Gene Symbol: CYBB
Description: cytochrome b-245 beta chain
Alias: AMCBX2, CGD, GP91-1, GP91-PHOX, GP91PHOX, IMD34, NOX2, p91-PHOX, cytochrome b-245 heavy chain, CGD91-phox, NADPH oxidase 2, cytochrome b(558) subunit beta, cytochrome b-245 beta polypeptide, cytochrome b558 subunit beta, heme-binding membrane glycoprotein gp91phox, neutrophil cytochrome b 91 kDa polypeptide, p22 phagocyte B-cytochrome, superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase heavy chain subunit
Species: human
Products:     CYBB

Top Publications

  1. Van Buul J, Fernandez Borja M, Anthony E, Hordijk P. Expression and localization of NOX2 and NOX4 in primary human endothelial cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005;7:308-17 pubmed
    ..Here we show that HUVECs express mRNAs for NOX2 as well as NOX4 mRNA, but not for NOX1 or NOX3...
  2. Petry A, Djordjevic T, Weitnauer M, Kietzmann T, Hess J, Gorlach A. NOX2 and NOX4 mediate proliferative response in endothelial cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:1473-84 pubmed
    ..In neutrophils, ROS are generated by a NADPH oxidase containing p22phox and NOX2. NADPH oxidases are also major sources of vascular ROS...
  3. Taylor R, Baniulis D, Burritt J, Gripentrog J, Lord C, Riesselman M, et al. Analysis of human phagocyte flavocytochrome b(558) by mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37045-56 pubmed
  4. Anilkumar N, Weber R, Zhang M, Brewer A, Shah A. Nox4 and nox2 NADPH oxidases mediate distinct cellular redox signaling responses to agonist stimulation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1347-54 pubmed publisher
    The NADPH oxidase isoforms Nox2 and Nox4 are coexpressed in many cell types and are implicated in agonist-stimulated redox-sensitive signal transduction...
  5. Schenten V, Bréchard S, Plançon S, Melchior C, Frippiat J, Tschirhart E. iPLA2, a novel determinant in Ca2+- and phosphorylation-dependent S100A8/A9 regulated NOX2 activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:840-7 pubmed publisher
    The neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is a key enzyme responsible for host defense against invading pathogens, via the production of reactive oxygen species...
  6. Loffredo L, Martino F, Carnevale R, Pignatelli P, Catasca E, Perri L, et al. Obesity and hypercholesterolemia are associated with NOX2 generated oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction. J Pediatr. 2012;161:1004-9 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the interplay among oxidative stress, NOX2, the catalytic core of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and endothelial dysfunction in children with obesity and/or hypercholesterolemia...
  7. Loffredo L, Carnevale R, Sanguigni V, Plebani A, Rossi P, Pignata C, et al. Does NADPH oxidase deficiency cause artery dilatation in humans?. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:1491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the role of p47 and gp91phox (NOX2) on artery dilatation...
  8. Royer Pokora B, Kunkel L, Monaco A, Goff S, Newburger P, Baehner R, et al. Cloning the gene for an inherited human disorder--chronic granulomatous disease--on the basis of its chromosomal location. Nature. 1986;322:32-8 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence of complementary DNA clones predicts a polypeptide of at least 468 amino acids with no homology to proteins described previously. ..
  9. Li X, Fieschi F, Paclet M, Grunwald D, Campion Y, Gaudin P, et al. Leu505 of Nox2 is crucial for optimal p67phox-dependent activation of the flavocytochrome b558 during phagocytic NADPH oxidase assembly. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:238-49 pubmed
    The role of Leu505 of Nox2 on the NADPH oxidase activation process was investigated. An X-CGD PLB-985 cell line expressing the Leu505Arg Nox2 mutant was obtained, exactly mimicking the phenotype of a previously published X91+-CGD case...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bendall J, Rinze R, Adlam D, Tatham A, de Bono J, Wilson N, et al. Endothelial Nox2 overexpression potentiates vascular oxidative stress and hemodynamic response to angiotensin II: studies in endothelial-targeted Nox2 transgenic mice. Circ Res. 2007;100:1016-25 pubmed
    ..questions using transgenic mice with endothelial-targeted overexpression of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, Nox2. Aortas of Nox2 transgenic (Nox2-Tg) mice had increased total Nox2 mRNA and protein levels compared with wild-type ..
