CXCR4

Summary

Gene Symbol: CXCR4
Description: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4
Alias: CD184, D2S201E, FB22, HM89, HSY3RR, LAP-3, LAP3, LCR1, LESTR, NPY3R, NPYR, NPYRL, NPYY3R, WHIM, WHIMS, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4, CD184 antigen, LPS-associated protein 3, SDF-1 receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4, chemokine receptor, fusin, leukocyte-derived seven transmembrane domain receptor, lipopolysaccharide-associated protein 3, neuropeptide Y receptor Y3, neuropeptide Y3 receptor, seven transmembrane helix receptor, seven-transmembrane-segment receptor, spleen, stromal cell-derived factor 1 receptor
Species: human
Products:     CXCR4

Top Publications

  1. Liekens S, Schols D, Hatse S. CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in angiogenesis, metastasis and stem cell mobilization. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:3903-20 pubmed
    ..The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 represents the single natural ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4...
  2. Yasumoto K, Koizumi K, Kawashima A, Saitoh Y, Arita Y, Shinohara K, et al. Role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2181-7 pubmed
    ..p. inoculation, selectively expressed CXCR4 mRNA and protein...
  3. Shimizu S, Brown M, Sengupta R, Penfold M, Meucci O. CXCR7 protein expression in human adult brain and differentiated neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20680 pubmed publisher
    CXCR7 and CXCR4 are receptors for the chemokine CXCL12, which is involved in essential functions of the immune and nervous systems...
  4. Yuan L, Sakamoto N, Song G, Sato M. Low-level shear stress induces human mesenchymal stem cell migration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis via MAPK signaling pathways. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:2384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..that shear stress upregulated the secretion of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which stimulated its receptor CXCR4 expression in hMSCs until the cells covered the wounded area...
  5. Jung M, Rho J, Kim Y, Jung J, Jin Y, Ko Y, et al. Upregulation of CXCR4 is functionally crucial for maintenance of stemness in drug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that A549/GR cells contain a high proportion of CXCR4+ cells that are responsible for having high potential of self-renewal activity in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo...
  6. Yagi H, Tan W, Dillenburg Pilla P, Armando S, Amornphimoltham P, Simaan M, et al. A synthetic biology approach reveals a CXCR4-G13-Rho signaling axis driving transendothelial migration of metastatic breast cancer cells. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra60 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the migration toward SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) of tumor cells bearing CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] has been implicated in the lymphatic and organ-specific metastasis of various ..
  7. Dubrovska A, Hartung A, Bouchez L, Walker J, Reddy V, Cho C, et al. CXCR4 activation maintains a stem cell population in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells through AhR signalling. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine receptor CXCR4 maintains a cancer progenitor population in tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 cells through AhR signalling and ..
  8. Bhandari D, Robia S, Marchese A. The E3 ubiquitin ligase atrophin interacting protein 4 binds directly to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 via a novel WW domain-mediated interaction. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1324-39 pubmed publisher
    ..E3 ubiquitin ligase atrophin interacting protein 4 (AIP4) mediates ubiquitination and down-regulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4...
  9. Duda D, Kozin S, Kirkpatrick N, Xu L, Fukumura D, Jain R. CXCL12 (SDF1alpha)-CXCR4/CXCR7 pathway inhibition: an emerging sensitizer for anticancer therapies?. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:2074-80 pubmed publisher
    ..g., AMD3100, NOX-A12, or CCX2066) as sensitizers to currently available therapies by targeting the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL12/CXCR7 pathways.

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hatse S, Princen K, Vermeire K, Gerlach L, Rosenkilde M, Schwartz T, et al. Mutations at the CXCR4 interaction sites for AMD3100 influence anti-CXCR4 antibody binding and HIV-1 entry. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:300-6 pubmed
    The interaction of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 with its target is greatly influenced by specific aspartate residues in the receptor protein, including Asp(171) and Asp(262)...
  2. Kurtova A, Tamayo A, Ford R, Burger J. Mantle cell lymphoma cells express high levels of CXCR4, CXCR5, and VLA-4 (CD49d): importance for interactions with the stromal microenvironment and specific targeting. Blood. 2009;113:4604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we examined chemokine receptor and adhesion molecule expression and function in MCL cells and their importance for migration and adhesion ..
