Gene Symbol: CXCL12
Description: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12
Alias: IRH, PBSF, SCYB12, SDF1, TLSF, TPAR1, stromal cell-derived factor 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, intercrine reduced in hepatomas, pre-B cell growth-stimulating factor
Species: human
Products:     CXCL12

Top Publications

  1. Liekens S, Schols D, Hatse S. CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in angiogenesis, metastasis and stem cell mobilization. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:3903-20 pubmed
    ..The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 represents the single natural ligand for the chemokine receptor CXCR4...
  2. Yasumoto K, Koizumi K, Kawashima A, Saitoh Y, Arita Y, Shinohara K, et al. Role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2181-7 pubmed
    ..particular, NUGC4 cells expressed CXCR4 mRNA at high levels and showed vigorous migratory responses to its ligand CXCL12. CXCL12 enhanced proliferation and rapid increases in phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and extracellular ..
  3. Duda D, Kozin S, Kirkpatrick N, Xu L, Fukumura D, Jain R. CXCL12 (SDF1alpha)-CXCR4/CXCR7 pathway inhibition: an emerging sensitizer for anticancer therapies?. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:2074-80 pubmed publisher
    ..e., in the adjuvant setting). Recent studies have provided increasing evidence that activation of the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF1?) pathway is a potential mechanism of tumor resistance to both conventional therapies and biological agents ..
  4. McKeown P, Merlini P, Berzuini C, Bernardinelli L, Peyvandi F, Tubaro M, et al. Genome-wide association of early-onset myocardial infarction with single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants. Nat Genet. 2009;41:334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..PHACTR1 and 2q33 in WDR12) and six replicated prior observations (9p21, 1p13 near CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1, 10q11 near CXCL12, 1q41 in MIA3, 19p13 near LDLR and 1p32 near PCSK9)...
  5. Baumhoer D, Smida J, Zillmer S, Rosemann M, Atkinson M, Nelson P, et al. Strong expression of CXCL12 is associated with a favorable outcome in osteosarcoma. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 together with their common ligand CXCL12 form one of the most important chemokine axes in this context...
  6. Aminzadeh F, Ghorashi Z, Nabati S, Ghasemshirazi M, Arababadi M, Shamsizadeh A, et al. Differential expression of CXC chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL12 in term and pre-term neonates and their mothers. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012;68:338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This project aimed to investigate the circulating levels of CXCL12 (SDF-1) and CXCL10 (IP-10) in cord blood of term and pre-term delivered fetuses and their corresponding mothers...
  7. Tung S, Chang S, Chou M, Huang W, Hsieh Y, Shen C, et al. CXC chemokine ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 regulates cell adhesion in human colon cancer cells by induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19:91 pubmed publisher
    The CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis is involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC...
  8. Chatterjee M, Gawaz M. Platelet-derived CXCL12 (SDF-1?): basic mechanisms and clinical implications. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:1954-67 pubmed publisher
    Platelets are a major source of CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor -1?, SDF-1?) and store CXCL12 as part of their ?-granule secretome. Platelet activation enhances surface expression and release of CXCL12...
  9. Kasina S, Macoska J. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351:249-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine whether CXCL12, the ligand for the GPCR, CXCR4, might mediate prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR-dependent mechanisms ..

More Information


  1. Sakai N, Yoshidome H, Shida T, Kimura F, Shimizu H, Ohtsuka M, et al. CXCR4/CXCL12 expression profile is associated with tumor microenvironment and clinical outcome of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2012;29:101-10 pubmed publisher
    Interaction between CXCR4 and CXCL12 plays a role in tumor progression...
  2. Schutt R, Burdick M, Strieter R, Mehrad B, Keeley E. Plasma CXCL12 levels as a predictor of future stroke. Stroke. 2012;43:3382-6 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine ligand CXCL12 is constitutively expressed in the bone marrow and other tissues including the brain endothelium and is responsible for regulating the trafficking of bone marrow progenitor cells...
  3. Beider K, Ribakovsky E, Abraham M, Wald H, Weiss L, Rosenberg E, et al. Targeting the CD20 and CXCR4 pathways in non-hodgkin lymphoma with rituximab and high-affinity CXCR4 antagonist BKT140. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:3495-507 pubmed publisher
    Chemokine axis CXCR4/CXCL12 is critically involved in the survival and trafficking of normal and malignant B lymphocytes...