  2. Park L, Zhou P, Pitstick R, Capone C, Anrather J, Norris E, et al. Nox2-derived radicals contribute to neurovascular and behavioral dysfunction in mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that 12- to 15-month-old Tg2576 mice lacking the catalytic subunit Nox2 of NADPH oxidase do not develop oxidative stress, cerebrovascular dysfunction, or behavioral deficits...
  3. Lewis E, Singla M, Sergeant S, Koty P, McPhail L. X-linked chronic granulomatous disease secondary to skewed X chromosome inactivation in a female with a novel CYBB mutation and late presentation. Clin Immunol. 2008;129:372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a null mutation in the CYBB gene (c.252insAG) predicting an aberrant gp91(phox) protein (p.Cys85fsX23) in the heterozygous state...
  4. Peshavariya H, Dusting G, Jiang F, Halmos L, Sobey C, Drummond G, et al. NADPH oxidase isoform selective regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and survival. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the roles of the ROS-generating Nox4- and Nox2-containing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases in proliferation of human ..
  5. Di Matteo G, Giordani L, Finocchi A, Ventura A, Chiriaco M, Blancato J, et al. Molecular characterization of a large cohort of patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease and identification of novel CYBB mutations: an Italian multicenter study. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In about 65% of the cases, the disease is due to mutations affecting the X-linked CYBB gene, encoding the gp91(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase...
  6. Violi F, Sanguigni V, Carnevale R, Plebani A, Rossi P, Finocchi A, et al. Hereditary deficiency of gp91(phox) is associated with enhanced arterial dilatation: results of a multicenter study. Circulation. 2009;120:1616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-five patients with hereditary deficiency of gp91(phox), the catalytic core of NADPH oxidase, (X-CGD), 25 healthy subjects, and 25 obese patients matched for sex and age were recruited...
  7. Roos D, Kuhns D, Maddalena A, Roesler J, Lopez J, Ariga T, et al. Hematologically important mutations: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (third update). Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2010;45:246-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This protein is encoded by the CYBB gene on the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene are found in about 70% of all CGD patients...
  8. Pignatelli P, Carnevale R, Di Santo S, Bartimoccia S, Sanguigni V, Lenti L, et al. Inherited human gp91phox deficiency is associated with impaired isoprostane formation and platelet dysfunction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first evidence that platelet 8-iso-PGF2? maximally derives from gp91(phox) activation and contributes to platelet recruitment via activation of gpIIb/IIIa. ..
  9. Song H, Ju S, Seo W, Goh A, Lee J, Bae Y, et al. Nox2-based NADPH oxidase mediates HIV-1 Tat-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1/ICAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesion in human astrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:576-84 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nox2 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and ..
  10. Baillet A, Xu R, Grichine A, Berthier S, Morel F, Paclet M. Coupling of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase with NADPH oxidase in neutrophils: Nox2 activity regulation by NADPH availability. FASEB J. 2011;25:2333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the Michaelis constant (K(m)) of Nox2 for NADPH increases in 6PGDH-depleted cells...
  11. Violi F, Pignatelli P, Pignata C, Plebani A, Rossi P, Sanguigni V, et al. Reduced atherosclerotic burden in subjects with genetically determined low oxidative stress. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-one women carriers of hereditary deficiency of NOX2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, were matched for sex and age with 31 controls and 31 obese women...
  12. Regmi S, Park S, Ku S, Kim J. Serotonin regulates innate immune responses of colon epithelial cells through Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;69:377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..and various inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (DPI), CREB (KG-501), and NF-?B (PDTC), but also by transfection with Nox2 siRNA. Nox2-derived production of ROS corresponded with the rapid and brief activation of Rac...
  13. Pollock J, Williams D, Gifford M, Li L, Du X, Fisherman J, et al. Mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited defect in phagocyte superoxide production. Nat Genet. 1995;9:202-9 pubmed
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a recessive disorder characterized by a defective phagocyte respiratory burst oxidase, life-threatening pyogenic infections and inflammatory granulomas...
  14. Dang P, Cross A, Quinn M, Babior B. Assembly of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase: a direct interaction between p67PHOX and cytochrome b558 II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4262-5 pubmed
  15. Li Q, Harraz M, Zhou W, Zhang L, Ding W, Zhang Y, et al. Nox2 and Rac1 regulate H2O2-dependent recruitment of TRAF6 to endosomal interleukin-1 receptor complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:140-54 pubmed
    ..We have found that Nox2-derived ROS influence the formation of an active interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor complex in the endosomal compartment ..