  3. Sison E, McIntyre E, Magoon D, Brown P. Dynamic chemotherapy-induced upregulation of CXCR4 expression: a mechanism of therapeutic resistance in pediatric AML. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:1004-16 pubmed publisher
    Cure rates in pediatric acute leukemias remain suboptimal. Overexpression of the cell-surface chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with poor outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
  4. Malik R, Marchese A. Arrestin-2 interacts with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery to modulate endosomal sorting of CXCR4. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2529-41 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine receptor CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor, is targeted for lysosomal degradation via a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism that involves the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery...
  5. Bhandari D, Trejo J, Benovic J, Marchese A. Arrestin-2 interacts with the ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase atrophin-interacting protein 4 and mediates endosomal sorting of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36971-9 pubmed
    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is rapidly targeted for lysosomal degradation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase atrophin-interacting protein 4 (AIP4)...
  6. Bozek K, Eckhardt M, Sierra S, Anders M, Kaiser R, Kräusslich H, et al. An expanded model of HIV cell entry phenotype based on multi-parameter single-cell data. Retrovirology. 2012;9:60 pubmed publisher
    ..glycoproteins (Env) and the cellular receptor CD4 as well as a coreceptor molecule (most importantly CCR5 or CXCR4)...
  7. Cronin P, Wang J, Redmond H. Hypoxia increases the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells via upregulation of CXCR4. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:225 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.
  8. Dubrovska A, Elliott J, Salamone R, Telegeev G, Stakhovsky A, Schepotin I, et al. CXCR4 expression in prostate cancer progenitor cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31226 pubmed publisher
    ..The studies reported herein show that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, a key regulator of tumor dissemination, plays a role in the maintenance of prostate cancer stem-like ..
  9. Wang H, Yang D, Wang K, Wang J. Expression and potential role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in human bladder carcinoma cell lines with different metastatic ability. Mol Med Rep. 2011;4:525-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in human bladder carcinoma cells and its possible role in their metastatic growth in vitro...
  10. Oh B, Kim D, Kim B, Yoon K, Park S, Park K, et al. Differences in donor CXCR4 expression levels are correlated with functional capacity and therapeutic outcome of angiogenic treatment with endothelial colony forming cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:627-33 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCR4 expression is important for cell migration and recruitment, suggesting that the expression levels of CXCR4 may be correlated with functional activity of implanted cells for therapeutic neovascularization...
  11. Xie L, Wei J, Qian X, Chen G, Yu L, Ding Y, et al. CXCR4, a potential predictive marker for docetaxel sensitivity in gastric cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:2209-16 pubmed
    ..according to microarray analysis were validated and tested further in 11 cancer cell lines, resulting in 4 genes, CXCR4, CDK6, USP15 and CDH1...
  12. Gros S, Kurschat N, Drenckhan A, Dohrmann T, Forberich E, Effenberger K, et al. Involvement of CXCR4 chemokine receptor in metastastic HER2-positive esophageal cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47287 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in metastatic dissemination of various tumors and correlates with poor survival in ..
  13. Singh A, Page T, Moore P, Allgaier R, Hiramen K, Coovadia H, et al. Functional and genetic analysis of coreceptor usage by dualtropic HIV-1 subtype C isolates. Virology. 2009;393:56-67 pubmed publisher
    It is widely documented that a complete switch from the predominant CCR5 (R5) to CXCR4 (X4) phenotype is less common for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) compared to other major subtypes...
  14. Rhodes L, Bratton M, Zhu Y, Tilghman S, Muir S, Salvo V, et al. Effects of SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling on microRNA expression and tumorigenesis in estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?)-positive breast cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Having previously shown the ability of the stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-CXCR4 signaling axis to promote primary tumorigenesis and hormone independence by overexpressing CXCR4 in MCF-7 cells, ..
  15. Zhao B, Wang Z, Mao W, Ma H, Han J, Zhao B, et al. CXCR4/SDF-1 axis is involved in lymph node metastasis of gastric carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2389-96 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in lymph node metastasis of gastric carcinoma...
  16. Esencay M, Sarfraz Y, Zagzag D. CXCR7 is induced by hypoxia and mediates glioma cell migration towards SDF-1?. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:347 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, intense efforts aimed at improved therapeutics are ongoing to delineate the molecular mechanisms governing glioma cell migration and invasion...
  17. Tsuchiya K, Ode H, Hayashida T, Kakizawa J, Sato H, Oka S, et al. Arginine insertion and loss of N-linked glycosylation site in HIV-1 envelope V3 region confer CXCR4-tropism. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2389 pubmed publisher
    ..in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 patient was observed associated with the HIV-1 tropism shift CCR5 to CXCR4. The insertion of arginine at position 11 and the loss of the N-linked glycosylation site were indispensable for ..
