou C, Lu L, Chuang H, Chen Y, et al. Genetic determinants of warfarin dosing in the Han-Chinese population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1905-13 pubmed publisher
    Warfarin, a widely prescribed oral anticoagulant, is used for the prevention of thromboembolism. Polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 have been shown to be associated with warfarin dose requirements...
  33. Spreafico M, Lodigiani C, Van Leeuwen Y, Pizzotti D, Rota L, Rosendaal F, et al. Effects of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on INR variations and dose requirements during initial phase of anticoagulant therapy. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:1237-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective study investigated, during the initial phase of acenocoumarol therapy, the effect of CYP2C9 variant alleles and VKORC1 haplotypes, single and in combination, in 220 Italians...
  34. Cotterchio M, Boucher B, Manno M, Gallinger S, Okey A, Harper P. Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:3098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CYP2C9 and NAT2 variants were associated with colorectal cancer risk...
  35. Yildirim H, Tamer L, Sucu N, Atik U. The role of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms on anticoagulant therapy after heart valve replacement. Med Princ Pract. 2008;17:464-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms after heart valve replacement in a group of patients on warfarin therapy. The study population consisted of 74 patients with heart valve replacement...
  36. Scott S, Jaremko M, Lubitz S, Kornreich R, Halperin J, Desnick R. CYP2C9*8 is prevalent among African-Americans: implications for pharmacogenetic dosing. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..differ among racial groups, most pharmacogenetic algorithms for genotype-guided warfarin dosing only include two CYP2C9 alleles (*2 and *3) and a single VKORC1 allele (g.-1639G>A or g.1173C>T) commonly found among Caucasians...
  37. Roberts A, Cheesman M, Primak A, Bowman M, Atkins W, Rettie A. Intramolecular heme ligation of the cytochrome P450 2C9 R108H mutant demonstrates pronounced conformational flexibility of the B-C loop region: implications for substrate binding. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8700-8 pubmed publisher
    ..et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65, 842-850] revealed some unusual properties of the R108H mutant of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), including elevated thermostability relative to that of CYP2C9, as well as a UV-visible absorbance ..
  38. Sistonen J, Fuselli S, Palo J, Chauhan N, Padh H, Sajantila A. Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:170-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 belong to a subfamily of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, associated mainly with the metabolism of exogenous compounds in the human body...
  39. Aomori T, Yamamoto K, Oguchi Katayama A, Kawai Y, Ishidao T, Mitani Y, et al. Rapid single-nucleotide polymorphism detection of cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) genes for the warfarin dose adjustment by the SMart-amplification process version 2. Clin Chem. 2009;55:804-12 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of the CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) gene (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3) and the VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) gene (-1639G>A) greatly impact the maintenance dose for the ..
  40. Mosher C, Hummel M, Tracy T, Rettie A. Functional analysis of phenylalanine residues in the active site of cytochrome P450 2C9. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11725-34 pubmed publisher
    The two published crystal structures of cytochrome P450 2C9, complexed with ( S)-warfarin or flurbiprofen, implicate a cluster of three active site phenylalanine residues (F100, F114, F476) in ligand binding...
  41. Cooper G, Johnson J, Langaee T, Feng H, Stanaway I, Schwarz U, et al. A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Blood. 2008;112:1022-7 pubmed publisher
    Warfarin dosing is correlated with polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) and the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes...
  42. Rathore S, Agarwal S, Pande S, Mittal T, Mittal B. Frequencies of VKORC1 -1639 G>A, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genetic variants in the Northern Indian population. Biosci Trends. 2010;4:333-7 pubmed
    Dose requirements for oral anticoagulants in thromboembolic events are influenced by polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes...
  43. Oner Ozgon G, Langaee T, Feng H, Buyru N, Ulutin T, Hatemi A, et al. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;64:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..was to determine the quantitative influence of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP 2C9) polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements in Turkish patients...
  44. Limdi N, Beasley T, Crowley M, Goldstein J, Rieder M, Flockhart D, et al. VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:1445-58 pubmed publisher
    Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African-Americans compared with European-Americans...
  45. Teichert M, Eijgelsheim M, Rivadeneira F, Uitterlinden A, van Schaik R, Hofman A, et al. A genome-wide association study of acenocoumarol maintenance dosage. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..0 x 10(-123)). The lowest P-value on chromosome 10 was obtained by rs4086116 within cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) (P = 3.3 x 10(-24))...
  46. Cha P, Mushiroda T, Takahashi A, Kubo M, Minami S, Kamatani N, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies genetic determinants of warfarin responsiveness for Japanese. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..according to the genotypes of SNP rs10509680 [cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9 (CYP2C9)] and SNP rs9923231 [vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1)], based on their genotypes of ..
  47. Kaur Knudsen D, Bojesen S, Nordestgaard B. Common polymorphisms in CYP2C9, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic vascular disease in 52,000 individuals. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009;9:327-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) enzymes metabolize warfarin and arachidonic acid. We hypothesized that the CYP2C9(*)2 (rs.1799853) and CYP2C9(*)3 (rs...
  48. Cen H, Zeng W, Leng X, Huang M, Chen X, Li J, et al. CYP4F2 rs2108622: a minor significant genetic factor of warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;70:234-40 pubmed publisher
    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are known to influence warfarin dosage...
  49. Perini J, Struchiner C, Silva Assunção E, Santana I, Rangel F, Ojopi E, et al. Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: development of a dosing algorithm for brazilian patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84:722-8 pubmed publisher
    A dosing algorithm including genetic (VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes) and nongenetic factors (age, weight, therapeutic indication, and cotreatment with amiodarone or simvastatin) explained 51% of the variance in stable weekly warfarin doses ..
  50. Azarpira N, Namazi S, Hendijani F, Banan M, Darai M. Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and VKORC1 in Iran. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:740-6 pubmed
    ..present study focused on the genotype profile of southern Iranians in order to compare the allelic frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and VKORC1 -1639G>A (all of which have been shown to have significant roles in the metabolism of ..
  51. Ragia G, Petridis I, Tavridou A, Christakidis D, Manolopoulos V. Presence of CYP2C9*3 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in Type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:1781-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired metabolism of sulfonylureas due to gene polymorphisms in the metabolic enzyme CYP2C9 might lead to hypoglycemia...
  52. Lenzini P, Grice G, Milligan P, Dowd M, Subherwal S, Deych E, et al. Laboratory and clinical outcomes of pharmacogenetic vs. clinical protocols for warfarin initiation in orthopedic patients. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:1655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To facilitate gene-guided warfarin dosing we created a non-profit website, http://www.WarfarinDosing.org. ..
  53. Sagreiya H, Sagrieya H, Berube C, Wen A, Ramakrishnan R, Mir A, et al. Extending and evaluating a warfarin dosing algorithm that includes CYP4F2 and pooled rare variants of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..complete clinical and pharmacy records; we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms relevant to the VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 genes using integrated fluidic circuits made by Fluidigm...
  54. Efrati E, Elkin H, Sprecher E, Krivoy N. Distribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 risk alleles for warfarin sensitivity and resistance in the Israeli population. Curr Drug Saf. 2010;5:190-3 pubmed
    This study was designed to delineate the relative frequency of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms known to affect warfarin response in the highly heterogeneous Israeli population...
  55. Stehle S, Kirchheiner J, Lazar A, Fuhr U. Pharmacogenetics of oral anticoagulants: a basis for dose individualization. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47:565-94 pubmed
    ..Compared with homozygous carriers of CYP2C9*1, patients homozygous for CYP2C9*3 were estimated to need 3...