cyclin B1


Gene Symbol: cyclin B1
Description: cyclin B1
Alias: CCNB, G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1
Species: human
Products:     cyclin B1

Top Publications

  1. Aaltonen K, Amini R, Heikkila P, Aittomaki K, Tamminen A, Nevanlinna H, et al. High cyclin B1 expression is associated with poor survival in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclin B1 regulates the G(2)-M transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin B1 expression is higher in premalignant and malignant than normal breast lesions...
  2. Marais A, Ji Z, Child E, Krause E, Mann D, Sharrocks A. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 by CDK·cyclin complexes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These two CDK sites appear vital for FOXK2 function because expression of a mutant lacking these sites cannot be tolerated and causes apoptosis. ..
  3. Parker L, Piwnica Worms H. Inactivation of the p34cdc2-cyclin B complex by the human WEE1 tyrosine kinase. Science. 1992;257:1955-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the product of the WEE1Hu gene directly regulates the p34cdc2-cyclin B complex in human cells and that a kinase other than that encoded by WEE1Hu phosphorylates p34cdc2 on threonine 14. ..
  4. Wu T, Merbl Y, Huo Y, Gallop J, Tzur A, Kirschner M. UBE2S drives elongation of K11-linked ubiquitin chains by the anaphase-promoting complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..UBE2S copurifies with APC; dominant-negative Ube2S slows down APC substrate degradation in functional cell-cycle extracts. We propose that Ube2S is a critical, unique component of the APC ubiquitination pathway. ..
  5. D Angiolella V, Palazzo L, Santarpia C, Costanzo V, Grieco D. Role for non-proteolytic control of M-phase-promoting factor activity at M-phase exit. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e247 pubmed
    ..By sampling extracts at very short intervals during both meiotic and mitotic exit, we found that cyclin B1-associated cdk1 underwent transient inhibitory phosphorylation at tyr-15 and that cyclin B1-cdk1 activity fell ..
  6. Chang D, Xu N, Luo K. Degradation of cyclin B is required for the onset of anaphase in Mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37865-73 pubmed
    Recently, it has been shown that cyclin B1 was degraded mainly before the onset of anaphase in mammalian cells. When a nondegradable form of cyclin B1 was introduced into cells, the metaphase-anaphase transition was blocked...
  7. Hagting A, Jackman M, Simpson K, Pines J. Translocation of cyclin B1 to the nucleus at prophase requires a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear import signal. Curr Biol. 1999;9:680-9 pubmed
    At M phase, cyclin B1 is phosphorylated in the cytoplasmic retention sequence (CRS), which is required for nuclear export...
  8. Agarwal R, Gonzalez Angulo A, Myhre S, Carey M, Lee J, Overgaard J, et al. Integrative analysis of cyclin protein levels identifies cyclin b1 as a classifier and predictor of outcomes in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas cyclin E1 overexpression was a specific marker of triple-negative and basal-like tumors, cyclin B1 overexpression occurred in poor prognosis hormone receptor-positive, luminal B and basal-like breast cancers...
  9. Gavet O, Pines J. Activation of cyclin B1-Cdk1 synchronizes events in the nucleus and the cytoplasm at mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..What triggers the nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1 is presently unclear, although the prevailing view is that the Plk1 kinase inhibits its nuclear export...

More Information


  1. Seo H, Lee D, Lee H, Baek M, Bae S, Soh J, et al. Cyclin G1 overcomes radiation-induced G2 arrest and increases cell death through transcriptional activation of cyclin B1. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1475-84 pubmed hitherto unknown mechanism by which cyclin G1 increases radiation sensitivity by regulating the level of cyclin B1. Overexpression of cyclin G1 was observable in lung carcinoma tissues...
  2. Bolton D, Barnitz R, Sakai K, Lenardo M. 14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr. Biol Direct. 2008;3:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data reveal a new facet of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest involving previously unrecognized abnormal rearrangements of multiprotein assemblies containing key cell cycle regulatory proteins. ..