  18. Kalinina O, Pfeifer N, Lengauer T. Modelling binding between CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors and their ligands suggests the surface electrostatic potential of the co-receptor to be a key player in the HIV-1 tropism. Retrovirology. 2013;10:130 pubmed publisher
    CCR5 and CXCR4 are the two membrane-standing proteins that, along with CD4, facilitate entry of HIV particles into the host cell...
  19. Duan F, Qian F, Fang K, Lin K, Wang W, Chen Y. miR-133b, a muscle-specific microRNA, is a novel prognostic marker that participates in the progression of human colorectal cancer via regulation of CXCR4 expression. Mol Cancer. 2013;12:164 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its diagnostic value and role in CRC have yet to be described. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), which participates in multiple cell processes such as cell invasion-related signaling pathways, ..
  20. Sobolik T, Su Y, Wells S, Ayers G, Cook R, Richmond A. CXCR4 drives the metastatic phenotype in breast cancer through induction of CXCR2 and activation of MEK and PI3K pathways. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:566-82 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant expression of CXCR4 in human breast cancer correlates with metastasis to tissues secreting CXCL12...
  21. Ablett M, O Brien C, Sims A, Farnie G, Clarke R. A differential role for CXCR4 in the regulation of normal versus malignant breast stem cell activity. Oncotarget. 2014;5:599-612 pubmed
    C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is known to regulate lung, pancreatic and prostate cancer stem cells. In breast cancer, CXCR4 signalling has been reported to be a mediator of metastasis, and is linked to poor prognosis...
  22. Alevizos L, Kataki A, Derventzi A, Gomatos I, Loutraris C, Gloustianou G, et al. Breast cancer nodal metastasis correlates with tumour and lymph node methylation profiles of Caveolin-1 and CXCR4. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014;31:511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylation signatures of Caveolin-1, CXCR4, RAR-?, Cyclin D2 and Twist gene promoters were studied in 30 breast cancer primary lesions and their ..
  23. Guo M, Cai C, Zhao G, Qiu X, Zhao H, Ma Q, et al. Hypoxia promotes migration and induces CXCR4 expression via HIF-1? activation in human osteosarcoma. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90518 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine SDF-1? and its unique receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of many cancers...
  24. He H, Wang C, Shen Z, Fang Y, Wang X, Chen W, et al. Upregulated expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 is an independent prognostic predictor for patients with gastric cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71864 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor CXCR4 expressions in malignant tissues have been reported, but its role in gastric cancer prognosis remains unknown...
  25. Cai C, Wang L, Dong Q, Wu Z, Li M, Sun Y. Association of CXCL12 and CXCR4 gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. Tissue Antigens. 2013;82:165-70 pubmed publisher
    CXCL12 and its unique receptor CXCR4, play important roles in inflammation and cancer metastasis...
  26. Tamamis P, Floudas C. Molecular recognition of CXCR4 by a dual tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop. Biophys J. 2013;105:1502-14 pubmed publisher
    ..entry is initiated by the interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4, and chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5...
  27. Yang P, Liang S, Huang W, Zhang H, Li X, Xie L, et al. Aberrant expression of CXCR4 significantly contributes to metastasis and predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer. Curr Mol Med. 2014;14:174-84 pubmed
    Triple negative breast cancer is known for its visceral metastasis. We have found that CXCR4 is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer and is associated with visceral metastasis...
  28. Marquez Curtis L, Janowska Wieczorek A. Enhancing the migration ability of mesenchymal stromal cells by targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:561098 pubmed publisher
    ..vitro culture expansion MSCs lose surface expression of key homing receptors particularly of the SDF-1 receptor, CXCR4. Here we review studies on enhancement of SDF-1-directed migration of MSCs with the premise that their improved ..
  29. Batsi O, Giannopoulou I, Nesseris I, Valavanis C, Gakiopoulou H, Patsouris E, et al. Immunohistochemical evaluation of CXCL12-CXCR4 axis and VEGFR3 expression in primary urothelial cancer and its recurrence. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:3537-42 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CXC chemokine ligand-12 (CXCL12), CXC chemokine receptor 4 CXCR4 and of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) in primary urothelial bladder carcinoma and their ..
  30. Jacobs A, Garg H, Viard M, Raviv Y, Puri A, Blumenthal R. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion and pathogenesis: implications for therapy and vaccine development. Vaccine. 2008;26:3026-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken as a whole, our studies have many different important implications for antiviral therapies and vaccine development. ..
