cyclin E


Gene Symbol: cyclin E
Description: cyclin E1
Alias: CCNE, pCCNE1, G1/S-specific cyclin-E1
Species: human
Products:     cyclin E

Top Publications

  1. Song H, Hogdall E, Ramus S, Dicioccio R, Hogdall C, Quaye L, et al. Effects of common germ-line genetic variation in cell cycle genes on ovarian cancer survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1090-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unlikely that common variants in cell cycle pathways examined above associated with moderate effect in survival after diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Much larger studies will be needed to exclude common variants with small effects. ..
  2. Welcker M, Singer J, Loeb K, Grim J, Bloecher A, Gurien West M, et al. Multisite phosphorylation by Cdk2 and GSK3 controls cyclin E degradation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:381-92 pubmed
    Autophosphorylation-triggered ubiquitination has been proposed to be the major pathway regulating cyclin E protein abundance: phosphorylation of cyclin E on T380 by its associated CDK allows binding to the receptor subunit, Fbw7, of the ..
  3. Strohmaier H, Spruck C, Kaiser P, Won K, Sangfelt O, Reed S. Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. Nature. 2001;413:316-22 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E, one of the activators of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2, is expressed near the G1-S phase transition and is thought to be critical for the initiation of DNA replication and other S-phase functions...
  4. Ekholm Reed S, Mendez J, Tedesco D, Zetterberg A, Stillman B, Reed S. Deregulation of cyclin E in human cells interferes with prereplication complex assembly. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:789-800 pubmed
    Deregulation of cyclin E expression has been associated with a broad spectrum of human malignancies...
  5. Ugland H, Boquest A, Naderi S, Collas P, Blomhoff H. cAMP-mediated induction of cyclin E sensitizes growth-arrested adipose stem cells to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5082-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitantly, however, the level of cyclin E markedly increases upon cAMP induction, indicating that cyclin E may have cdk2-independent functions in these ..
  6. Welcker M, Clurman B. Fbw7/hCDC4 dimerization regulates its substrate interactions. Cell Div. 2007;2:7 pubmed
    The Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase promotes the rapid degradation of several important oncogenes, such as cyclin E, c-Myc, c-Jun, and Notch. The two fission yeast homologs of Fbw7, pop1 and pop2, have previously been shown to dimerize...
  7. Sheaff R, Groudine M, Gordon M, Roberts J, Clurman B. Cyclin E-CDK2 is a regulator of p27Kip1. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1464-78 pubmed
    ..We show that expression of cyclin E-CDK2 in murine fibroblasts causes phosphorylation of the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 on T187, and that cyclin E-CDK2 ..
  8. Won K, Reed S. Activation of cyclin E/CDK2 is coupled to site-specific autophosphorylation and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin E. EMBO J. 1996;15:4182-93 pubmed
    A yeast screen was developed to identify mutations in human cyclin E that lead to stabilization of the protein in order to identify determinants important for cyclin E turnover...
  9. Bhaskaran N, van Drogen F, Ng H, Kumar R, Ekholm Reed S, Peter M, et al. Fbw7? and Fbw7? collaborate to shuttle cyclin E1 into the nucleolus for multiubiquitylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:85-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin ligase that targets phosphorylated cyclin E is SCF(Fbw7) (also known as SCF(Cdc4)), a member of the cullin ring ligase (CRL) family...

More Information


  1. Driver K, Song H, Lesueur F, Ahmed S, Barbosa Morais N, Tyrer J, et al. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the cell cycle genes with breast cancer in the British population. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..010, P-trend = 0.048). Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results. ..
  2. Shaye A, Sahin A, Hao Q, Hunt K, Keyomarsi K, Bedrosian I. Cyclin E deregulation is an early event in the development of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;115:651-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclin E has been shown to be overexpressed in some human breast cancers, however, data to support deregulation of cyclin E as an early event in human mammary tumor development is lacking...
