CYP2C19

Summary

Gene Symbol: CYP2C19
Description: cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 19
Alias: CPCJ, CYP2C, CYPIIC17, CYPIIC19, P450C2C, P450IIC19, cytochrome P450 2C19, (R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase, (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase, (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase, S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase, cytochrome P-450 II C, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19, cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase), polypeptide 19, cytochrome P450-11A, cytochrome P450-254C, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase, mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase, microsomal monooxygenase, xenobiotic monooxygenase
Species: human
Products:     CYP2C19

Top Publications

  1. Kawabata H, Habu Y, Tomioka H, Kutsumi H, Kobayashi M, Oyasu K, et al. Effect of different proton pump inhibitors, differences in CYP2C19 genotype and antibiotic resistance on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection by a 1-week regimen of proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;17:259-64 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of different proton pump inhibitors, S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19) genotype and antibiotic susceptibility on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori. One hundred and eighty-seven H...
  2. Wallentin L, James S, Storey R, Armstrong M, Barratt B, Horrow J, et al. Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes: a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes are known to influence the effects of clopidogrel...
  3. Schenk P, van Vliet M, Mathot R, van Gelder T, Vulto A, van Fessem M, et al. The CYP2C19*17 genotype is associated with lower imipramine plasma concentrations in a large group of depressed patients. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010;10:219-25 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2C19 converts the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine to its active metabolite desipramine, which is subsequently inactivated by CYP2D6. The novel CYP2C19*17 allele causes ultrarapid metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates...
  4. Gladding P, White H, Voss J, Ormiston J, Stewart J, Ruygrok P, et al. Pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel using the rapid INFINITI analyzer: a dose-escalation study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2:1095-101 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to assess whether a higher clopidogrel maintenance dose has a greater antiplatelet effect in CYP2C19*2 allele carriers compared with noncarriers...
  5. Lee J, Jung H, Choi K, Song H, Lee G, Kim J. The Influence of CYP2C19 Polymorphism on Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Prospective Randomized Study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole. Gut Liver. 2010;4:201-6 pubmed publisher
    The CYP2C19 polymorphism plays an important role in the metabolism of various proton-pump inhibitors. Several trials have produced conflicting data on eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) among CYP2C19 genotypes...
  6. Mega J, Close S, Wiviott S, Shen L, Walker J, Simon T, et al. Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010;376:1312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the effect of this polymorphism by itself and alongside variants in CYP2C19 on cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel in TRITON-TIMI 38...
  7. Lee J, Lee K, Lee K. Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with reduced clopidogrel response in cerebrovascular disease. Yonsei Med J. 2011;52:734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CYP2C19 polymorphism has been reported to correlate with reduced antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel in coronary artery ..
  8. Dai Z, Chen H, Wu X. Relationship between cytochrome P450 2C19*17 genotype distribution, platelet aggregation and bleeding risk in patients with blood stasis syndrome of coronary artery disease treated with clopidogrel. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012;10:647-54 pubmed
    ..b>CYP2C19*17 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
  9. Lane S, Al Zubiedi S, Hatch E, Matthews I, Jorgensen A, Deloukas P, et al. The population pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin: effect of genetic and clinical factors. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:66-76 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP2C9*1,*2 and *3), two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP1A2, one SNP in CYP3A4 and six SNPs in CYP2C19. A base pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM software to determine the warfarin clearance and volume ..

More Information

Publications71

  1. Sawada T, Shinke T, Shite J, Honjo T, Haraguchi Y, Nishio R, et al. Impact of cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism on intra-stent thrombus after drug-eluting stent implantation in Japanese patients receiving clopidogrel. Circ J. 2011;75:99-105 pubmed
    ..The patients were divided into 2 groups: those with at least one CYP2C19*2 allele (*2 carriers) and non-carriers...
  2. Harmsze A, van Werkum J, ten Berg J, Zwart B, Bouman H, Breet N, et al. CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles are associated with stent thrombosis: a case-control study. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:3046-53 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of variations in genes involved in the absorption (ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, C3435T), metabolism (CYP2C19*2 and *3, CYP2C9*2 and *3, CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3), and pharmacodynamics (P2Y1 A1622G) of clopidogrel on the ..