  31. Zhang M, Liu H, Teng X, Wang H, Cui J, Jia S, et al. The differences in CXCR4 protein expression are significant for the five molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2012;36:381-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to investigate the expression of the CXCR4 protein in five molecular subtypes of breast cancer...
  32. Li B, Wetzel M, Mikovits J, Henderson E, Rogers T, Gong W, et al. The synthetic peptide WKYMVm attenuates the function of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 through activation of formyl peptide receptor-like 1. Blood. 2001;97:2941-7 pubmed
    ..gp120 and its activation results in desensitization and down-regulation of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 from monocyte surfaces...
  33. Yi Y, Shaheen F, Collman R. Preferential use of CXCR4 by R5X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates for infection of primary lymphocytes. J Virol. 2005;79:1480-6 pubmed
    ..human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains is generally defined in vitro in cell lines expressing CCR5 or CXCR4, but lymphocytes and macrophages are the principal targets in vivo...
  34. Bachelerie F. CXCL12/CXCR4-axis dysfunctions: Markers of the rare immunodeficiency disorder WHIM syndrome. Dis Markers. 2010;29:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This rare disorder is mostly linked to inherited heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations in the gene encoding CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor with a unique ligand, the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1...
  35. Saini V, Staren D, Ziarek J, Nashaat Z, Campbell E, Volkman B, et al. The CXC chemokine receptor 4 ligands ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor-1? function through distinct receptor interactions. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33466-77 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we identified extracellular ubiquitin as an endogenous CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 agonist...
  36. Scarlatti G, Tresoldi E, Bjorndal A, Fredriksson R, Colognesi C, Deng H, et al. In vivo evolution of HIV-1 co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression. Nat Med. 1997;3:1259-65 pubmed
    ..The two most widely used co-receptors thus far recognized, CCR5 and CXCR4, are expressed by both activated T lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes...
  37. Gupta S, Pillarisetti K. Cutting edge: CXCR4-Lo: molecular cloning and functional expression of a novel human CXCR4 splice variant. J Immunol. 1999;163:2368-72 pubmed
    Human CXCR4 is a specific receptor for the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and a coreceptor for T cell line tropic strains of HIV-1...
  38. Kawai T, Choi U, Whiting Theobald N, Linton G, Brenner S, Sechler J, et al. Enhanced function with decreased internalization of carboxy-terminus truncated CXCR4 responsible for WHIM syndrome. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:460-8 pubmed
    ..Carboxy-termini truncating mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 have been identified in WHIM patients...
  39. Kwak M, Hur K, Park D, Lee H, Lee H, Kim W, et al. Expression of chemokine receptors in human gastric cancer. Tumour Biol. 2005;26:65-70 pubmed
    ..Here we evaluated the expression profiles of the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 in gastric cancer, and their potential use as prognostic markers...
  40. Schwartz V, Lue H, Kraemer S, Korbiel J, Krohn R, Ohl K, et al. A functional heteromeric MIF receptor formed by CD74 and CXCR4. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2749-57 pubmed publisher
    MIF is a chemokine-like inflammatory mediator that triggers leukocyte recruitment by binding to CXCR2 and CXCR4. MIF also interacts with CD74/invariant chain, a single-pass membrane-receptor...
  41. Struckhoff A, Vitko J, Rana M, Davis C, Foderingham K, Liu C, et al. Dynamic regulation of ROCK in tumor cells controls CXCR4-driven adhesion events. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:401-12 pubmed publisher
    CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor often found aberrantly expressed on metastatic tumor cells. To investigate CXCR4 signaling in tumor cell adhesion, we stably overexpressed CXCR4 in MCF7 breast tumor cells...
  42. Bieniasz P, Fridell R, Aramori I, Ferguson S, Caron M, Cullen B. HIV-1-induced cell fusion is mediated by multiple regions within both the viral envelope and the CCR-5 co-receptor. EMBO J. 1997;16:2599-609 pubmed
    Although the human hCCR-5 chemokine receptor can serve as a co-receptor for both M-tropic (ADA and BaL) and dual-tropic (89.6) strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the closely related mouse mCCR-5 homolog is inactive...
  43. Marchese A, Benovic J. Agonist-promoted ubiquitination of the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 mediates lysosomal sorting. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45509-12 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the human immunodeficiency virus co-receptor CXCR4 undergoes rapid agonist-promoted degradation by a process involving endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits and ..