  3. Demetrick D, Matsumoto S, Hannon G, Okamoto K, Xiong Y, Zhang H, et al. Chromosomal mapping of the genes for the human cell cycle proteins cyclin C (CCNC), cyclin E (CCNE), p21 (CDKN1) and KAP (CDKN3). Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;69:190-2 pubmed
    ..mapping by FISH of the genes for several cdk-associated proteins including human CCNC (cyclin C) to 6q21, CCNE (cyclin E) to 19q12-->q13, CDKN1 (p21) to 6p21.2 and CDKN3 (KAP to 14q22)...
  4. Mazumder S, Gong B, Almasan A. Cyclin E induction by genotoxic stress leads to apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. Oncogene. 2000;19:2828-35 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E is essential for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle and initiation of DNA replication by interacting with, and activating its catalytic partner, the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)...
  5. Bedrosian I, Lu K, Verschraegen C, Keyomarsi K. Cyclin E deregulation alters the biologic properties of ovarian cancer cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:2648-57 pubmed
    We have previously shown that the low molecular weight (LMW) forms (trunk 1 and trunk 2) of cyclin E are biochemically hyperactive and induce G1/S progression in normal epithelial cells...
  6. Nakayama N, Nakayama K, Shamima Y, Ishikawa M, Katagiri A, Iida K, et al. Gene amplification CCNE1 is related to poor survival and potential therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2010;116:2621-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that CCNE1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on amplification status of ovarian cancers. Therefore, CCNE1-targeted therapy may benefit ovarian cancer patients with CCNE1 amplification. ..
  7. Corin I, Larsson L, Bergström J, Gustavsson B, Derwinger K. A study of the expression of Cyclin E and its isoforms in tumor and adjacent mucosa, correlated to patient outcome in early colon cancer. Acta Oncol. 2010;49:63-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclin E, a key regulator in the cell cycle, is often over-expressed in malignant disease. It can present as full length (FL) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) isoforms...
  8. van Drogen F, Sangfelt O, Malyukova A, Matskova L, Yeh E, Means A, et al. Ubiquitylation of cyclin E requires the sequential function of SCF complexes containing distinct hCdc4 isoforms. Mol Cell. 2006;23:37-48 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), is targeted for proteasomal degradation by phosphorylation-dependent multiubiquitylation via the ubiquitin ligase SCF(hCdc4)...
  9. Wingate H, Zhang N, McGarhen M, Bedrosian I, Harper J, Keyomarsi K. The tumor-specific hyperactive forms of cyclin E are resistant to inhibition by p21 and p27. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15148-57 pubmed
    The low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms of cyclin E are unique to cancer cells. In breast cancer, such alteration of cyclin E is a very strong predictor of poor patient outcome...
  10. Hinds P, Mittnacht S, Dulic V, Arnold A, Reed S, Weinberg R. Regulation of retinoblastoma protein functions by ectopic expression of human cyclins. Cell. 1992;70:993-1006 pubmed cells overexpressing these cyclins, and this phosphorylation is essential for cyclin A- and cyclin E-mediated rescue of pRb-blocked cells...
  11. Rajagopalan H, Jallepalli P, Rago C, Velculescu V, Kinzler K, Vogelstein B, et al. Inactivation of hCDC4 can cause chromosomal instability. Nature. 2004;428:77-81 pubmed
    ..traced to a defect in the execution of metaphase and subsequent transmission of chromosomes, and is dependent on cyclin E--a protein that is regulated by hCDC4 (refs 2-4)...
  12. Keck J, Summers M, Tedesco D, Ekholm Reed S, Chuang L, Jackson P, et al. Cyclin E overexpression impairs progression through mitosis by inhibiting APC(Cdh1). J Cell Biol. 2007;178:371-85 pubmed
    Overexpression of cyclin E, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, has been linked to human cancer...
  13. Sieuwerts A, Look M, Meijer van Gelder M, Timmermans M, Trapman A, Garcia R, et al. Which cyclin E prevails as prognostic marker for breast cancer? Results from a retrospective study involving 635 lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3319-28 pubmed
    To evaluate the prognostic value of cyclin E with a quantitative method for lymph node-negative primary breast cancer patients...