  3. Di Marzio P, Choe S, Ebright M, Knoblauch R, Landau N. Mutational analysis of cell cycle arrest, nuclear localization and virion packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr. J Virol. 1995;69:7909-16 pubmed
    ..We speculate that Vpr has two sites for interaction with cellular factors: one in the alpha-helical region that specifies nuclear localization and one in the carboxy-terminal domain that is required for Cdc2 inhibition. ..
  4. Miller J, Summers M, Hansen D, Nachury M, Lehman N, Loktev A, et al. Emi1 stably binds and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2410-20 pubmed
    ..The combination of a degron/E3 recognition site and an anti-ligase function in Emi1 suggests a general model for how E3 substrates evolve to become pseudosubstrate inhibitors. ..
  5. Garnett M, Mansfeld J, Godwin C, Matsusaka T, Wu J, Russell P, et al. UBE2S elongates ubiquitin chains on APC/C substrates to promote mitotic exit. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, UBE2S functions with the APC/C in a two-step mechanism to control substrate ubiquitylation that is essential for mitotic exit after prolonged SAC activation, providing a new model for APC/C function in human cells. ..
  6. Soni D, Sramkoski R, Lam M, Stefan T, Jacobberger J. Cyclin B1 is rate limiting but not essential for mitotic entry and progression in mammalian somatic cells. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1285-300 pubmed
    b>Cyclin B1 should have some rate limiting function for cell cycle progression. To test this, we measured the effect of siRNA-mediated depletion of cyclin B1 on mitotic entry and timing...
  7. Yuan J, Eckerdt F, Bereiter Hahn J, Kurunci Csacsko E, Kaufmann M, Strebhardt K. Cooperative phosphorylation including the activity of polo-like kinase 1 regulates the subcellular localization of cyclin B1. Oncogene. 2002;21:8282-92 pubmed
    The cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdc2)/cyclin B1 complex performs cardinal roles for eukaryotic mitotic progression...
  8. Gavet O, Pines J. Progressive activation of CyclinB1-Cdk1 coordinates entry to mitosis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:533-43 pubmed publisher
  9. Felzien L, Woffendin C, Hottiger M, Subbramanian R, Cohen E, Nabel G. HIV transcriptional activation by the accessory protein, VPR, is mediated by the p300 co-activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5281-6 pubmed
    ..Vpr causes arrest of cell cycle progression at G2/M, presumably through its effect on cyclin B1.Cdc2 activity...
  10. Jackman M, Lindon C, Nigg E, Pines J. Active cyclin B1-Cdk1 first appears on centrosomes in prophase. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:143-8 pubmed
    b>Cyclin B1-Cdk1 is the key initiator of mitosis, but when and where activation occurs has not been precisely determined in mammalian cells...
  11. Timofeev O, Cizmecioglu O, Settele F, Kempf T, Hoffmann I. Cdc25 phosphatases are required for timely assembly of CDK1-cyclin B at the G2/M transition. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16978-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that complex assembly and dephosphorylation of Cdk1 at G(2)/M is tightly coupled and regulated by Cdc25 phosphatases. ..
  12. Gong D, Ferrell J. The roles of cyclin A2, B1, and B2 in early and late mitotic events. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3149-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin A2 is required for the activation and nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1-Cdk1, raising the possibility that cyclin B1-Cdk1 mediates the effects of cyclin A2...
  13. Tang L, Wang T, Wu Y, Zhou C, Huang H. High expression levels of cyclin B1 and Polo-like kinase 1 in ectopic endometrial cells associated with abnormal cell cycle regulation of endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:979-87 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the possible roles of cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdc2) and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. A case-control study. University hospital...
  14. Yang J, Bardes E, Moore J, Brennan J, Powers M, Kornbluth S. Control of cyclin B1 localization through regulated binding of the nuclear export factor CRM1. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2131-43 pubmed
    Activation of the Cyclin B/Cdc2 kinase complex triggers entry into mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B1 localization changes dramatically during the cell cycle, precipitously transiting from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the ..
  15. Izawa D, Pines J. How APC/C-Cdc20 changes its substrate specificity in mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:223-33 pubmed publisher, Cdc20 (cell division cycle 20), to block the degradation of metaphase substrates (for example, cyclin B1 and securin), but not others (for example, cyclin A). How this is achieved is unclear...