  3. Zhou B, Song Z, Qian M, Li L, Gong J, Zou S. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene contribute to digestive system cancer risk: evidence from 11,042 subjects. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66865 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2C19 belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes involved in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds, which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for digestive system cancer...
  4. Yin S, Ni Y, Wang S, Wang X, Lou Y, Zhang G. Differences in genotype and allele frequency distributions of polymorphic drug metabolizing enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in mainland Chinese Mongolian, Hui and Han populations. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2012;37:364-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) and CYP2D6 are important xenobiotic metabolic enzymes and both show considerable genetic variability between Orientals and Caucasians...
  5. Ramsjö M, Aklillu E, Bohman L, Ingelman Sundberg M, Roh H, Bertilsson L. CYP2C19 activity comparison between Swedes and Koreans: effect of genotype, sex, oral contraceptive use, and smoking. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:871-7 pubmed publisher
    To compare CYP2C19 enzyme activity between Swedes and Koreans controlling for the effect of CYP2C19 genotype, sex, oral contraceptive use, and smoking habits...
  6. Yang Y, Wang X, Ma Y, Xie X, Fu Z, Li X, et al. Association of interaction between smoking and CYP 2C19*3 polymorphism with coronary artery disease in a Uighur population. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2010;16:579-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the interaction of CYP2C19*3 polymorphism and smoking and coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Uighur population...
  7. Sofi F, Giusti B, Marcucci R, Gori A, Abbate R, Gensini G. Cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism and cardiovascular recurrences in patients taking clopidogrel: a meta-analysis. Pharmacogenomics J. 2011;11:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, a great deal of attention has been focused on the loss-of-function CYP2C19(*)2 (or 681 G > A) polymorphism...
  8. Shi Y, Luo G, Zhang L, Shi J, Zhang D, Chen J, et al. Interaction between alcohol consumption and CYP 2C19 gene polymorphism in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43412 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the interactions of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
  9. Zackrisson A, Lindblom B, Ahlner J. High frequency of occurrence of CYP2D6 gene duplication/multiduplication indicating ultrarapid metabolism among suicide cases. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;88:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these drugs are metabolized by CYP enzymes such as CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. A lack of these enzymes, resulting in poor metabolism, can lead to adverse reactions and even to fatality...
  10. Peng Y, Chen M, Liu X, Liu W, Li Q, Chai H, et al. The CYP2C19 genotype does not impact the long-term prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2013;227:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study explored whether the CYP2C19 gene polymorphism was associated with clinical events in patients with CAD after one year of discharge...
  11. Yamamoto N, Murakami H, Nishina T, Hirashima T, Sugio K, Muro K, et al. The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of tivantinib (ARQ 197): results from a phase I trial in advanced solid tumors. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:1653-9 pubmed publisher
    Tivantinib (formerly ARQ 197) is a selective inhibitor of c-Met mainly metabolized by CYP2C19. CYP2C19 is known for genetic polymorphisms, and ~20% of Asians are poor metabolizers (PMs), while others are extensive metabolizers (EMs)...
  12. Hwang S, Jeong Y, Kim I, Koh J, Kang M, Park Y, et al. The cytochrome 2C19*2 and *3 alleles attenuate response to clopidogrel similarly in East Asian patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Thromb Res. 2011;127:23-8 pubmed publisher
    Carriage of CYP2C19*2 allele is associated with diminished platelet response to clopidogrel. However, the loss-of-function impact of CYP2C19*3 allele on antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel has not been definitely verified...
  13. Gjerde J, Geisler J, Lundgren S, Ekse D, Varhaug J, Mellgren G, et al. Associations between tamoxifen, estrogens, and FSH serum levels during steady state tamoxifen treatment of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:313 pubmed publisher
    ..serum levels of tamoxifen, estrogens, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and also determined the genotypes of CYP2C19, 2D6, 3A5, and SULT1A1 in 90 postmenopausal breast cancer patients...
  14. Subraja K, Dkhar S, Priyadharsini R, Ravindra B, Shewade D, Satheesh S, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 influences the response to clopidogrel in ischemic heart disease patients in the South Indian Tamilian population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) gene coding for the CYP2C19 enzyme is one of the major determinants of this variable response to ..