  4. Jin F, Brockmeier U, Otterbach F, Metzen E. New insight into the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in a breast carcinoma model: hypoxia-induced endothelial SDF-1 and tumor cell CXCR4 are required for tumor cell intravasation. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:1021-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Because both proteins were readily identifiable in a significant fraction of human breast cancer samples by immunohistochemistry, CXCR4 may constitute a molecular target for therapy when both, SDF-1, and CXCR4 are expressed. ..
  5. Piao H, Tao Y, Zhu R, Wang S, Tang C, Fu Q, et al. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in the maintenance of Th2 bias at the maternal/fetal interface in early human pregnancy. Cell Mol Immunol. 2012;9:423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..DSCs), decidual immune cells (DICs) and embryo-derived trophoblast cells, and investigated the regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction on Th2 bias at the maternal/fetal interface in early human pregnancy...
  6. Ma X, Jin Y, Sun H, Yu L, Bai J, Chen F, et al. CXCL12 G801A polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2012;58 Suppl:OL1702-8 pubmed
    b>CXCL12 is an important alpha-chemokine that regulates many essential biological processes including tumor development and metastasis...
  7. Torossian F, Anginot A, Chabanon A, Clay D, Guerton B, Desterke C, et al. CXCR7 participates in CXCL12-induced CD34+ cell cycling through ?-arrestin-dependent Akt activation. Blood. 2014;123:191-202 pubmed publisher
    In addition to its well-known effect on migration and homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), CXCL12 chemokine also exhibits a cell cycle and survival-promoting factor for human CD34(+) HSPCs...
  8. Wang J, He Q, Shao Y, Ji M. Chemokines fluctuate in the progression of primary breast cancer. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17:596-608 pubmed
    ..results showed that in all cases from benign diseases to invasive carcinoma, the concentration of CXCL8, CXCR4 and CXCL12 was significantly different; in benign subgroups (benign change, benign change with proliferation, atypia), the ..
  9. Domanska U, Kruizinga R, Nagengast W, Timmer Bosscha H, Huls G, de Vries E, et al. A review on CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in oncology: no place to hide. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:219-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Important representatives of this system are the chemokine ligand CXCL12 and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)...
  10. Mo W, Chen J, Patel A, Zhang L, Chau V, Li Y, et al. CXCR4/CXCL12 mediate autocrine cell- cycle progression in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Cell. 2013;152:1077-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, CXCL12, promote MPNST growth by stimulating cyclin D1 expression and cell-cycle progression through PI3-kinase (PI3K) and ..
  11. Uygur B, Wu W. SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:139 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression level of CXCR4 and CXCL12 was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and qPCR analyses...
  12. Kontogianni P, Zambirinis C, Theodoropoulos G, Gazouli M, Michalopoulos N, Flessas J, et al. The impact of the stromal cell-derived factor-1-3'A and E-selectin S128R polymorphisms on breast cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings support that the SDF-1-3'A confers increased susceptibility to breast cancer and that the E-selectin S128R CC genotype may be related to poorer prognosis. Investigation in bigger cohorts of patients is warranted. ..
  13. Costello C, McCullagh B, Howell K, Sands M, Belperio J, Keane M, et al. A role for the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, in the pathogenesis of human pulmonary vascular disease. Eur Respir J. 2012;39:1415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of pulmonary hypertensive diseases, we set out to establish if CXCR7, a receptor for the pro-angiogenic ligand CXCL12, is expressed in the vasculature of human lung diseases and examine its role in mediating CXCL12-induced responses ..
  14. Petruzziello Pellegrini T, Yuen D, Page A, Patel S, Soltyk A, Matouk C, et al. The CXCR4/CXCR7/SDF-1 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:759-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Stx also enhanced the association of CXCR4, CXCR7, and SDF1 mRNAs with ribosomes...
  15. Rao S, Sengupta R, Choe E, Woerner B, Jackson E, Sun T, et al. CXCL12 mediates trophic interactions between endothelial and tumor cells in glioblastoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33005 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular basis for GBM-EC interactions is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 could mediate direct interactions between GBM cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells ..
  16. Singh A, Arora S, Bhardwaj A, Srivastava S, Kadakia M, Wang B, et al. CXCL12/CXCR4 protein signaling axis induces sonic hedgehog expression in pancreatic cancer cells via extracellular regulated kinase- and Akt kinase-mediated activation of nuclear factor ?B: implications for bidirectional tumor-stromal interactions. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests a major role of tumor-stromal interactions in pancreatic cancer pathobiology. The chemokine CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)), abundantly produced by stromal cells, promotes progression, metastasis, ..