  44. Pontow S, Ratner L. Evidence for common structural determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor activity provided through functional analysis of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric coreceptors. J Virol. 2001;75:11503-14 pubmed
    ..HIV-1) infection in vivo is dependent upon the interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)...
  45. Schutyser E, Su Y, Yu Y, Gouwy M, Zaja Milatovic S, Van Damme J, et al. Hypoxia enhances CXCR4 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells and human melanoma cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2007;18:59-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the tumor microenvironment regulates chemokine receptor expression through both cytokine and oxygen levels.
  46. Balabanian K, Levoye A, Klemm L, Lagane B, Hermine O, Harriague J, et al. Leukocyte analysis from WHIM syndrome patients reveals a pivotal role for GRK3 in CXCR4 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1074-84 pubmed publisher
    ..infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, a rare immunodeficiency, and bearing a wild-type CXCR4 ORF (WHIM(WT)) display impaired CXCR4 internalization and desensitization upon exposure to CXCL12...
  47. Barbieri F, Bajetto A, Stumm R, Pattarozzi A, Porcile C, Zona G, et al. Overexpression of stromal cell-derived factor 1 and its receptor CXCR4 induces autocrine/paracrine cell proliferation in human pituitary adenomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5022-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the expression of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) and its receptor CXCR4 in human pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary tissues and their role in cell proliferation...
  48. Deschamps L, Bacha D, Rebours V, Mebarki M, Bretagnol F, Panis Y, et al. The expression of the hypoxia markers CA9 and CXCR4 is correlated with survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the ileum. Neuroendocrinology. 2012;95:214-22 pubmed publisher
    The hypoxia-inducible factor pathway regulates the expression of a diverse group of molecules such as CA9 and CXCR4. Our aim was to investigate the expression of these markers in a series of patients with an ileal neuroendocrine tumour (..
  49. Fantuzzi L, Canini I, Belardelli F, Gessani S. HIV-1 gp120 stimulates the production of beta-chemokines in human peripheral blood monocytes through a CD4-independent mechanism. J Immunol. 2001;166:5381-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors by specific Abs as well as treatment with CCR5 and CXCR4 ligands induced beta-chemokine secretion...
  50. Garg H, Blumenthal R. Role of HIV Gp41 mediated fusion/hemifusion in bystander apoptosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:3134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We review data here corresponding to the role of HIV Env hemifusion activity in HIV pathogenesis and how it interplays with other AIDS associated factors such as chemokine receptor expression and immune activation.
  51. Kamiyama H, Yoshii H, Tanaka Y, Sato H, Yamamoto N, Kubo Y. Raft localization of CXCR4 is primarily required for X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Virology. 2009;386:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..by successive interactions of viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 with two cellular surface proteins, CD4 and chemokine receptor. The two most common chemokine receptors that allow HIV-1 entry are the CCR5 and CXCR4...
  52. García Expósito L, Barroso González J, Puigdomènech I, Machado J, Blanco J, Valenzuela Fernandez A. HIV-1 requires Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics to efficiently enter and infect T lymphocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1148-66 pubmed publisher
    ..did not affect fusion, entry, and infection of vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped viruses or ligand-induced CXCR4 or CCR5 endocytosis, both clathrin-dependent processes...
  53. Wiehe J, Kaya Z, Homann J, Wohrle J, Vogt K, Nguyen T, et al. GMP-adapted overexpression of CXCR4 in human mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2073-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been identified as crucial for migration and homing of stem cells...
  54. van Buul J, Voermans C, van Gelderen J, Anthony E, van der Schoot C, Hordijk P. Leukocyte-endothelium interaction promotes SDF-1-dependent polarization of CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30302-10 pubmed
    ..To analyze the distribution of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 during SDF-1 (CXCL12)-induced chemotaxis, we retrovirally expressed a CXCR4-GFP fusion protein in the ..
  55. Yang J, Zhang B, Lin Y, Yang Y, Liu X, Lu F. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 inhibits SDF-1alpha-induced migration of non-small cell lung cancer by decreasing CXCR4 expression. Cancer Lett. 2008;269:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..impairs SDF-1alpha-dependent migration and NF-kappaB can directly bind to the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) promoter invivo. However, knockdown of BRMS1 promotes NSCLC cell migration and CXCR4 expression...
  56. Ingold B, Schulz S, Budczies J, Neumann U, Ebert M, Weichert W, et al. The role of vascular CXCR4 expression in colorectal carcinoma. Histopathology. 2009;55:576-86 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a prominent role in the biology of many different tumours, promoting angiogenesis and metastasis...