  15. Gawronska Szklarz B, Siuda A, Kurzawski M, Bielicki D, Marlicz W, Drozdzik M. Effects of CYP2C19, MDR1, and interleukin 1-B gene variants on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection by triple therapy with pantoprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:681-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Aim of the present study was to evaluate an association of CYP2C19, MDR1, and IL-1B polymorphisms with the eradication rate of H...
  16. Shin D, Kwon J, Park A, Bae Y, Shin E, Park S, et al. Association of CYP2C19*2 and *3 genetic variants with essential hypertension in Koreans. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    The cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) metabolizes arachidonic acid to produce epoxyicosanoid acids, which are involved in vascular tone and regulation of blood pressure...
  17. Pare G, Mehta S, Yusuf S, Anand S, Connolly S, Hirsh J, et al. Effects of CYP2C19 genotype on outcomes of clopidogrel treatment. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1704-14 pubmed publisher
    ..less effective in reducing the rate of cardiovascular events among persons who are carriers of loss-of-function CYP2C19 alleles that are associated with reduced conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite...
  18. Tiroch K, Sibbing D, Koch W, Roosen Runge T, Mehilli J, Schomig A, et al. Protective effect of the CYP2C19 *17 polymorphism with increased activation of clopidogrel on cardiovascular events. Am Heart J. 2010;160:506-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the association of the presence of the ABCB1 (C/T) T-allele, CYP2C19*2 (G/A) A-allele, or CYP2C19*17 (C/T) T-allele with the primary end point of the need of clinically-driven target ..
  19. Kim K, Song W, Kim K, Park J. Assessment of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms in a Korean population using a simultaneous multiplex pyrosequencing method to simultaneously detect the CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and CYP2C19*17 alleles. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010;35:697-703 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP2C19 is a drug-metabolizing enzyme showing various genetic polymorphisms that may cause marked interindividual and interethnic variability in the disposition of its substrates...
  20. Isomura Y, Yamaji Y, Ohta M, Seto M, Asaoka Y, Tanaka Y, et al. A genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 is associated with susceptibility to biliary tract cancer. J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:1045-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is clinically important for the metabolism of many therapeutic drugs. CYP2C19 has two main point mutation sites leading to low metabolic capacity...
  21. Sim S, Nordin L, Andersson T, Virding S, Olsson M, Pedersen N, et al. Association between CYP2C19 polymorphism and depressive symptoms. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:1160-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is a polymorphic enzyme active in the metabolism of for example diazepam and the antidepressants sertraline, citalopram, and escitalopram, whereby allelic variants cause increased (CYP2C19*17) or abolished (..
  22. Musumba C, Jorgensen A, Sutton L, Van Eker D, Zhang E, O Hara N, et al. CYP2C19*17 gain-of-function polymorphism is associated with peptic ulcer disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013;93:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..functional SNPs in the CYP2C family of genes--CYP2C8*3 (rs11572080 and rs10509681), CYP2C8*4, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and CYP2C19*17--are associated with PUD in 1,239 Caucasian patients...
  23. Chen M, Liu X, Yan S, Peng Y, Chai H, Li Q, et al. Association between cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism and clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2012;220:168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether the genetic functional variant 681G>A (*2) of cytochrome CYP2C19 is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  24. Harmsze A, van Werkum J, Bouman H, Ruven H, Breet N, ten Berg J, et al. Besides CYP2C19*2, the variant allele CYP2C9*3 is associated with higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Several studies report that the genetic variation in CYP2C19 (*2) is associated with an impaired response to clopidogrel...
  25. Sibbing D, Koch W, Massberg S, Byrne R, Mehilli J, Schulz S, et al. No association of paraoxonase-1 Q192R genotypes with platelet response to clopidogrel and risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Q192R) within the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene on clopidogrel treatment efficacy but no influence of the CYP2C19*2 genetic variant as previously demonstrated...
  26. Santos P, Soares R, Santos D, Nascimento R, Coelho G, Nicolau J, et al. CYP2C19 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms are differently distributed according to ethnicity in the Brazilian general population. BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:13 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have reported the clinical importance of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 polymorphisms in an individualized approach to clopidogrel treatment...
  27. Mrazek D, Biernacka J, O Kane D, Black J, Cunningham J, Drews M, et al. CYP2C19 variation and citalopram response. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:1-9 pubmed
    ..Citalopram is metabolized by three CYP enzymes. CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 play a primary role in citalopram metabolism, whereas CYP2D6 plays a secondary role...