  17. O Boyle G, Swidenbank I, Marshall H, Barker C, Armstrong J, White S, et al. Inhibition of CXCR4-CXCL12 chemotaxis in melanoma by AMD11070. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:1634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver-resident myofibroblasts excrete CXCL12, which is able to promote the migration of CXCR4-expressing tumour cells from the blood into the liver...
  18. de Lourdes Perim A, Guembarovski R, Oda J, Lopes L, Ariza C, Amarante M, et al. CXCL12 and TP53 genetic polymorphisms as markers of susceptibility in a Brazilian children population with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:4591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic polymorphisms in the 3'UTR region of the CXCL12 (rs1801157) and TP53 codon 72 (rs1042522) genes may contribute to susceptibility to childhood ALL because they ..
  19. Tanegashima K, Suzuki K, Nakayama Y, Tsuji K, Shigenaga A, Otaka A, et al. CXCL14 is a natural inhibitor of the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1731-5 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway is crucial for the migration of hematopoietic stem cells, various immune cells, and malignant tumor cells...
  20. Fuchs K, Hippe A, Schmaus A, Homey B, Sleeman J, Orian Rousseau V. Opposing effects of high- and low-molecular weight hyaluronan on CXCL12-induced CXCR4 signaling depend on CD44. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e819 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a molecular link between HA, its receptor CD44 and the chemokine CXCL12 in the regulation of cell motility and angiogenesis...
  21. Shen B, Zheng M, Lu J, Jiang Q, Wang T, Huang X. CXCL12-CXCR4 promotes proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:5403-8 pubmed
    b>CXCL12 exerts a wide variety of chemotactic effects on cells. Evidence indicates that CXCL12, in conjunction with its receptor, CXCR4, promotes invasion and metastasis of tumor cells...
  22. Singh V, Jaiswal P, Kapoor R, Kapoor R, Mittal R. Impact of chemokines CCR5?32, CXCL12G801A, and CXCR2C1208T on bladder cancer susceptibility in north Indian population. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:4765-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, CCR5?32 exhibited no association. Study with large sample size and diverse ethnicity are required to validate these observations. ..
  23. Liberman J, Sartelet H, Flahaut M, Mühlethaler Mottet A, Coulon A, Nyalendo C, et al. Involvement of the CXCR7/CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in the malignant progression of human neuroblastoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43665 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine CXCL12, and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 have been involved in tumor progression and dissemination...
  24. Hoffmann F, Müller W, Schütz D, Penfold M, Wong Y, Schulz S, et al. Rapid uptake and degradation of CXCL12 depend on CXCR7 carboxyl-terminal serine/threonine residues. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28362-77 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL12 signaling through G protein-coupled CXCR4 regulates cell migration during ontogenesis and disease states including cancer and inflammation...
  25. Gianesin K, Freguja R, Carmona F, Zanchetta M, Del Bianco P, Malacrida S, et al. The role of genetic variants of Stromal cell-Derived Factor 1 in pediatric HIV-1 infection and disease progression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44460 pubmed publisher
    Stromal cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF1) is the natural ligand of CXCR4, the coreceptor of HIV-1 X4 viruses. This study investigated the role of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 (NM_000609.5:c...
  26. Chen L, Advani S, Thai K, Kabir M, Sood M, Gibson I, et al. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling preserves microvascular integrity and renal function in chronic kidney disease. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92227 pubmed publisher
    ..Augmentation of this pathway, either purposefully or serendipitously with either novel or existing therapies, may attenuate renal decline in CKD. ..
  27. Razmkhah M, Ghaderi A. SDF-1alpha G801A polymorphism in Southern Iranian patients with colorectal and gastric cancers. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2013;32:28-31 pubmed publisher
    ..05). SDF-1 gene polymorphism at position 801 (G>A) was not associated with colorectal and gastric cancers in Southern Iranian patients. ..
  28. Liarmakopoulos E, Theodoropoulos G, Vaiopoulou A, Rizos S, Aravantinos G, Kouraklis G, et al. Effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and survivin gene polymorphisms on gastric cancer risk. Mol Med Rep. 2013;7:887-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The SDF1-3'A polymorphism has been investigated in various types of cancer; however, no information is currently ..