  16. Sedgwick G, Hayward D, Di Fiore B, Pardo M, Yu L, Pines J, et al. Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. EMBO J. 2013;32:303-14 pubmed publisher
  17. O Connor P, Ferris D, Pagano M, Draetta G, Pines J, Hunter T, et al. G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8298-308 pubmed
    ..HN2-induced a protracted delay in G2 phase. This delay correlated with suppression of cyclin B1- and cdc2-kinase activities, and stabilization of hyperphosphorylated-cdc2 in the presence of similar cyclin B1 ..
  18. Lindqvist A, van Zon W, Karlsson Rosenthal C, Wolthuis R. Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome separation to control mitotic progression. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e123 pubmed
    Activation of cyclin B1-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), triggered by a positive feedback loop at the end of G2, is the key event that initiates mitotic entry...
  19. Pines J, Hunter T. Isolation of a human cyclin cDNA: evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2. Cell. 1989;58:833-46 pubmed
    ..In G2/M phase, cyclin is associated with p34cdc2, the human homolog of the fission yeast gene cdc2+, and this complex has histone H1 kinase activity. ..
  20. He J, Choe S, Walker R, Di Marzio P, Morgan D, Landau N. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by inhibiting p34cdc2 activity. J Virol. 1995;69:6705-11 pubmed
    ..In vivo, Vpr might, by preventing p34cdc2 activation, delay or prevent apoptosis of infected cells. This would increase the amount of virus each infected cell produced. ..
  21. Yudkovsky Y, Shteinberg M, Listovsky T, Brandeis M, Hershko A. Phosphorylation of Cdc20/fizzy negatively regulates the mammalian cyclosome/APC in the mitotic checkpoint. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:299-304 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc20/Fizzy may have a role in keeping the cyclosome inactive in early mitosis and under conditions of mitotic checkpoint arrest. ..
  22. Hoffmann T, Trellakis S, Okulicz K, Schuler P, Greve J, Arnolds J, et al. Cyclin B1 expression and p53 status in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:3151-7 pubmed
    The cyclin B1/CDC2 complex governs entry into mitosis by regulating the G(2)/M checkpoint, and it can be repressed by the tumor suppressor p53...
  23. Kirkpatrick D, Hathaway N, Hanna J, Elsasser S, Rush J, Finley D, et al. Quantitative analysis of in vitro ubiquitinated cyclin B1 reveals complex chain topology. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:700-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we used a reconstituted system and quantitative mass spectrometry to demonstrate that cyclin B1 is modified by ubiquitin chains of complex topology, rather than by homogeneous Lys 48-linked chains...
  24. Santos S, Wollman R, Meyer T, Ferrell J. Spatial positive feedback at the onset of mitosis. Cell. 2012;149:1500-13 pubmed publisher
    Mitosis is triggered by the activation of Cdk1-cyclin B1 and its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
  25. Shen M, Stukenberg P, Kirschner M, Lu K. The essential mitotic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds and regulates mitosis-specific phosphoproteins. Genes Dev. 1998;12:706-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pin1 likely acts as a general regulator of mitotic proteins that have been phosphorylated by Cdc2 and other mitotic kinases. ..
  26. Liu F, Stanton J, Wu Z, Piwnica Worms H. The human Myt1 kinase preferentially phosphorylates Cdc2 on threonine 14 and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:571-83 pubmed
    ..A stretch of hydrophobic and uncharged amino acids located outside the catalytic domain of Myt1Hu is the likely membrane-targeting domain, as its deletion results in the localization of Myt1Hu primarily to the nucleus. ..
  27. Tian W, Li B, Warrington R, Tomchick D, Yu H, Luo X. Structural analysis of human Cdc20 supports multisite degron recognition by APC/C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..complex/cyclosome (APC/C) promotes anaphase onset and mitotic exit through ubiquitinating securin and cyclin B1. The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--..
  28. Bellanger S, de Gramont A, Sobczak Thepot J. Cyclin B2 suppresses mitotic failure and DNA re-replication in human somatic cells knocked down for both cyclins B1 and B2. Oncogene. 2007;26:7175-84 pubmed
    ..of these cyclins in CDK1 activation, but cyclin B2 is thought to play a minor role and to be unable to replace cyclin B1 for mitosis completion...