  16. Pignatelli P, Carnevale R, Cangemi R, Loffredo L, Sanguigni V, Stefanutti C, et al. Atorvastatin inhibits gp91phox circulating levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and cholesterol (-25%, P<0.01). The diet-allocated group showed only a weak reduction of cholesterol. Our study demonstrates that statins exert an antioxidant effect via inhibition of soluble gp91(phox) expression. ..
  17. Yamada M, Arai T, Oishi T, Hatano N, Kobayashi I, Kubota M, et al. Determination of the deletion breakpoints in two patients with contiguous gene syndrome encompassing CYBB gene. Eur J Med Genet. 2010;53:383-8 pubmed publisher
    X-linked chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in CYBB. Although large deletions involving CYBB are known to cause contiguous gene syndrome (CGS), only a few patients have been studied precisely ..
  18. Rawat A, Bhattad S, Singh S. Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Indian J Pediatr. 2016;83:345-53 pubmed publisher
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is the most common symptomatic phagocytic defect. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding protein subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex...
  19. Arnold D, Heimall J. A Review of Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Adv Ther. 2017;34:2543-2557 pubmed publisher
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of the five subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex responsible for the respiratory burst in phagocytic leukocytes...
  20. Wolach B, Gavrieli R, de Boer M, van Leeuwen K, Wolach O, Grisaru Soen G, et al. Analysis of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in the Kavkazi Population in Israel Reveals Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Patients with the Same NCF1 mutation (c.579G>A). J Clin Immunol. 2018;38:193-203 pubmed publisher
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an innate immune deficiency disorder of phagocytes, resulting from mutations in the components of the NADPH oxidase complex that impair the synthesis of oxygen radicals, thus rendering patients ..
  21. Williams D, Kadaria D, Sodhi A, Fox R, Williams G, Threlkeld S. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Presenting as Aspergillus Fumigatus Pneumonia in a Previously Healthy Young Woman. Am J Case Rep. 2017;18:351-354 pubmed
    BACKGROUND Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency disease caused by a genetic defect in the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzyme, resulting in increased susceptibility to bacterial ..
  22. Rocha Y, Lopez J, Orrego J, Coll Y, Karduss A, Rosenzweig S, et al. Successful immune reconstitution by means of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a Colombian patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Biomedica. 2016;36:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis of CYBB was performed by PCR amplification in complementary DNA, as well as sequencing and comparative genomic ..
  23. Delibalta G, Seringeç M, Oncul O. [A case diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease after disseminated infection following BCG vaccination]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2015;49:461-6 pubmed
    ..In this report, an infant case with unknown chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who developed disseminated BCG infection after administration of BCG vaccine, was presented...
  24. Roos D. Chronic granulomatous disease. Br Med Bull. 2016;118:50-63 pubmed publisher
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, the liver, the brain and the bones...
  25. Watt N, Gage M, Patel P, Viswambharan H, Sukumar P, Galloway S, et al. Endothelial SHIP2 Suppresses Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Vascular Oxidative Stress, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Systemic Insulin Resistance. Diabetes. 2017;66:2808-2821 pubmed publisher
    ..Superoxide abundance was elevated in ECSHIP2Δ/+ ECs and was suppressed by PI3K and NADPH oxidase 2 inhibitors. These findings were phenocopied in healthy human ECs after SHIP2 silencing...
  26. Liu C, Zhou M, Li Y, Wang A, Chadipiralla K, Tian R, et al. Oral nicotine aggravates endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation in diet-induced obese rats: Role of macrophage TNF?. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188439 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophages of nicotine treated-obese rats, exhibited reduced eNOS and increased NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox and p22phox expression...
  27. Ibrahim A, Elshafey S, Sellak H, Hussein K, El Sherbiny M, Abdelsaid M, et al. A lipidomic screen of hyperglycemia-treated HRECs links 12/15-Lipoxygenase to microvascular dysfunction during diabetic retinopathy via NADPH oxidase. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:599-611 pubmed publisher
    ..we tested the impact of intraocular injection of 12-HETE in mice lacking the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). The permeability effect of 12-HETE was significantly reduced in NOX2(-/-) mice compared with the WT mice...
  28. Nakayama A, Morita H, Nakao T, Yamaguchi T, Sumida T, Ikeda Y, et al. A Food-Derived Flavonoid Luteolin Protects against Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137106 pubmed publisher
    ..In cardiac tissue, increased gene expression levels of TGFβ1, CTGF, Nox2, Nox4, ANP, and BNP induced by Ang II were restored by oral pretreatment of this high-luteolin diet...