  29. Yuan L, Sakamoto N, Song G, Sato M. Low-level shear stress induces human mesenchymal stem cell migration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis via MAPK signaling pathways. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:2384-93 pubmed publisher
  30. Faber A, Goessler U, Hoermann K, Schultz J, Umbreit C, Stern Straeter J. SDF-1-CXCR4 axis: cell trafficking in the cancer stem cell niche of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:2325-31 pubmed publisher
    Stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?), also known as CXCL12, has variable effects on a plurality of cells. CXCR4 has been identified as its corresponding receptor...
  31. Marquez Curtis L, Gul Uludag H, Xu P, Chen J, Janowska Wieczorek A. CXCR4 transfection of cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells with the use of cationic liposome enhances their migration toward stromal cell-derived factor-1. Cytotherapy. 2013;15:840-9 pubmed publisher
  32. Stellos K, Rahmann A, Kilias A, Ruf M, Sopova K, Stamatelopoulos K, et al. Expression of platelet-bound stromal cell-derived factor-1 in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Further in vivo studies are required to elucidate the role of SDF-1 in atrial remodeling and the atrial fibrillation course. ..
  33. Zhi Y, Chen J, Zhang S, Chang X, Ma J, Dai D. Down-regulation of CXCL12 by DNA hypermethylation and its involvement in gastric cancer metastatic progression. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:650-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is little information regarding chemokine expression in gastric cancer. In this study, we examined CXCL12 expression in gastric cancer and also evaluated whether the down-regulation of CXCL12 is due to aberrant ..
  34. Hwang S, Zimmerman N, Agle K, Turner J, Kumar S, Dwinell M. E-cadherin is critical for collective sheet migration and is regulated by the chemokine CXCL12 protein during restitution. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22227-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of these studies was to define the role for the chemokine CXCL12 in regulating E-cadherin during collective sheet migration during epithelial restitution...
  35. de Oliveira K, Guembarovski R, Guembarovski A, da Silva do Amaral Herrera A, Sobrinho W, Ariza C, et al. CXCL12, CXCR4 and IFN? genes expression: implications for proinflammatory microenvironment of breast cancer. Clin Exp Med. 2013;13:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the frequency of CXCL12 rs1801157 polymorphism in peripheral blood and the expression of CXCL12, CXCR4 and IFN? mRNA in normal and mammary ..
  36. Cai C, Wang L, Dong Q, Wu Z, Li M, Sun Y. Association of CXCL12 and CXCR4 gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. Tissue Antigens. 2013;82:165-70 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL12 and its unique receptor CXCR4, play important roles in inflammation and cancer metastasis...
  37. McIver S, Loveland K, Roman S, Nixon B, Kitazawa R, McLaughlin E. The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are implicated in human seminoma metastasis. Andrology. 2013;1:517-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These tumours originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells, which arise from dysfunctional gonocytes. CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, have been implicated in migration, proliferation and survival of gonocytes and ..
  38. Li H, Yang L, Fu H, Yan J, Wang Y, Guo H, et al. Association between G?i2 and ELMO1/Dock180 connects chemokine signalling with Rac activation and metastasis. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1706 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine CXCL12 and its G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 control the migration, invasiveness and metastasis of breast cancer cells...
  39. Berahovich R, Zabel B, Lewén S, Walters M, Ebsworth K, Wang Y, et al. Endothelial expression of CXCR7 and the regulation of systemic CXCL12 levels. Immunology. 2014;141:111-22 pubmed publisher
    The concentration of CXCL12/SDF-1 in the bloodstream is tightly regulated, given its central role in leucocyte and stem/progenitor cell egress from bone marrow and recruitment to sites of inflammation or injury...
  40. Wang S, Ma N, Kawanishi S, Hiraku Y, Oikawa S, Xie Y, et al. Relationships of alpha-SMA-positive fibroblasts and SDF-1-positive tumor cells with neoangiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:507353 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that CAFs and NPC tumor cells may enhance neoangiogenesis in a VEGF- and SDF-1-dependent manner by recruiting EPCs from the bone marrow into tumor stroma. ..