  14. Geng Y, Lee Y, Welcker M, Swanger J, Zagozdzon A, Winer J, et al. Kinase-independent function of cyclin E. Mol Cell. 2007;25:127-39 pubmed
    ..We previously found that cyclin E-null cells failed to incorporate MCM helicase into DNA prereplication complex during G(0) --> S phase ..
  15. Thompson B, Buonamici S, Sulis M, Palomero T, Vilimas T, Basso G, et al. The SCFFBW7 ubiquitin ligase complex as a tumor suppressor in T cell leukemia. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1825-35 pubmed
    ..abrogate the binding of FBW7 not only to NOTCH1 but also to the two other characterized targets, c-Myc and cyclin E. The majority of the FBW7 mutations were present during relapse, and they were associated with NOTCH1 HD ..
  16. Ma Y, Fiering S, Black C, Liu X, Yuan Z, Memoli V, et al. Transgenic cyclin E triggers dysplasia and multiple pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4089-94 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E is a critical G(1)-S cell cycle regulator aberrantly expressed in bronchial premalignancy and lung cancer. Cyclin E expression negatively affects lung cancer prognosis. Its role in lung carcinogenesis was explored...
  17. Lew D, Dulic V, Reed S. Isolation of three novel human cyclins by rescue of G1 cyclin (Cln) function in yeast. Cell. 1991;66:1197-206 pubmed
    ..Cyclin C and E mRNAs accumulate periodically through the cell cycle, peaking at different times in G1. ..
  18. Clurman B, Sheaff R, Thress K, Groudine M, Roberts J. Turnover of cyclin E by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is regulated by cdk2 binding and cyclin phosphorylation. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1979-90 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E is a mammalian G1 cyclin that is both required and rate limiting for entry into S phase. The expression of cyclin E is periodic, peaking at the G1-S transition and then decaying as S phase progresses...
  19. Harbour J, Luo R, Dei Santi A, Postigo A, Dean D. Cdk phosphorylation triggers sequential intramolecular interactions that progressively block Rb functions as cells move through G1. Cell. 1999;98:859-69 pubmed
    ..Cdk4/6 is activated early in G1, blocking active repression by Rb. However, it is not until near the end of G1, when cyclin E is expressed and Cdk2 is activated, that Rb is prevented from binding and inactivating E2F.
  20. Orlicky S, Tang X, Willems A, Tyers M, Sicheri F. Structural basis for phosphodependent substrate selection and orientation by the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase. Cell. 2003;112:243-56 pubmed
    ..A 2.7 A X-ray crystal structure of a Skp1-Cdc4 complex bound to a high-affinity CPD phosphopeptide from human cyclin E reveals a core CPD motif, Leu-Leu-pThr-Pro, bound to an eight-bladed WD40 propeller domain in Cdc4...
  21. Mazumder S, DuPree E, Almasan A. A dual role of cyclin E in cell proliferation and apoptosis may provide a target for cancer therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004;4:65-75 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E is essential for progression through the G1-phase of the cell cycle and initiation of DNA replication by interacting with and activating its catalytic partner, the cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)...
  22. Goode E, Fridley B, Vierkant R, Cunningham J, Phelan C, Anderson S, et al. Candidate gene analysis using imputed genotypes: cell cycle single-nucleotide polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:935-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results exemplify the utility of imputation in candidate gene studies and lend evidence to a role of cell cycle genes in ovarian cancer etiology, suggest a reduced set of SNPs to target in additional cases and controls. ..
  23. Hao B, Oehlmann S, Sowa M, Harper J, Pavletich N. Structure of a Fbw7-Skp1-cyclin E complex: multisite-phosphorylated substrate recognition by SCF ubiquitin ligases. Mol Cell. 2007;26:131-43 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of cyclin E plays a central role in cell-cycle progression, and cyclin E accumulation is a common event in cancer...
  24. Rothman N, Garcia Closas M, Chatterjee N, Malats N, Wu X, Figueroa J, et al. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2010;42:978-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. ..