  29. Ni R, Cao T, Xiong S, Ma J, Fan G, Lacefield J, et al. Therapeutic inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with mito-TEMPO reduces diabetic cardiomyopathy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;90:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation with mito-TEMPO or inhibition of Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase prevented oxidative stress levels and cell death in high glucose-stimulated cardiomyocytes...
  30. Satooka H, Hara Chikuma M. Aquaporin-3 Controls Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Regulating Hydrogen Peroxide Transport and Its Downstream Cell Signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1206-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular H2O2, produced by CXCL12-activated membrane NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), was transported into breast cancer cells via AQP3...
  31. van Wissen J, van der Hiel B, van der Hage J, van de Wiel B, Wouters M, van Akkooi A. The Diagnostic Value of PET/CT Imaging in Melanoma Groin Metastases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:2323-9 pubmed publisher
    Combined superficial (inguinal) and deep (iliac and obturator) groin dissection (CGD) is the standard treatment of patients with stage IIIB and IIIC melanoma groin metastases; however, the additional value of iliac lymphadenectomy is ..
  32. Vignesh P, Rawat A, Kumar A, Suri D, Gupta A, Lau Y, et al. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Due to Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor (NCF2) Gene Mutations in Three Unrelated Families. J Clin Immunol. 2017;37:109-112 pubmed publisher
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inheritable and genetically heterogeneous disease resulting from mutations in different subcomponents of the NADPH oxidase system...
  33. Ellison M, Gearheart C, Porter C, Ambruso D. IFN-? alters the expression of diverse immunity related genes in a cell culture model designed to represent maturing neutrophils. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185956 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with CGD have defects in proteins of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase system...
  34. Cariello M, Simone S, Loverre A, Gigante M, Incampo F, Pietanza S, et al. Coagulation activation is associated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation in hemodialysis patients. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;16:428-39 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated on (i) the role of gp91(phox)/NOX2 in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and (ii) the link between clotting activation and ROS production in this setting...
  35. Douglas G, Bendall J, Crabtree M, Tatham A, Carter E, Hale A, et al. Endothelial-specific Nox2 overexpression increases vascular superoxide and macrophage recruitment in ApoE⁻/⁻ mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice overexpressing Nox2 specifically in the endothelium (Nox2-Tg) were crossed with ApoE(-/-) mice to produce Nox2-Tg ApoE(-/-) mice and ..
  36. Yang M, Wang R, Sun J, Yu K, Chen B, Xu L, et al. The liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects mice against cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015;240:1717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Taken together, treatment with the liver X receptor agonist TO901317 ameliorated the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. ..
  37. Lin H, Masaki H, Yamaguchi T, Wada T, Yachie A, Nishimura K, et al. An assessment of the effects of ectopic gp91phox expression in XCGD iPSC-derived neutrophils. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2015;2:15046 pubmed publisher
    ..One contributing factor could be the occurrence of detrimental effects secondary to ectopic gp91phox expression in neutrophils, which has not been formally demonstrated previously...
  38. Begieneman M, Ter Horst E, Rijvers L, Meinster E, Leen R, Pankras J, et al. Dopamine induces lipid accumulation, NADPH oxidase-related oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane in H9c2 cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H1097-H1107 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, while dopamine induced a similar transient increase in cytoplasmic NOX2 and p47phox expression, in the (peri)nucleus this increased expression persisted for 48 h where it ..
  39. Araos P, Mondaca D, Jalil J, Yañez C, Novoa U, Mora I, et al. Diuretics prevent Rho-kinase activation and expression of profibrotic/oxidative genes in the hypertensive aortic wall. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;10:338-347 pubmed
    ..TGF-?1), gene expression of TGF-?1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), p22 phox and gp91 phox subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, as well as increased media thickness ..
  40. Osorio J, Batistel F, Garrett E, Elhanafy M, Tariq M, Socha M, et al. Corium molecular biomarkers reveal a beneficial effect on hoof transcriptomics in peripartal dairy cows supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from amino acid complexes and cobalt from cobalt glucoheptonate. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:9974-9982 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of KRT5, CTH, CALML5, and CYBB, and upregulation of BTD in AAC cows indicated a decrease in the need for activation of cellular pathways to ..
  41. Hou L, Zhou X, Zhang C, Wang K, Liu X, Che Y, et al. NADPH oxidase-derived H2O2 mediates the regulatory effects of microglia on astrogliosis in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Redox Biol. 2017;12:162-170 pubmed publisher
    ..suppression of microglial activation by pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of NADPH oxidase (NOX2) in mice attenuated astrogliosis...