  41. Tee Y, Yang S, Wang P, Tsai H, Lin L, Lee S, et al. G801A polymorphism of human stromal cell-derived factor 1 gene raises no susceptibility to neoplastic lesions of uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2012;22:1297-302 pubmed
  42. Li M, Hale J, Rich J, Ransohoff R, Lathia J. Chemokine CXCL12 in neurodegenerative diseases: an SOS signal for stem cell-based repair. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine CXCL12 (C-X-C motif ligand 12) and its signaling receptor CXCR4 (C-X-C motif receptor 4) represent an important pathway ..
  43. Canals M, Scholten D, de Munnik S, Han M, Smit M, Leurs R. Ubiquitination of CXCR7 controls receptor trafficking. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34192 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine receptor CXCR7 binds CXCL11 and CXCL12 with high affinity, chemokines that were previously thought to bind exclusively to CXCR4 and CXCR3, respectively...
  44. Popple A, Durrant L, Spendlove I, Rolland P, Scott I, Deen S, et al. The chemokine, CXCL12, is an independent predictor of poor survival in ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:1306-13 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor, CXCR4, have been implicated in numerous tumour types where expression promotes tumour growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and suppresses tumour immunity...
  45. Gong H, Tan M, Wang Y, Shen B, Liu Z, Zhang F, et al. The CXCL12 G801A polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence from 17 case-control studies. Gene. 2012;509:228-31 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL12 has been implicated in human carcinogenesis, but the association between the most-studied G801A polymorphism (rs1801157) and the risk of various cancers was reported with inconclusive results...
  46. Dimberg J, Hugander A, Lofgren S, Wågsäter D. Polymorphism and circulating levels of the chemokine CXCL12 in colorectal cancer patients. Int J Mol Med. 2007;19:11-5 pubmed
    The chemokine CXCL12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is a small protein that regulates leukocyte trafficking and is variably expressed in a number of normal and cancer tissues...
  47. McQuibban G, Butler G, Gong J, Bendall L, Power C, Clark Lewis I, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase activity inactivates the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43503-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MMPs may be important regulatory proteases in attenuating SDF-1 function and point to a deep convergence of two important networks, chemokines and MMPs, to regulate leukocytic activity in vivo. ..
  48. Perissinotto E, Cavalloni G, Leone F, Fonsato V, Mitola S, Grignani G, et al. Involvement of chemokine receptor 4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 system during osteosarcoma tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:490-7 pubmed
  49. Daar E, Lynn H, Donfield S, Lail A, O Brien S, Huang W, et al. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 genotype, coreceptor tropism, and HIV type 1 disease progression. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1597-605 pubmed
    ..cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected hemophiliacs to define the relationship between the SDF1-3'A allele, the plasma HIV-1 coreceptor tropism, and the natural history of HIV-1 disease...
  50. Lee Y, Kuo W, Lin C, Chen W, Cheng W, Chen S, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms of CXCL12/SDF1 gene and its receptor, CXCR4, to the susceptibility and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2011;73:147-52 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations of chemokine CXCL12, previously known as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1), and its receptor, CXCR4, gene variants on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk and disease severity...
  51. Karin N. The multiple faces of CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) in the regulation of immunity during health and disease. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we reported that one of these chemokines CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) functions as an anti-inflammatory chemokine during autoimmune inflammatory responses and explored the ..
  52. Lee B, Lee T, Avraham S, Avraham H. Involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha in breast cancer cell migration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2004;2:327-38 pubmed
    ..Stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha; CXCL12) stimulation of breast cancer cells resulted in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activation, AKT phosphorylation, ..
  53. Bleul C, Farzan M, Choe H, Parolin C, Clark Lewis I, Sodroski J, et al. The lymphocyte chemoattractant SDF-1 is a ligand for LESTR/fusin and blocks HIV-1 entry. Nature. 1996;382:829-33 pubmed
  54. Liu S, Zhu H. Association between polymorphism of SDF1 (CXCL12) gene and HIV-1 susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:112-9 pubmed
    Studies on the association between SDF1 genotype and HIV-1 susceptibility have generated inconclusive results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the findings of different studies...
  55. Hattori K, Heissig B, Rafii S. The regulation of hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor mobilization by chemokine SDF-1. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:575-82 pubmed
    The chemokine, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF1) has been shown to modulate the homing of stem cells to its site by mediating chemotaxis...
  56. Gulino A, Moratto D, Sozzani S, Cavadini P, Otero K, Tassone L, et al. Altered leukocyte response to CXCL12 in patients with warts hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome. Blood. 2004;104:444-52 pubmed
    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its functional ligand, CXCL12, are essential regulators of development and homeostasis of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs...