  28. Luo Y, Zhao Y, Verdo A, Qi W, Zhang D, Hu B. Relationship between cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism and stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in Chinese patients receiving clopidogrel. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:2012-9 pubmed
    This study investigated the relationship between the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) *2 polymorphism (681A) and definite stent thrombosis (ST) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and receiving clopidogrel (75 mg/..
  29. Kassimis G, Davlouros P, Xanthopoulou I, Stavrou E, Athanassiadou A, Alexopoulos D. CYP2C19*2 and other genetic variants affecting platelet response to clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Thromb Res. 2012;129:441-6 pubmed publisher
    Information regarding any possible additional effect of genetic variants other than CYP2C19*2 on platelet reactivity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), while on dual antiplatelet therapy, is sparse...
  30. Ruiter R, Bijl M, van Schaik R, Berns E, Hofman A, Coebergh J, et al. CYP2C19*2 polymorphism is associated with increased survival in breast cancer patients using tamoxifen. Pharmacogenomics. 2010;11:1367-75 pubmed publisher
    Variant alleles of the CYP2C19 gene were recently associated with survival in breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy. CYP2C19 is one of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen into active metabolites...
  31. Cayla G, Hulot J, O Connor S, Pathak A, Scott S, Gruel Y, et al. Clinical, angiographic, and genetic factors associated with early coronary stent thrombosis. JAMA. 2011;306:1765-74 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic variants investigated in 15 different genes, the significant determinants of early stent thrombosis were CYP2C19 metabolic status (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.47-2.69), ABCB1 3435 TT genotype (adjusted OR, 2...
  32. Gan C, Wang X, Cao Y, Ye W, Liu H, Sun Y. Association of CYP2C19*3 gene polymorphism with breast cancer in Chinese women. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We looked for a possible association between human CYP2C19*3 gene polymorphism and breast cancer in the Chinese Han population...
  33. Mega J, Simon T, Collet J, Anderson J, Antman E, Bliden K, et al. Reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients treated with clopidogrel predominantly for PCI: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2010;304:1821-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest its pharmacologic effect varies based on CYP2C19 genotype, but there is uncertainty regarding the clinical risk imparted by specific genotypes...
  34. Li Y, Tang H, Hu Y, Xie H. The gain-of-function variant allele CYP2C19*17: a double-edged sword between thrombosis and bleeding in clopidogrel-treated patients. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:199-206 pubmed publisher
    A large number of clinical studies have documented that a loss-of-function variant CYP2C19*2 affects clinical profiles of clopidogrel (efficacy and safety)...
  35. Zendehdel N, Biramijamal F, Hossein Nezhad A, Zendehdel N, Sarie H, Doughaiemoghaddam M, et al. Role of cytochrome P450 2C19 genetic polymorphisms in the therapeutic efficacy of omeprazole in Iranian patients with erosive reflux esophagitis. Arch Iran Med. 2010;13:406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Omeprazole is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome p450 2c19 (CYP2C19) enzyme. Two common polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 gene affect CYP2C19 enzyme activity...
  36. Feng J, Li L, Zhao Y, Tang S, Yang H, Liu S. Interaction between CYP 2C19*3 polymorphism and smoking in relation to laryngeal carcinoma in the Chinese Han population. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..that smoking is the most important risk factor for laryngeal carcinoma, we examined the relationships between CYP2C19*3 polymorphism, smoking and laryngeal carcinoma in the Chinese Han population...
  37. Hulot J, Collet J, Silvain J, Pena A, Bellemain Appaix A, Barthelemy O, et al. Cardiovascular risk in clopidogrel-treated patients according to cytochrome P450 2C19*2 loss-of-function allele or proton pump inhibitor coadministration: a systematic meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:134-43 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the loss-of-function cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19)*2 variant (10 studies, 11,959 patients) or the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (13 studies, 48,674 patients) and ischemic ..
  38. Jang J, Cho K, Jin H, Seo J, Yang T, Kim D, et al. Meta-analysis of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among coronary artery disease patients of different ethnic groups treated with clopidogrel. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110:502-8 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function (LOF) variants of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) have been hypothesized to be associated with lesser degrees of platelet inhibition and increased risk for recurrent ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease ..