  42. Şişli E, Özdemir Şahan Y, Ayik M, Nart D, Atay Y. A rare complication of chronic granulomatous disease in a child: constrictive aspergillus pericarditis. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2017;45:660-663 pubmed publisher
    A 3-year-old girl with the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was hospitalized for bronchopneumonia and congestive heart failure...
  43. Fan B, Wang B, Che L, Sun Y, Liu S, Li G. Blockage of NOX2/MAPK/NF-?B Pathway Protects Photoreceptors against Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cell Death. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:5093473 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of NOX2/MAPK/NF-?B signal was assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical assays...
  44. Qi M, Qiu Y, Zhou X, Tian K, Zhou K, Sun F, et al. Regional up-regulation of NOX2 contributes to the differential vulnerability of outer hair cells to neomycin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;500:110-116 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we reported that NAPDH oxidase 2 (NOX2) played an important role in the OHCs damage preferentially in the basal turn...
  45. Ariga T, Sakiyama Y, Tomizawa K, Imajoh Ohmi S, Kanegasaki S, Matsumoto S. A newly recognized point mutation in the cytochrome b558 heavy chain gene replacing alanine57 by glutamic acid, in a patient with cytochrome b positive X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Eur J Pediatr. 1993;152:469-72 pubmed
    ..b heavy chain cDNA as probe, revealed a Pst I restriction fragment pattern for the cytochrome b heavy chain gene (CYBB) different to that of normal individuals...
  46. Swain S, Siemsen D, Nelson L, Sipes K, Hanson A, Quinn M. Inhibition of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase by adenosine is associated with increased movement of flavocytochrome b between subcellular fractions. Inflammation. 2003;27:45-58 pubmed
    ..results in decreased plasma membrane/secretory granule content of the flavocytochrome b components (p22phox and gp91phox) of the NADPH oxidase, which correlates with inhibition of ROS production...
  47. Li S, Hu Y, Zhao J, Zhao Y, Sun J, Yang Y, et al. MicroRNA-34a induces apoptosis in the human glioma cell line, A172, through enhanced ROS production and NOX2 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;444:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Using immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, we identified NOX2 as a target of miR-34a in A172 cells...
  48. Ma K, Wu H, Zhang B, He X, Li B. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation. Mol Biosyst. 2015;11:2915-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity. ..
  49. Kyrychenko S, Kyrychenko V, Badr M, Ikeda Y, Sadoshima J, Shirokova N. Pivotal role of miR-448 in the development of ROS-induced cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;108:324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The NOX2 isoform is upregulated in numerous disorders, including dystrophic cardiomyopathy, where it drives the progression ..
  50. Delaney M, Kim K, Estevez B, Xu Z, Stojanovic Terpo A, Shen B, et al. Differential Roles of the NADPH-Oxidase 1 and 2 in Platelet Activation and Thrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:846-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of NOX1 and NOX2 in ROS generation and platelet activation using NOX1 and NOX2 knockout mice...
  51. Unckless R, Clark A, Messer P. Evolution of Resistance Against CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Drive. Genetics. 2017;205:827-841 pubmed publisher
    CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive (CGD) promises to be a highly adaptable approach for spreading genetically engineered alleles throughout a species, even if those alleles impair reproductive success...
  52. Kim J, Wang J, Son M, Woo S. Shear stress enhances Ca2+ sparks through Nox2-dependent mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation in rat ventricular myocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1121-1131 pubmed publisher
    ..Microtubule or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (Nox2) inhibition abolished the immediate shear-induced increase in spark frequency and suppressed the effects of ..
  53. Kim Y, Kim S, Tatsunami R, Yamamura H, Fukai T, Ushio Fukai M. ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C749-C764 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of ..
  54. Liu C, Song Y, Qu L, Tang J, Meng L, Wang Y. Involvement of NOX in the regulation of renal tubular expression of Na/K-ATPase in acute unilateral ureteral obstruction rats. Nephron. 2015;130:66-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal tissue samples were collected on day 1 and day 3 after surgery and the distribution of NOX2, NOX4 and Na/K-ATPase was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining...
  55. Feng L, Chen Y, Ding R, Fu Z, Yang S, Deng X, et al. P2X7R blockade prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation and brain injury in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage: involvement of peroxynitrite. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:190 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, enhanced NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2, gp91(phox)) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as their cytotoxic product (ONOO(-)) ..