  57. Tarnowski M, Grymula K, Liu R, Tarnowska J, Drukala J, Ratajczak J, et al. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is secreted by rhabdomyosarcoma cells, modulates tumor metastasis by binding to CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors and inhibits recruitment of cancer-associated fibroblasts. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:1328-43 pubmed publisher
    ..CD74 receptors and, as recently reported, may also bind to the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-binding receptor CXCR4. Here, we report that human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines secrete MIF and that this chemokine (a) induces ..
  58. Marquez Curtis L, Gul Uludag H, Xu P, Chen J, Janowska Wieczorek A. CXCR4 transfection of cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells with the use of cationic liposome enhances their migration toward stromal cell-derived factor-1. Cytotherapy. 2013;15:840-9 pubmed publisher
    The interaction between stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor CXCR4 is one of the mechanisms by which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited to sites of injury...
  59. Glushakova S, Yi Y, Grivel J, Singh A, Schols D, De Clercq E, et al. Preferential coreceptor utilization and cytopathicity by dual-tropic HIV-1 in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:R7-R11 pubmed
    Many HIV-1 isolates at the late stage of disease are capable of using both CXCR4 and CCR5 in transfected cell lines, and are thus termed dual-tropic...
  60. Bachelder R, Wendt M, Mercurio A. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes breast carcinoma invasion in an autocrine manner by regulating the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Cancer Res. 2002;62:7203-6 pubmed
    ..VEGF regulates expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and this VEGF target is needed for invasion but not for cell survival...
  61. Chinni S, Sivalogan S, Dong Z, Filho J, Deng X, Bonfil R, et al. CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling activates Akt-1 and MMP-9 expression in prostate cancer cells: the role of bone microenvironment-associated CXCL12. Prostate. 2006;66:32-48 pubmed
    ..Here we showed that (a) CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is expressed in PC bone metastasis; (b) exogenous CXCL12 induced MMP-9 expression by PC cells; (c) bone ..
  62. Aasa Chapman M, Seymour C, Williams I, McKnight A. Novel envelope determinants for CCR3 use by human immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 2006;80:10884-9 pubmed
    ..quot;coreceptor switch": one loses the ability to use CCR3 (R5-only phenotype), and another gains use of CXCR4 in addition to CCR5 and CCR3 (R3/R5/X4-using phenotype)...
  63. Lu C, Ji Y, Ge D, Guo J, Ding J. The expression of CXCR4 and its relationship with matrix metalloproteinase-9/vascular endothelial growth factor in esophageal squamous cell cancer. Dis Esophagus. 2011;24:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) was found to be expressed in many tumors and significantly correlated with invasion, angiogenesis, ..
  64. Caruz A, Samsom M, Alonso J, Alcami J, Baleux F, Virelizier J, et al. Genomic organization and promoter characterization of human CXCR4 gene. FEBS Lett. 1998;426:271-8 pubmed
    b>CXCR4 is the receptor for the CXC chemokine SDF1 that has essential functions on embryo organogenesis, immunological functions and T lymphocyte trafficking...
  65. Zhang S, Han Z, Jing Y, Tao S, Li T, Wang H, et al. CD133(+)CXCR4(+) colon cancer cells exhibit metastatic potential and predict poor prognosis of patients. BMC Med. 2012;10:85 pubmed publisher
    ..Growing evidence suggests that a subset of cells exists among cancer stem cells. This distinct subpopulation is thought to contribute to liver metastasis; however, it has not been fully explored in CRC yet...
  66. Zou Y, Kottmann A, Kuroda M, Taniuchi I, Littman D. Function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in haematopoiesis and in cerebellar development. Nature. 1998;393:595-9 pubmed
    ..The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is broadly expressed in cells of both the immune and the central nervous systems and can mediate ..
  67. Rombouts E, Pavic B, Lowenberg B, Ploemacher R. Relation between CXCR-4 expression, Flt3 mutations, and unfavorable prognosis of adult acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2004;104:550-7 pubmed
    Recently it was shown that, analogous to normal hematopoietic cells, the level of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR-4) expression on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells correlates with stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1)-induced ..
  68. Pacheco B, Basmaciogullari S, LaBonte J, Xiang S, Sodroski J. Adaptation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins to new world monkey receptors. J Virol. 2008;82:346-57 pubmed
    ..two HIV-1 variants with different envelope glycoproteins, to replicate efficiently in cells expressing the CD4 and CXCR4 proteins of the common marmoset, a New World monkey...
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