  39. Yadav S, Ruwali M, Pant M, Shukla P, Singh R, Parmar D. Interaction of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 2D6 poor metabolizers with cytochrome P450 2C9 and 2C19 genotypes modify the susceptibility to head and neck cancer and treatment response. Mutat Res. 2010;684:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..8) carrying combination of PM genotypes of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*2) or CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2), suggesting that synergism amongst the PM genotypes of drug metabolizing CYPs leads to impairment in ..
  40. Zhang L, Mei Q, Li Q, Hu Y, Xu J. The effect of cytochrome P2C19 and interleukin-1 polymorphisms on H. pylori eradication rate of 1-week triple therapy with omeprazole or rabeprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin in Chinese people. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2010;35:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CYP2C19 and IL-1 polymorphisms may affect the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy...
  41. Pedersen R, Brasch Andersen C, Sim S, Bergmann T, Halling J, Petersen M, et al. Linkage disequilibrium between the CYP2C19*17 allele and wildtype CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 alleles: identification of CYP2C haplotypes in healthy Nordic populations. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:1199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..five frequent and clinically important CYP2C allelic variants: the defective CYP2C8*3, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and CYP2C19*2 alleles, and the CYP2C19*17 allele that causes rapid drug metabolism...
  42. Ma Y, Ni W, Zhu W, Xiong Y, Deng X. Association of genetic polymorphisms of CYP 2C19 with hypertension in a Chinese Han population. Blood Press. 2011;20:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..subjects genotyped for two tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10509676 and rs11568732) of the human CYP2C19 gene by the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis...
  43. Kearns G, Leeder J, Gaedigk A. Impact of the CYP2C19*17 allele on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and pantoprazole in children: evidence for a differential effect. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:894-7 pubmed publisher
    The impact of the CYP2C19*17 allele on the pharmacokinetics of pantoprazole and omeprazole in previously studied children (n = 40) was explored...
  44. Sibbing D, Koch W, Gebhard D, Schuster T, Braun S, Stegherr J, et al. Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement. Circulation. 2010;121:512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 isoenzyme plays an important role in clopidogrel metabolization. A recently explored CYP2C19*17 allelic variant has been linked to increased transcriptional activity, resulting in extensive metabolization ..
  45. Jeong Y, Tantry U, Kim I, Koh J, Kwon T, Park Y, et al. Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *3 loss-of-function alleles on platelet reactivity and adverse clinical events in East Asian acute myocardial infarction survivors treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4:585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..with whites, East Asians more often carry the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) allele with the CYP2C19*3 variant...
  46. Goldstein J, Faletto M, Romkes Sparks M, Sullivan T, Kitareewan S, Raucy J, et al. Evidence that CYP2C19 is the major (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase in humans. Biochemistry. 1994;33:1743-52 pubmed
    ..16 human liver donor samples indicated that (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase activity correlated with the hepatic CYP2C19 content, but it did not correlate with the hepatic content of CYP2C9...
  47. Mega J, Close S, Wiviott S, Shen L, Hockett R, Brandt J, et al. Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In healthy subjects who were treated with clopidogrel, carriers of at least one CYP2C19 reduced-function allele (approximately 30% of the study population) had a relative reduction of 32...
  48. Rudberg I, Mohebi B, Hermann M, Refsum H, Molden E. Impact of the ultrarapid CYP2C19*17 allele on serum concentration of escitalopram in psychiatric patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83:322-7 pubmed
    Recently, a novel allelic variant of cytochrome P450 2C19 encoding ultrarapid enzyme activity was described (denoted CYP2C19*17)...
  49. Baldwin R, Ohlsson S, Pedersen R, Mwinyi J, Ingelman Sundberg M, Eliasson E, et al. Increased omeprazole metabolism in carriers of the CYP2C19*17 allele; a pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:767-74 pubmed publisher
    The only existing study of CYP2C19*17-associated alterations in drug pharmacokinetics was retrospective and compared probe drug metabolic ratios...
  50. Kim K, Park P, Hong S, Park J. The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel: a possible mechanism for clopidogrel resistance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84:236-42 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of the CYP2C19 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamcis of clopidogrel...
  51. Frere C, Cuisset T, Morange P, Quilici J, Camoin Jau L, Saut N, et al. Effect of cytochrome p450 polymorphisms on platelet reactivity after treatment with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101:1088-93 pubmed publisher
    ..to analyze, in 603 patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, the effect of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms on clopidogrel response and post-treatment platelet reactivity assessed by adenosine ..