  56. Zhao X, Zhao Z, Yang D, Cao L, Zhang L, Ji J, et al. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel by iptakalim normalizes stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behaviour by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse hypothalamus. Brain Res Bull. 2017;130:146-155 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA levels of inflammation-related molecules (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and TLR4) and oxidative stress molecules (gp91phox, iNOS and Nrf2) in the mouse hypothalamus...
  57. Wang J, Ma M, Dhandapani K, Brann D. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase 2 in the polarization dynamics and neurotoxicity of microglia/macrophages after traumatic brain injury. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;113:119-131 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we showed elevated expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) predominantly in microglia/macrophages at 4- and 7-..
  58. Islam M, Fan C, Fujii Y, Hao L, Suzuki S, Kumatori A, et al. PU.1 is dominant and HAF-1 supplementary for activation of the gp91(phox) promoter in human monocytic PLB-985 cells. J Biochem. 2002;131:533-40 pubmed
    ..1-optimised gp91(phox) promoter construct. Therefore, we conclude that PU.1 and HAF-1 binding to the Pu box is dominant and supplementary, respectively, for activation of the gp91(phox) promoter in human monocytic cells. ..
  59. Rump A, Rosen Wolff A, Gahr M, Seidenberg J, Roos C, Walter L, et al. A splice-supporting intronic mutation in the last bp position of a cryptic exon within intron 6 of the CYBB gene induces its incorporation into the mRNA causing chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Gene. 2006;371:174-81 pubmed
    ..due to a splice-supporting mutation in the last position of a cryptic exon towards the middle of intron 6 of the CYBB (gp91-phox) gene...
  60. Honeychurch J, Alduaij W, Azizyan M, Cheadle E, Pelicano H, Ivanov A, et al. Antibody-induced nonapoptotic cell death in human lymphoma and leukemia cells is mediated through a novel reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway. Blood. 2012;119:3523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This newly characterized cell death pathway may potentially be exploited to eliminate malignant cells, which are refractory to conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy. ..
  61. Pignatelli P, Pastori D, Carnevale R, Farcomeni A, Cangemi R, Nocella C, et al. Serum NOX2 and urinary isoprostanes predict vascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation. Thromb Haemost. 2015;113:617-24 pubmed publisher
    There are limited prospective data evaluating the role of urinary F2-IsoP and NOX2 as predictive markers in atrial fibrillation (AF)...
  62. Khan T, Kalsoom K, Iqbal A, Asif H, Rahman H, Farooq S, et al. A novel missense mutation in the NADPH binding domain of CYBB abolishes the NADPH oxidase activity in a male patient with increased susceptibility to infections. Microb Pathog. 2016;100:163-169 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in CYBB, encoding the gp91phox (also known as NOX2) result in X-linked CGD account for approximately 65% of CGD cases...
  63. Rae J, Newburger P, Dinauer M, Noack D, Hopkins P, Kuruto R, et al. X-Linked chronic granulomatous disease: mutations in the CYBB gene encoding the gp91-phox component of respiratory-burst oxidase. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:1320-31 pubmed
    ..The X-linked form of the disease derives from defects in the CYBB gene, which encodes the 91-kD glycoprotein component (termed "gp91-phox") of the oxidase...
  64. Zhang H, Sang W, Ruan Z, Wang Y. Akt/Nox2/NF-?B signaling pathway is involved in Tat-induced HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transactivation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;505:266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..caused increases in ROS formation that were prevented by both pharmacologic NADPH oxidase inhibitors and by siRNA Nox2, but not by other inhibitors of pro-oxidant enzymes or siRNA Nox4...
  65. Naidoo R, Jordaan N, Chan K, Le Roux D, Pienaar S, Nuttall J, et al. A novel CYBB mutation with the first genetically confirmed case of chronic granulomatous disease in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2011;101:768-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis confirmed X-linked CGD with a novel mutation in exon 10 of the CYBB gene - the first South African report of genetically confirmed CGD.
  66. Diebold I, Petry A, Sabrane K, Djordjevic T, Hess J, Gorlach A. The HIF1 target gene NOX2 promotes angiogenesis through urotensin-II. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:956-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidases are major signalling molecules in the vasculature. Because NOX2 is functional in endothelial cells, we investigated the role of the NOX2-containing NADPH oxidase in U-II-induced ..