  29. Ohta T, Okamoto K, Isohashi F, Shibata K, Fukuda M, Yamaguchi S, et al. T-loop deletion of CDC2 from breast cancer tissues eliminates binding to cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Cancer Res. 1998;58:1095-8 pubmed
    ..CDC2deltaT protein is unable to complex with cyclin B1 and lacks histone H1 kinase activity. CDC2deltaT also fails to bind to the CDK inhibitor p21...
  30. Harley M, Allan L, Sanderson H, Clarke P. Phosphorylation of Mcl-1 by CDK1-cyclin B1 initiates its Cdc20-dependent destruction during mitotic arrest. EMBO J. 2010;29:2407-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of Thr92 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-cyclin B1 initiates degradation of Mcl-1 in cells arrested in mitosis by microtubule poisons...
  31. Bembenek J, Yu H. Regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex by the dual specificity phosphatase human Cdc14a. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:48237-42 pubmed
    ..hCdc14a is a major phosphatase for hCdh1 and localizes to centrosomes in HeLa cells. Therefore, hCdc14a may promote the activation of APC(Cdh1) and exit from mitosis in mammalian cells. ..
  32. Tang Z, Li B, Bharadwaj R, Zhu H, Ozkan E, Hakala K, et al. APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:3839-51 pubmed
    ..a heterodimeric complex of APC2 and APC11 is sufficient to catalyze the ubiquitination of human securin and cyclin B1. However, the minimal APC2/11 ubiquitin ligase module does not possess substrate specificity, because it also ..
  33. Dimova N, Hathaway N, Lee B, Kirkpatrick D, Berkowitz M, Gygi S, et al. APC/C-mediated multiple monoubiquitylation provides an alternative degradation signal for cyclin B1. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..complex or cyclosome (APC/C) initiates mitotic exit by ubiquitylating cell-cycle regulators such as cyclin B1 and securin...
  34. Zhan Q, Antinore M, Wang X, Carrier F, Smith M, Harris C, et al. Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45. Oncogene. 1999;18:2892-900 pubmed
    ..While inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 and suppression of cyclin B1 levels are known to be involved in G2 delays after genotoxic stress, Gadd45 has now been found to directly ..
  35. Re F, Braaten D, Franke E, Luban J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B. J Virol. 1995;69:6859-64 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that HIV-1 vpr has profound effects on the cellular factors which control entry into mitosis and indicate vpr's potential contribution to the cellular pathology associated with HIV-1 infection. ..
  36. Xu N, Chang D. Different thresholds of MPF inactivation are responsible for controlling different mitotic events in mammalian cell division. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:1639-45 pubmed
    ..The key temporal control here is the degradation of cyclin B1. Using single cell analysis, we measured the kinetics of cyclin B1 degradation and determined quantitatively the ..
  37. Huang X, Summers M, Pham V, Lill J, Liu J, Lee G, et al. Deubiquitinase USP37 is activated by CDK2 to antagonize APC(CDH1) and promote S phase entry. Mol Cell. 2011;42:511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..USP37 was inactive in mitosis because it was no longer phosphorylated by CDK2. Indeed, it switched from an antagonist to a substrate of APC(CDH1) and was modified with degradative K11-linked polyubiquitin. ..
  38. Larochelle S, Merrick K, Terret M, Wohlbold L, Barboza N, Zhang C, et al. Requirements for Cdk7 in the assembly of Cdk1/cyclin B and activation of Cdk2 revealed by chemical genetics in human cells. Mol Cell. 2007;25:839-50 pubmed
    ..Therefore, by combining chemical genetics and homologous gene replacement in somatic cells, we reveal different modes of CDK activation by Cdk7 at two distinct execution points in the cell cycle. ..
  39. Jowett J, Planelles V, Poon B, Shah N, Chen M, Chen I. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr gene arrests infected T cells in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle. J Virol. 1995;69:6304-13 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle arrest induced by Vpr correlates with an increase in the hyperphosphorylated (inactive) form of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine kinase CDC2, consistent with an arrest of cells at the boundary of G2 and M. ..