  25. Minella A, Welcker M, Clurman B. Ras activity regulates cyclin E degradation by the Fbw7 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9649-54 pubmed
    The Skp1-Cullin1 F-box protein-Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase regulates phosphorylation-dependent cyclin E degradation, and disruption of this pathway is associated with genetic instability and tumorigenesis...
  26. Potemski P, Kusinska R, Watala C, Pluciennik E, Bednarek A, Kordek R. Cyclin E expression in breast cancer correlates with negative steroid receptor status, HER2 expression, tumor grade and proliferation. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2006;25:59-64 pubmed
    The main objective of this retrospective study was to investigate relations between cyclin E and pathoclinical factors in patients with operable breast cancer...
  27. Spruck C, Won K, Reed S. Deregulated cyclin E induces chromosome instability. Nature. 1999;401:297-300 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E, a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), is an important regulator of entry into S phase in the mammalian cell cycle...
  28. Azzato E, Driver K, Lesueur F, Shah M, Greenberg D, Easton D, et al. Effects of common germline genetic variation in cell cycle control genes on breast cancer survival: results from a population-based cohort. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10:R47 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that CCND3 rs2479717, or another variant it tags, is associated with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Further study is required to validate this finding. ..
  29. Mittendorf E, Tucker S, McKenzie T, Qiao N, Akli S, Biernacka A, et al. A novel interaction between HER2/neu and cyclin E in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2010;29:3896-907 pubmed publisher
    HER2/neu (HER2) and cyclin E are important prognostic indicators in breast cancer. As both are involved in cell cycle regulation we analyzed whether there was a direct interaction between the two...
  30. Lodén M, Stighall M, Nielsen N, Roos G, Emdin S, Ostlund H, et al. The cyclin D1 high and cyclin E high subgroups of breast cancer: separate pathways in tumorogenesis based on pattern of genetic aberrations and inactivation of the pRb node. Oncogene. 2002;21:4680-90 pubmed
    ..cyclin D1 and elevated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation, (cyclin D1(high) tumours) or (2) with high cyclin E protein but low cyclin D1 and lack of corresponding pRb phosphorylation (cyclin E(high) tumours) indicative of an ..
  31. Koff A, Cross F, Fisher A, Schumacher J, LeGuellec K, Philippe M, et al. Human cyclin E, a new cyclin that interacts with two members of the CDC2 gene family. Cell. 1991;66:1217-28 pubmed
    A new human cyclin, named cyclin E, was isolated by complementation of a triple cln deletion in S. cerevisiae...
  32. Gayther S, Song H, Ramus S, Kjaer S, Whittemore A, Quaye L, et al. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in cell cycle control genes and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:3027-35 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the need for multicenter collaborations for genetic association studies. ..
  33. Singer J, Gurian West M, Clurman B, Roberts J. Cullin-3 targets cyclin E for ubiquitination and controls S phase in mammalian cells. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2375-87 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E is an unstable protein that is degraded in a ubiquitin- and proteasome- dependent pathway. Two factors stimulate cyclin E ubiquitination in vivo: when it is free of its CDK partner, and when it is phosphorylated on threonine 380...
  34. Matsumoto Y, Maller J. A centrosomal localization signal in cyclin E required for Cdk2-independent S phase entry. Science. 2004;306:885-8 pubmed
    Excess cyclin E-Cdk2 accelerates entry into S phase of the cell cycle and promotes polyploidy, which may contribute to genomic instability in cancer cells...
  35. Otto T, Horn S, Brockmann M, Eilers U, Schüttrumpf L, Popov N, et al. Stabilization of N-Myc is a critical function of Aurora A in human neuroblastoma. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Aurora A interacts with both N-Myc and the SCF(Fbxw7) ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates N-Myc and counteracts degradation of N-Myc, thereby uncoupling N-Myc stability from growth factor-dependent signals. ..
  36. Jackman M, Kubota Y, den Elzen N, Hagting A, Pines J. Cyclin A- and cyclin E-Cdk complexes shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1030-45 pubmed
    ..However, recently, both cyclin A and cyclin E have been implicated as regulators of centrosome replication, and it is unclear when and where these cyclin-Cdks ..
  37. Mull B, Cox J, Bui T, Keyomarsi K. Post-translational modification and stability of low molecular weight cyclin E. Oncogene. 2009;28:3167-76 pubmed publisher
    Our laboratory has previously described the presence of five tumor-specific low molecular weight isoforms of cyclin E in both tumor cell lines and breast cancer patient biopsies...
  38. Agarwal R, Gonzalez Angulo A, Myhre S, Carey M, Lee J, Overgaard J, et al. Integrative analysis of cyclin protein levels identifies cyclin b1 as a classifier and predictor of outcomes in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclins B1, D1, and E1 have distinct expressions in different breast cancer subtypes. Novel PLK, CENPE, and AURKB inhibitors should be assessed for therapeutic utility in poor prognosis cyclin B1-overexpressing breast cancers. ..
  39. Saha A, Deshaies R. Multimodal activation of the ubiquitin ligase SCF by Nedd8 conjugation. Mol Cell. 2008;32:21-31 pubmed publisher
  40. Koff A, Giordano A, Desai D, Yamashita K, Harper J, Elledge S, et al. Formation and activation of a cyclin E-cdk2 complex during the G1 phase of the human cell cycle. Science. 1992;257:1689-94 pubmed
    Human cyclin E, originally identified on the basis of its ability to function as a G1 cyclin in budding yeast, associated with a cell cycle-regulated protein kinase in human cells...
  41. Ohtsubo M, Theodoras A, Schumacher J, Roberts J, Pagano M. Human cyclin E, a nuclear protein essential for the G1-to-S phase transition. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2612-24 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E was first identified by screening human cDNA libraries for genes that would complement G1 cyclin mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has subsequently been found to have specific biochemical and physiological properties that ..
  42. Nateri A, Riera Sans L, Da Costa C, Behrens A. The ubiquitin ligase SCFFbw7 antagonizes apoptotic JNK signaling. Science. 2004;303:1374-8 pubmed
    ..SCF(Fbw7) therefore antagonizes the apoptotic c-Jun-dependent effector arm of JNK signaling, allowing neurons to tolerate potentially neurotoxic JNK activity. ..
  43. Moberg K, Bell D, Wahrer D, Haber D, Hariharan I. Archipelago regulates Cyclin E levels in Drosophila and is mutated in human cancer cell lines. Nature. 2001;413:311-6 pubmed
    ..embryogenesis, exit from the cell cycle is contingent on tightly controlled downregulation of the activity of Cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes that normally promote the transition from G1 to S phase...
  44. Koepp D, Schaefer L, Ye X, Keyomarsi K, Chu C, Harper J, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of cyclin E by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. Science. 2001;294:173-7 pubmed
    b>Cyclin E binds and activates the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 and catalyzes the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle...
  45. Lukas J, Herzinger T, Hansen K, Moroni M, Resnitzky D, Helin K, et al. Cyclin E-induced S phase without activation of the pRb/E2F pathway. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1479-92 pubmed
    In cells of higher eukaryotes, cyclin D-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6 and, possibly, cyclin E-dependent Cdk2 positively regulate the G1- to S-phase transition, by phosphorylating the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), thereby releasing E2F ..
  46. Nagahama H, Minamishima Y, Matsumoto M, Nakamichi I, Kitagawa K, Shirane M, et al. Targeted disruption of Skp2 results in accumulation of cyclin E and p27(Kip1), polyploidy and centrosome overduplication. EMBO J. 2000;19:2069-81 pubmed
    ..Skp2(-/-) cells also exhibit increased accumulation of both cyclin E and p27(Kip1)...
  47. Vlach J, Hennecke S, Amati B. Phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. EMBO J. 1997;16:5334-44 pubmed
    ..Through its intact cyclin contact, p27(k-) associated with active cyclin E-CDK2 and, unlike wild type p27, p27(c-) or p27(ck-), was efficiently phosphorylated by CDK2 on a conserved C-..