  52. Wang G, Lei H, Li Z, Tan Z, Guo D, Fan L, et al. The CYP2C19 ultra-rapid metabolizer genotype influences the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in healthy male volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;65:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty healthy Chinese male volunteers were recruited for the study. Of these, four were CYP2C19 heterozygous URMs (*1/*17), eight were CYP2C19 homozygous EMs (*1/*1), and eight were CYP2C19 PMs (*2/*2)...
  53. Morita J, Kobayashi K, Wanibuchi A, Kimura M, Irie S, Ishizaki T, et al. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the CYP2C19 gene in a Japanese subject with lowered capacity of mephobarbital 4'-hydroxylation. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004;19:236-8 pubmed
    We sequenced all nine exons and exon-intron junctions of the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) gene from a Japanese subject with a lowered capacity of CYP2C19-mediated 4'-hydroxylation after an oral administration of mephobarbital...
  54. Bosch T, Doodeman V, Smits P, Meijerman I, Schellens J, Beijnen J. Pharmacogenetic screening for polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in a Dutch population. Mol Diagn Ther. 2006;10:175-85 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to explore the frequencies of polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, DPYD, UGT1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1) and drug transporters (ABCB1[MDR1] and ABCC2[MRP2]), ..
  55. Hulot J, Bura A, Villard E, Azizi M, Remones V, Goyenvalle C, et al. Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism is a major determinant of clopidogrel responsiveness in healthy subjects. Blood. 2006;108:2244-7 pubmed
    ..of genes coding for candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in clopidogrel metabolic activation (CYP2C19*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP1A2*1F, and CYP3A5*3 variants) influence the platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel, we conducted ..
  56. Inaba T, Mizuno M, Kawai K, Yokota K, Oguma K, Miyoshi M, et al. Randomized open trial for comparison of proton pump inhibitors in triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;17:748-53 pubmed
    ..However, in triple therapy (PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin), little is known about the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism, or the use of rabeprazole, which is not well metabolized by CYP2C19...
  57. Sugimoto K, Uno T, Tateishi T. Effects of the CYP3A5 genotype on omeprazole sulfoxidation in CYP2C19 PMs. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;64:583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..omeprazole sulfone were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography in blood samples drawn 4-5 h after 43 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (PMs) had ingested a single oral 40 mg dose of omeprazole...
  58. de Morais S, Wilkinson G, Blaisdell J, Nakamura K, Meyer U, Goldstein J. The major genetic defect responsible for the polymorphism of S-mephenytoin metabolism in humans. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15419-22 pubmed
    ..a number of other currently used drugs results from a defect in a cytochrome P450 enzyme recently identified as CYP2C19. Attempts over the past decade to define the molecular genetic basis of the polymorphism have, however, been ..
  59. Bravo Villalta H, Yamamoto K, Nakamura K, Baya A, Okada Y, Horiuchi R. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in a Bolivian population: an investigative and comparative study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;61:179-84 pubmed
    ..We estimated the distribution of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 common variants in the Bolivian population (a South American population), and compared these data with those from ..
  60. Xie H, Griskevicius L, Stahle L, Hassan Z, Yasar U, Rane A, et al. Pharmacogenetics of cyclophosphamide in patients with hematological malignancies. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006;27:54-61 pubmed
    ..The pharmacokinetics of CPA and its active metabolite were related to the genotype of CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. The influence of liver function on CPA metabolism was also evaluated...
  61. Padol S, Yuan Y, Thabane M, Padol I, Hunt R. The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on H. pylori eradication rate in dual and triple first-line PPI therapies: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1467-75 pubmed
    ..proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-related differences in Helicobacter pylori eradication rates are partly because of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and there have been conflicting data in this area...
  62. He N, Yan F, Huang S, Wang W, Xiao Z, Liu Z, et al. CYP2C19 genotype and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation phenotype in a Chinese Dai population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;58:15-8 pubmed
    To investigate the incidence of the CYP2C19 polymorphism in the Chinese Dai population. One hundred and ninety-three healthy Chinese Dai volunteers were identified with respect to CYP2C19 by genotype and phenotype analyses...