  40. Kraft C, Vodermaier H, Maurer Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters J. The WD40 propeller domain of Cdh1 functions as a destruction box receptor for APC/C substrates. Mol Cell. 2005;18:543-53 pubmed
    ..Our data imply that APC/C is activated by the association of Cdh1 with Cdc27, which enables APC/C to recognize the D box of substrates via Cdh1's propeller domain. ..
  41. Vodermaier H, Gieffers C, Maurer Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters J. TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1459-68 pubmed
    ..In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10. ..
  42. Jackman M, Firth M, Pines J. Human cyclins B1 and B2 are localized to strikingly different structures: B1 to microtubules, B2 primarily to the Golgi apparatus. EMBO J. 1995;14:1646-54 pubmed
    ..b>Cyclin B1 and B2 levels are very low in G1 phase, increase in S and G2 phases and peak at mitosis...
  43. Begnami M, Fregnani J, Nonogaki S, Soares F. Evaluation of cell cycle protein expression in gastric cancer: cyclin B1 expression and its prognostic implication. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffuse carcinomas frequently were positive for cyclin B1 and pRb, and negative for p21. A relationship between p53 expression and intestinal type carcinomas was found...
  44. Pines J, Hunter T. Human cyclins A and B1 are differentially located in the cell and undergo cell cycle-dependent nuclear transport. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:1-17 pubmed
    ..By contrast, cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm of interphase cells and only enters the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis, before ..
  45. Allan L, Clarke P. Phosphorylation of caspase-9 by CDK1/cyclin B1 protects mitotic cells against apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2007;26:301-10 pubmed
    ..This site is phosphorylated by CDK1/cyclin B1 during mitosis and in response to microtubule poisons that arrest cells at this stage of the cell cycle...
  46. Bentley A, Normand G, Hoyt J, King R. Distinct sequence elements of cyclin B1 promote localization to chromatin, centrosomes, and kinetochores during mitosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4847-58 pubmed
    ..During mitosis, cyclin B1 is known to localize to centrosomes, microtubules, and chromatin...
  47. Chen Q, Zhang X, Jiang Q, Clarke P, Zhang C. Cyclin B1 is localized to unattached kinetochores and contributes to efficient microtubule attachment and proper chromosome alignment during mitosis. Cell Res. 2008;18:268-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclin B1 is a key regulatory protein controlling cell cycle progression in vertebrates...
  48. Levesque A, Fanous A, Poh A, Eastman A. Defective p53 signaling in p53 wild-type tumors attenuates p21waf1 induction and cyclin B repression rendering them sensitive to Chk1 inhibitors that abrogate DNA damage-induced S and G2 arrest. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:252-62 pubmed publisher
  49. Laoukili J, Kooistra M, Bras A, Kauw J, Kerkhoven R, Morrison A, et al. FoxM1 is required for execution of the mitotic programme and chromosome stability. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:126-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data uncover a transcriptional cluster regulated by FoxM1 that is essential for proper mitotic progression. ..
  50. Nishiyama A, Tachibana K, Igarashi Y, Yasuda H, Tanahashi N, Tanaka K, et al. A nonproteolytic function of the proteasome is required for the dissociation of Cdc2 and cyclin B at the end of M phase. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2344-57 pubmed
    ..As a result, cyclin B levels decrease on exit from M phase but Cdc2 levels remain constant. ..
  51. Li Z, Xia L, Lee L, Khaletskiy A, Wang J, Wong J, et al. Effector genes altered in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells after exposure to fractionated ionizing radiation. Radiat Res. 2001;155:543-53 pubmed
  52. Ikuerowo S, Kuczyk M, Mengel M, van der Heyde E, Shittu O, Vaske B, et al. Alteration of subcellular and cellular expression patterns of cyclin B1 in renal cell carcinoma is significantly related to clinical progression and survival of patients. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:867-74 pubmed
    b>Cyclin B1, identified as a regulator of late cell cycle, is involved in the development and progression of a variety of human malignancies...