  48. Ye X, Nalepa G, Welcker M, Kessler B, Spooner E, Qin J, et al. Recognition of phosphodegron motifs in human cyclin E by the SCF(Fbw7) ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50110-9 pubmed
    Turnover of cyclin E is controlled by SCF(Fbw7). Three isoforms of Fbw7 are produced by alternative splicing...
  49. Mazumder S, Plesca D, Kinter M, Almasan A. Interaction of a cyclin E fragment with Ku70 regulates Bax-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3511-20 pubmed
    The cyclin E/Cdk2 complex plays an essential role in the G(1)/S cell cycle transition and DNA replication...
  50. Vimalraj S, Selvamurugan N. Regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in human osteoblastic cells by microRNA-15b. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;79:490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant effect was found on apoptosis of MG63 cells with miR-15b inhibitor. Thus, these findings provide new insights in understanding the role of miR-15b expression as negative regulator of osteoblast proliferation. ..
  51. Martins C, Camargo R, Saggioro F, Neder L, Machado H, Moreira A, et al. P27/CDKN1B Translational Regulators in Pituitary Tumorigenesis. Horm Metab Res. 2016;48:840-846 pubmed
  52. Syu J, Baba T, Huang J, Ogawa H, Hsieh C, Hu J, et al. Lysosomal activity maintains glycolysis and cyclin E1 expression by mediating Ad4BP/SF-1 stability for proper steroidogenic cell growth. Sci Rep. 2017;7:240 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, treatment of zebrafish embryo with lysosomal inhibitor reduced the levels of the interrenal (adrenal) gland markers. Thus lysosomal activity maintains steroidogenic cell growth via stabilizing Ad4BP/SF-1 protein. ..
  53. Lauper N, Beck A, Cariou S, Richman L, Hofmann K, Reith W, et al. Cyclin E2: a novel CDK2 partner in the late G1 and S phases of the mammalian cell cycle. Oncogene. 1998;17:2637-43 pubmed
    ..Cyclin E2/CKD2 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes phosphorylate histone H1 in vitro with similar specific activities and both are inhibited by ..
  54. Xu X, Nakano T, Wick S, Dubay M, Brizuela L. Mechanism of Cdk2/Cyclin E inhibition by p27 and p27 phosphorylation. Biochemistry. 1999;38:8713-22 pubmed
    The biochemical interactions between the Cdk2/Cyclin E kinase and its inhibitor p27, were investigated using purified, recombinant p27 and CAK-phosphorylated Cdk2/Cyclin E...
  55. Musgrove E, Sarcevic B, Sutherland R. Inducible expression of cyclin D1 in T-47D human breast cancer cells is sufficient for Cdk2 activation and pRB hyperphosphorylation. J Cell Biochem. 1996;60:363-78 pubmed
    ..In mitogen-stimulated cells cyclin D1 induction in early G1 is followed by induction of cyclin E, activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2, and hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB)..
  56. Dehde S, Rohaly G, Schub O, Nasheuer H, Bohn W, Chemnitz J, et al. Two immunologically distinct human DNA polymerase alpha-primase subpopulations are involved in cellular DNA replication. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2581-93 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle studies showed that the hypophosphorylated form was found in a complex with PP2A and cyclin E-Cdk2 in G1, whereas the phosphorylated enzyme was associated with a cyclin A kinase in S and G2...
  57. Zhan Y, Guo J, Yang W, Goncalves C, Rzymski T, Dreas A, et al. MNK1/2 inhibition limits oncogenicity and metastasis of KIT-mutant melanoma. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4179-4192 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies indicate that blocking MNK1/2 exerts potent antimelanoma effects and support blocking MNK1/2 as a potential strategy to treat patients positive for KIT mutations...
  58. Hu P, Guan K, Feng Y, Ma C, Song H, Li Y, et al. miR-638 Inhibits immature Sertoli cell growth by indirectly inactivating PI3K/AKT pathway via SPAG1 gene. Cell Cycle. 2017;:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that miR-638 regulates immature Sertoli cell growth and apoptosis by targeting SPAG1 gene which can indirectly inactivate PI3K/AKT pathway, and plays roles in pig spermatogenesis...