  57. Fuhler G, Drayer A, Olthof S, Schuringa J, Coffer P, Vellenga E. Reduced activation of protein kinase B, Rac, and F-actin polymerization contributes to an impairment of stromal cell derived factor-1 induced migration of CD34+ cells from patients with myelodysplasia. Blood. 2008;111:359-68 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results show a reduced migration of MDS CD34(+) cells toward SDF-1, as a result of impaired activation of the PI3K and Rac pathways and a decreased F-actin polymerization. ..
  58. de Oliveira C, Cavassin G, Perim A, Nasser T, de Oliveira K, Fungaro M, et al. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 chemokine gene variant in blood donors and chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. J Clin Lab Anal. 2007;21:49-54 pubmed
    ..The stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gene contains a common polymorphism, termed SDF1-3'A, in an evolutionarily conserved segment of the 3' untranslated region (UTR)...
  59. Yuecheng Y, Xiaoyan X. Stromal-cell derived factor-1 regulates epithelial ovarian cancer cell invasion by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007;16:430-5 pubmed
    ..SDF-1-CXCR4 interaction confers on ovarian cancer cells a remarkable potential to activate MMPs for subsequently invading the peritoneal cavity. ..
  60. Jia C, Zhao J, Zhang S, Qi F. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor may play an important role in the process of neovascularization of herniated intervertebral discs. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:136-44 pubmed
  61. Saigusa S, Toiyama Y, Tanaka K, Yokoe T, Okugawa Y, Kawamoto A, et al. Stromal CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression is associated with distant recurrence and poor prognosis in rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:2051-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been reported that expression of CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 are associated with migration, invasion, and proliferation of colorectal cancer...
  62. Zannettino A, Farrugia A, Kortesidis A, Manavis J, To L, Martin S, et al. Elevated serum levels of stromal-derived factor-1alpha are associated with increased osteoclast activity and osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma patients. Cancer Res. 2005;65:1700-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that inhibition of the CXCR4-SDF-1alpha axis may provide an effective means of treatment for MM-induced osteolysis. ..
  63. Salogni L, Musso T, Bosisio D, Mirolo M, Jala V, Haribabu B, et al. Activin A induces dendritic cell migration through the polarized release of CXC chemokine ligands 12 and 14. Blood. 2009;113:5848-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study extends the proinflammatory role of activin A to DC recruitment and provides a cautionary message about the reliability of the in vitro chemotaxis assays in discriminating direct versus indirect chemotactic agonists. ..
  64. Liang Z, Brooks J, Willard M, Liang K, Yoon Y, Kang S, et al. CXCR4/CXCL12 axis promotes VEGF-mediated tumor angiogenesis through Akt signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:716-22 pubmed
    ..Our results showed that CXCR4/CXCL12 induced Akt phosphorylation, which resulted in upregulation of VEGF at both the mRNA and protein levels...
  65. Sun Y, Wang J, Shelburne C, Lopatin D, Chinnaiyan A, Rubin M, et al. Expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 (SDF-1) in human prostate cancers (PCa) in vivo. J Cell Biochem. 2003;89:462-73 pubmed
    ..The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are now known to modulate the migration and survival of an increasing array of normal and ..
  66. Libura J, Drukala J, Majka M, Tomescu O, Navenot J, Kucia M, et al. CXCR4-SDF-1 signaling is active in rhabdomyosarcoma cells and regulates locomotion, chemotaxis, and adhesion. Blood. 2002;100:2597-606 pubmed
  67. Hesselgesser J, Taub D, Baskar P, Greenberg M, Hoxie J, Kolson D, et al. Neuronal apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120 and the chemokine SDF-1 alpha is mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Curr Biol. 1998;8:595-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a chemokine and an HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein eliciting apoptotic responses through a chemokine receptor. ..
  68. Wu X, Li D, Yuan M, Zhu Y, Wang M. The expression of CXCR4/CXCL12 in first-trimester human trophoblast cells. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1877-85 pubmed
    ..Among these receptors, CXCR4 was found highly transcribed. We demonstrated afterward that both CXCR4 and CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1; SDF-1) were expressed in trophoblast cells...
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    ..CXCR4, but not SDF-1/CXCL12, was constitutively expressed by T84, HT-29, HT-29/-18C1, and Caco-2 human colon epithelial cell lines...