  67. Wang P, Shi Q, Deng W, Yu J, Zuo T, Mei F, et al. Relationship between expression of NADPH oxidase 2 and invasion and prognosis of human gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:6271-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the expression and prognostic value of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) in gastric cancer, and its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)..
  68. Marullo R, Werner E, Zhang H, Chen G, Shin D, Doetsch P. HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins induce a chronic oxidative stress response via NOX2 that causes genomic instability and increased susceptibility to DNA damage in head and neck cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36:1397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified NOX2 as the source of HPV-induced oxidative stress as NOX2 silencing significantly reduced ROS generation, DNA damage ..
  69. Chillo O, Kleinert E, Lautz T, Lasch M, Pagel J, Heun Y, et al. Perivascular Mast Cells Govern Shear Stress-Induced Arteriogenesis by Orchestrating Leukocyte Function. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2197-2207 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that extravasation of neutrophils mediated by the platelet receptor GPIbα and uPA results in Nox2-derived reactive oxygen radicals, which activate perivascular mast cells...
  70. Greenlee Wacker M, Nauseef W. IFN-γ targets macrophage-mediated immune responses toward Staphylococcus aureus. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;101:751-758 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (SA), commonly cause morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a condition characterized by a defective phagocyte oxidase...
  71. de Boer M, van Leeuwen K, Geissler J, Belohradsky B, Kuijpers T, Roos D. Mutation in an exonic splicing enhancer site causing chronic granulomatous disease. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2017;66:50-57 pubmed publisher
    ..389G>T mutation in exon 5 of the CYBB gene...
  72. Carneiro M, Roma E, Ranson A, Doria N, Debrabant A, Sacks D, et al. NOX2-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Control Inflammation during Leishmania amazonensis Infection by Mediating Infection-Induced Neutrophil Apoptosis. J Immunol. 2018;200:196-208 pubmed publisher
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH phagocyte oxidase isoform (NOX2) are critical for the elimination of intracellular pathogens in many infections...
  73. Shan Q, Zhuang J, Zheng G, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Lu J, et al. Troxerutin Reduces Kidney Damage against BDE-47-Induced Apoptosis via Inhibiting NOX2 Activity and Increasing Nrf2 Activity. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:6034692 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, troxerutin blunted Nrf2 ubiquitylation, enhanced the activity of Nrf2, decreased the activity of NOX2, and ameliorated kidney oxidant status of BDE-47-treated mice...
  74. Kikuchi H, Hikage M, Miyashita H, Fukumoto M. NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91(phox) homologue, preferentially expressed in human colon epithelial cells. Gene. 2000;254:237-43 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization revealed that gp91-2 is located in the absorptive epithelial cells of the adult colon. Neither gp91-2 nor gp91-3 was expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes. ..
  75. Uhlemann A, Szlezák N, Vonthein R, Tomiuk J, Emmer S, Lell B, et al. DNA phasing by TA dinucleotide microsatellite length determines in vitro and in vivo expression of the gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mediates protection against severe malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:2227-34 pubmed
    ..We provide a molecular model of how DNA phasing generated by TA dinucleotide polymorphisms may influence the expression level and protect against severe malaria. ..
  76. Wolach B, Scharf Y, Gavrieli R, de Boer M, Roos D. Unusual late presentation of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in an adult female with a somatic mosaic for a novel mutation in CYBB. Blood. 2005;105:61-6 pubmed
    Most patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutations in the X-linked CYBB gene that encodes gp91phox, a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The resulting X-linked form of CGD is usually manifested in boys...
  77. Murillo I, Henderson L. Expression of gp91phox/Nox2 in COS-7 cells: cellular localization of the protein and the detection of outward proton currents. Biochem J. 2005;385:649-57 pubmed
    We have reported previously that gp91phox, expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, functions as a voltage-dependent proton channel...
  78. Ramachandra L, Simmons D, Harding C. MHC molecules and microbial antigen processing in phagosomes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the host and bacterial factors that affect phagosomal antigen processing may help facilitate new strategies to eliminate pathogens. ..
  79. Zhao R, Ma X, Xie X, Shen G. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in oxidized LDL-induced upregulation of heat shock factor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA (siRNA) for p22(phox), an essential subunit of NOX, prevented oxidized LDL-induced expression of NOX2, HSF1, and PAI-1 in EC. HSF1 siRNA inhibited oxidized LDL-induced expression of PAI-1 and HSF1, but not NOX2, in EC...