  53. Uzunova K, Dye B, Schutz H, Ladurner R, Petzold G, Toyoda Y, et al. APC15 mediates CDC20 autoubiquitylation by APC/C(MCC) and disassembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that APC15 and Mnd2 negatively regulate APC/C coactivators and report generation of recombinant human APC/C. ..
  54. Di Fiore B, Pines J. How cyclin A destruction escapes the spindle assembly checkpoint. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, the Cks protein is necessary and sufficient to promote cyclin A degradation in the presence of an active checkpoint by binding cyclin A-Cdc20 to the APC/C. ..
  55. Song M, Carracedo A, Salmena L, Song S, Egia A, Malumbres M, et al. Nuclear PTEN regulates the APC-CDH1 tumor-suppressive complex in a phosphatase-independent manner. Cell. 2011;144:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding identifies a strategy for cancer patient stratification and, thus, optimization of targeted therapies. PAPERCLIP: ..
  56. Smith E, Proud C. cdc2-cyclin B regulates eEF2 kinase activity in a cell cycle- and amino acid-dependent manner. EMBO J. 2008;27:1005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These data closely match the control of Ser359 phosphorylation and indicate that cdc2 may be regulated by mTORC1. ..
  57. Suzuki T, Urano T, Miki Y, Moriya T, Akahira J, Ishida T, et al. Nuclear cyclin B1 in human breast carcinoma as a potent prognostic factor. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:644-51 pubmed
    b>Cyclin B1 is translocated to the nucleus from the cytoplasm, and plays an essential role in cell proliferation through promotion of mitosis...
  58. Major M, Lepe R, Costa R. Forkhead box M1B transcriptional activity requires binding of Cdk-cyclin complexes for phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of p300/CBP coactivators. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2649-61 pubmed
  59. Yoshida T, Tanaka S, Mogi A, Shitara Y, Kuwano H. The clinical significance of Cyclin B1 and Wee1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol. 2004;15:252-6 pubmed
    b>Cyclin B1 has an important role in the G2-M phase transition of the cell cycle. Wee1 delays mitosis by suppressing the activity of the Cyclin B1/cdc2 complex...
  60. Pfleger C, Lee E, Kirschner M. Substrate recognition by the Cdc20 and Cdh1 components of the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2396-407 pubmed
    ..Thus, Cdc20 and Cdh1 act as both substrate recognition and activating modules for APC. ..
  61. Wolthuis R, Clay Farrace L, van Zon W, Yekezare M, Koop L, Ogink J, et al. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A. Mol Cell. 2008;30:290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin B1 when there are improperly attached chromosomes...
  62. van Zon W, Ogink J, ter Riet B, Medema R, te Riele H, Wolthuis R. The APC/C recruits cyclin B1-Cdk1-Cks in prometaphase before D box recognition to control mitotic exit. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:587-602 pubmed publisher
    ..This initiates cyclin A degradation, whereas cyclin B1 is stabilized by the spindle checkpoint...
  63. Bailly E, Pines J, Hunter T, Bornens M. Cytoplasmic accumulation of cyclin B1 in human cells: association with a detergent-resistant compartment and with the centrosome. J Cell Sci. 1992;101 ( Pt 3):529-45 pubmed
    ..We show here that part of cyclin B1 is associated with duplicating centrosomes throughout its accumulation in the cytoplasm and up to metaphase...
  64. Strausfeld U, Labbe J, Fesquet D, Cavadore J, Picard A, Sadhu K, et al. Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein. Nature. 1991;351:242-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that the cdc25+ gene product directly activates the p34cdc2-cyclin B complex. ..
  65. Liu F, Rothblum Oviatt C, Ryan C, Piwnica Worms H. Overproduction of human Myt1 kinase induces a G2 cell cycle delay by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of Cdc2-cyclin B1 complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5113-23 pubmed
    ..Throughout interphase, human Myt1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, whereas Cdc2-cyclin B1 complexes shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm...
  66. Kramer E, Scheuringer N, Podtelejnikov A, Mann M, Peters J. Mitotic regulation of the APC activator proteins CDC20 and CDH1. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1555-69 pubmed
    ..These mechanisms can explain the temporal order of APC activation by CDC20 and CDH1 and may help to ensure that exit from mitosis is not initiated before anaphase has occurred. ..