  80. Raij L, Tian R, Wong J, He J, Campbell K. Podocyte injury: the role of proteinuria, urinary plasminogen, and oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;311:F1308-F1317 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Plg treatment of podocytes specifically upregulates NADPH oxidase isoforms NOX2/NOX4 and increases production of mitochondrial-dependent superoxide anion (O2-) that promotes ..
  81. Kalbitz M, Fattahi F, Grailer J, Jajou L, Malan E, Zetoune F, et al. Complement-induced activation of the cardiac NLRP3 inflammasome in sepsis. FASEB J. 2016;30:3997-4006 pubmed
    ..Use of a selective NOX2 inhibitor prevented increased cytosolic and nuclear/mitochondrial ROS levels and release of IL-1?...
  82. Auer S, Rinnerthaler M, Bischof J, Streubel M, Breitenbach Koller H, Geisberger R, et al. The Human NADPH Oxidase, Nox4, Regulates Cytoskeletal Organization in Two Cancer Cell Lines, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y. Front Oncol. 2017;7:111 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of the Nox4 silencer RNA is specific for this gene as it does not influence the expression of Nox2. In the case of the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line, Nox4 inhibition leads to loss of cell mobility as measured in ..
  83. Luengo Blanco M, Prando C, Bustamante J, Aragão Filho W, Pereira P, Rehder J, et al. Essential role of nuclear factor-kappaB for NADPH oxidase activity in normal and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leukocytes. Blood. 2008;112:1453-60 pubmed publisher
    ..activity and in expression of the human phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase genes CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, and NCF2...
  84. Berthier S, Nguyen M, Baillet A, Hograindleur M, Paclet M, Polack B, et al. Molecular interface of S100A8 with cytochrome b558 and NADPH oxidase activation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40277 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenous S100A9 and S100A8 colocalize in differentiated and PMA stimulated PLB985 cells, with Nox2/gp91(phox) and p22(phox)...
  85. Xu H, Tian W, Li S, Zhang L, Liu W, Zhao Y, et al. Clinical and molecular features of 38 children with chronic granulomatous disease in mainland china. J Clin Immunol. 2014;34:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding CYBB are responsible for the majority of the CGD cases...
  86. Menden H, Welak S, Cossette S, Ramchandran R, Sampath V. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated angiopoietin-2-dependent autocrine angiogenesis is regulated by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:5449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) inhibition, but not Nox4 or Nox1 inhibition, attenuated LPS-induced superoxide formation and Ang2, ..
  87. Frazão J, Thain A, Zhu Z, Luengo M, Condino Neto A, Newburger P. Regulation of CYBB Gene Expression in Human Phagocytes by a Distant Upstream NF-κB Binding Site. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:2008-17 pubmed publisher
    The human CYBB gene encodes the gp91-phox component of the phagocyte oxidase enzyme complex, which is responsible for generating superoxide and other downstream reactive oxygen species essential to microbial killing...
  88. Ashton K, Reichelt M, Mustafa S, Teng B, Ledent C, Delbridge L, et al. Transcriptomic effects of adenosine 2A receptor deletion in healthy and endotoxemic murine myocardium. Purinergic Signal. 2017;13:27-49 pubmed publisher
    ..function (and major shifts in transcripts impacting function/injury including Lcn2, S100a8/S100a9, Icam1/Vcam and Nox2 induction, and Adipoq, Igf1 and Aplnr repression)...
  89. Sun J, Wen M, Wang Y, Liu D, Ying W, Wang X. The three CYBA variants (rs4673, rs1049254 and rs1049255) are benign: new evidence from a patient with CGD. BMC Med Genet. 2017;18:127 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in CYBB or CYBA gene may result in membrane subunits, gp91phox or p22phox, expression failure respectively and NADPH oxidase deficiency...
  90. Kitano T, Nishikawa Y, Sueyoshi S, Horikawa N, Nakagawa H, Yoshida S. Successful transcatheter arterial antimicrobial and steroid therapy for refractory liver abscess in chronic granulomatous disease: A case report and review of literature. J Infect Chemother. 2018;24:224-227 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic abscess in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is very refractory and frequently requires multiple surgeries with frequent morbidities...
  91. Nong Y, Kandil O, Tobin E, Rose R, Remold H. The HIV core protein p24 inhibits interferon-gamma-induced increase of HLA-DR and cytochrome b heavy chain mRNA levels in the human monocyte-like cell line THP1. Cell Immunol. 1991;132:10-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that p24 at concentrations similar to those found in the serum of HIV-infected individuals specifically affects IFN-gamma-induced activation markers. ..