  67. Toyoshima Morimoto F, Taniguchi E, Shinya N, Iwamatsu A, Nishida E. Polo-like kinase 1 phosphorylates cyclin B1 and targets it to the nucleus during prophase. Nature. 2001;410:215-20 pubmed
    In vertebrate cells, the nuclear entry of Cdc2-cyclin B1 (MPF) during prophase is thought to be essential for the induction and coordination of M-phase events...
  68. Chae S, Sohn J, Kim D, Choi Y, Park Y, Kim K, et al. Overexpressions of Cyclin B1, cdc2, p16 and p53 in human breast cancer: the clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic implications. Yonsei Med J. 2011;52:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was to analyze the cyclin B1, cdc2, p53 and p16 tumor suppressor genes in human breast cancer...
  69. Wang Y, Seemann J, Pypaert M, Shorter J, Warren G. A direct role for GRASP65 as a mitotically regulated Golgi stacking factor. EMBO J. 2003;22:3279-90 pubmed
    ..These can be disaggregated using purified cdc2-cyclin B1 and polo-like kinases, and re-aggregated after dephosphorylation of GRASP65...
  70. Takeno S, Noguchi T, Kikuchi R, Uchida Y, Yokoyama S, Müller W. Prognostic value of cyclin B1 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;94:2874-81 pubmed
    It has been reported that p53 regulates the G2-M checkpoint transition through cyclin B1, and it has been suggested that p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of various malignancies...
  71. Reimann J, Gardner B, Margottin Goguet F, Jackson P. Emi1 regulates the anaphase-promoting complex by a different mechanism than Mad2 proteins. Genes Dev. 2001;15:3278-85 pubmed
    ..We find that Emi1 binds the substrate-binding region of Cdc20 and prevents substrate binding to the APC, illustrating a novel mechanism of APC inhibition. ..
  72. Sanchez V, McElroy A, Spector D. Mechanisms governing maintenance of Cdk1/cyclin B1 kinase activity in cells infected with human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2003;77:13214-24 pubmed
    ..the induction of this kinase activity, we have examined the pathways that regulate the activation of Cdk1/cyclin B1 complexes...
  73. Innocente S, Lee J. p53 is a NF-Y- and p21-independent, Sp1-dependent repressor of cyclin B1 transcription. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:1001-7 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that p53 prevents G2/M transition by decreasing intracellular levels of cyclin B1 protein and attenuating the activity of the cyclin B1 promoter [S.A. Innocente, J.L. Abrahamson, J.P...
  74. Gorr I, Boos D, Stemmann O. Mutual inhibition of separase and Cdk1 by two-step complex formation. Mol Cell. 2005;19:135-41 pubmed
    ..In a second step, Cdk1 stably binds phosphorylated separase via its regulatory cyclin B1 subunit...
  75. Kong M, Barnes E, Ollendorff V, Donoghue D. Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction. EMBO J. 2000;19:1378-88 pubmed
    ..b>Cyclin B1 nuclear localization involves phosphorylation within a region called the cytoplasmic retention signal, which ..
  76. Song Y, Zhao C, Dong L, Fu M, Xue L, Huang Z, et al. Overexpression of cyclin B1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells induces tumor cell invasive growth and metastasis. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:307-15 pubmed
    b>Cyclin B1, a key component in the control of cell cycle progression from G(2) to M phase, has been implicated in tumorigenesis and the development of malignancy...
  77. Pines J, Hunter T. The differential localization of human cyclins A and B is due to a cytoplasmic retention signal in cyclin B. EMBO J. 1994;13:3772-81 pubmed
    ..that human cyclins A and B1 are localized differentially in the cell during interphase; cyclin A is nuclear and cyclin B1 is a cytoplasmic protein...
  78. de Boer L, Oakes V, Beamish H, Giles N, Stevens F, Somodevilla Torres M, et al. Cyclin A/cdk2 coordinates centrosomal and nuclear mitotic events. Oncogene. 2008;27:4261-8 pubmed publisher
  79. Hong K, Kim H, Kim H, Seong Y, Hong K, Bae C, et al. Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein/cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 in mitosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo...