Gene Symbol: Cx43
Description: gap junction protein alpha 1
Alias: AVSD3, CMDR, CX43, EKVP, EKVP3, GJAL, HLHS1, HSS, ODDD, PPKCA, gap junction alpha-1 protein, connexin-43, gap junction 43 kDa heart protein, gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43kDa
Species: human
Products:     Cx43

Top Publications

  1. Paznekas W, Boyadjiev S, Shapiro R, Daniels O, Wollnik B, Keegan C, et al. Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:408-18 pubmed
    ..The human connexin 43 gene, or GJA1, is located at human chromosome 6q22-q23 within the candidate region for the oculodentodigital ..
  2. Yu S, Xiao H, Jiang X, Wang Q, Li Y, Yang X, et al. Connexin 43 reverses malignant phenotypes of glioma stem cells by modulating E-cadherin. Stem Cells. 2012;30:108-20 pubmed publisher
    ..GSCs expressed very low level of connexins, Cx43 in particular, which are key components of gap junction...
  3. Gemel J, Nelson T, Burt J, Beyer E. Inducible coexpression of connexin37 or connexin40 with connexin43 selectively affects intercellular molecular transfer. J Membr Biol. 2012;245:231-41 pubmed publisher
    Many tissues express multiple gap junction proteins, or connexins (Cx); for example, Cx43, Cx40, and Cx37 are coexpressed in vascular cells...
  4. Banerjee D, Das S, Molina S, Madgwick D, Katz M, Jena S, et al. Investigation of the reciprocal relationship between the expression of two gap junction connexin proteins, connexin46 and connexin43. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24519-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the three vertebrate lens connexins, two connexins, connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin46 (Cx46), show reciprocal expression and subsequent function in the lens and in lens cell culture...
  5. Dang X, Doble B, Kardami E. The carboxy-tail of connexin-43 localizes to the nucleus and inhibits cell growth. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;242:35-8 pubmed
    ..To define the role of a non-channel forming domain of connexin-43 (Cx43), the main constituent of cardiomyocyte gap junctions, on growth regulation, we expressed its C-terminal portion (..
  6. Qin H, Shao Q, Curtis H, Galipeau J, Belliveau D, Wang T, et al. Retroviral delivery of connexin genes to human breast tumor cells inhibits in vivo tumor growth by a mechanism that is independent of significant gap junctional intercellular communication. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29132-8 pubmed human breast tumor cells were found to exhibit diverse gap junction phenotypes including (a) undetectable Cx43 and no intercellular communication (HBL100); (b) low levels of Cx43 and sparse intercellular communication (MDA-MB-..
  7. Saffitz J, Laing J, Yamada K. Connexin expression and turnover : implications for cardiac excitability. Circ Res. 2000;86:723-8 pubmed
    ..Regulation of connexin degradation may be an important mechanism for adjusting intercellular coupling in the heart under normal and pathophysiological conditions. ..
  8. Wu J, Zhou H, Wang C, Zhang B, Liu D, Wang W, et al. [Decreased expression of Cx32 and Cx43 and their function of gap junction intercellular communication in gastric cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2007;29:742-7 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Cx32 and Cx43 proteins in tissue samples...
  9. Pollmann M, Shao Q, Laird D, Sandig M. Connexin 43 mediated gap junctional communication enhances breast tumor cell diapedesis in culture. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R522-34 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis we expressed connexin 43 (Cx43) in GJIC-deficient mammary epithelial tumor cells (HBL100) and examined their ability to form gap ..

More Information


  1. Udaka N, Miyagi Y, Ito T. Connexin expression in mouse lung tumor. Cancer Lett. 2007;246:224-9 pubmed
    ..b>Cx43 was similarly detectable in normal lung, smaller size tumor and larger size tumor, but western blotting showed that ..
  2. Richards T, Dunn C, Carter W, Usui M, Olerud J, Lampe P. Protein kinase C spatially and temporally regulates gap junctional communication during human wound repair via phosphorylation of connexin43 on serine368. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:555-62 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) on serine368 (S368) has been shown to decrease gap junctional communication via a reduction in unitary channel conductance...
  3. Xu H, Li Q, Zhang Y, Zhao Y, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al. Connexin 43 recruits E-cadherin expression and inhibits the malignant behaviour of lung cancer cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2008;46:315-21 pubmed publisher
    The interaction of connexin 43 and E-cadherin may play an important role in carcinogenesis and malignant behaviour of tumours...
  4. Contreras J, Saez J, Bukauskas F, Bennett M. Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:11388-93 pubmed
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or "unapposed" hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions...
  5. Oviedo Orta E, Perreau M, Evans W, Potolicchio I. Control of the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells by connexins. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that expression of Cx43 and its phosphorylated isoforms increased in response to the engagement of CD3 and CD28...
  6. Doble B, Dang X, Ping P, Fandrich R, Nickel B, Jin Y, et al. Phosphorylation of serine 262 in the gap junction protein connexin-43 regulates DNA synthesis in cell-cell contact forming cardiomyocytes. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:507-14 pubmed junction coupling and protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43)...
  7. Lichtenstein A, Minogue P, Beyer E, Berthoud V. Autophagy: a pathway that contributes to connexin degradation. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:910-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the involvement of autophagy in proteolysis of the wild-type connexins CX50 and CX43, and a cataract-associated connexin mutant, CX50P88S, which forms cytoplasmic accumulations...
  8. Iughetti P, Alonso L, Wilcox W, Alonso N, Passos Bueno M. Mapping of the autosomal recessive (AR) craniometaphyseal dysplasia locus to chromosome region 6q21-22 and confirmation of genetic heterogeneity for mild AR spondylocostal dysplasia. Am J Med Genet. 2000;95:482-91 pubmed
  9. Chen J, Cheng Y, Chou M, Sen Lin T, Lai W, Ho W, et al. The correlation between aberrant connexin 43 mRNA expression induced by promoter methylation and nodal micrometastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4200-4 pubmed
    ..Although aberrant Cx43 gene expression was linked with lung tumorigenesis, our understanding to the mechanism was still limited...
  10. Kanemitsu M, Loo L, Simon S, Lau A, Eckhart W. Tyrosine phosphorylation of connexin 43 by v-Src is mediated by SH2 and SH3 domain interactions. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:22824-31 pubmed v-src transformed cells is accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of the gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43). Cx43 is phosphorylated on tyrosine by v-Src...
  11. Girao H, Catarino S, Pereira P. Eps15 interacts with ubiquitinated Cx43 and mediates its internalization. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of GJIC by degradation of Cx43 has been a matter of debate over the last two decades and both the proteasome and the lysosome have been implicated...
  12. Giepmans B, Hengeveld T, Postma F, Moolenaar W. Interaction of c-Src with gap junction protein connexin-43. Role in the regulation of cell-cell communication. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8544-9 pubmed
    Cell-cell communication via connexin-43 (Cx43)-based gap junctions is transiently inhibited by certain mitogens, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood...
  13. Nakase T, Yoshida Y, Nagata K. Enhanced connexin 43 immunoreactivity in penumbral areas in the human brain following ischemia. Glia. 2006;54:369-75 pubmed
    ..Moreover, astrocytes establish a glial network and communicate through gap junctions in the brain. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of major component proteins in astrocytic gap junctions...
  14. de la Parra D, Zenteno J. A new GJA1 (connexin 43) mutation causing oculodentodigital dysplasia associated to uncommon features. Ophthalmic Genet. 2007;28:198-202 pubmed
    ..The disease is caused by heterozygous mutations in the 6q22-q23 located GJA1 gene, that encodes connexin 43 (Cx43). In this paper we describe a novel Cx43 mutation (G2V) found in a Mexican eight-year-old boy...
  15. Tacheau C, Laboureau J, Mauviel A, Verrecchia F. TNF-alpha represses connexin43 expression in HaCat keratinocytes via activation of JNK signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:438-44 pubmed publisher the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NFkappaB pathways downstream of TNF-alpha in the context of connexin43 (Cx43) gene expression...
  16. Smyth J, Shaw R. Autoregulation of connexin43 gap junction formation by internally translated isoforms. Cell Rep. 2013;5:611-8 pubmed publisher
    During each heartbeat, intercellular electrical coupling via connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions enables synchronous cardiac contraction. In failing hearts, impaired Cx43 trafficking reduces gap junction coupling, resulting in arrhythmias...
  17. Lahlou H, Fanjul M, Pradayrol L, Susini C, Pyronnet S. Restoration of functional gap junctions through internal ribosome entry site-dependent synthesis of endogenous connexins in density-inhibited cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4034-45 pubmed the antiproliferative somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2) is due to overexpression of endogenous connexins Cx26 and Cx43 and consequent formation of functional gap junctions...
  18. Musa F, Ratajczak P, Sahu J, Pentlicky S, Fryer A, Richard G, et al. Ocular manifestations in oculodentodigital dysplasia resulting from a heterozygous missense mutation (L113P) in GJA1 (connexin 43). Eye (Lond). 2009;23:549-55 pubmed publisher
    To characterize the ophthalmic findings, intrafamilial variability, and molecular genetic basis of oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD; MIM no. 164200).
  19. Warn Cramer B, Cottrell G, Burt J, Lau A. Regulation of connexin-43 gap junctional intercellular communication by mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9188-96 pubmed
    ..Studies with connexin-43 mutants suggest that MAP kinase phosphorylation at one or more of the tandem Ser279/Ser282 sites is sufficient to disrupt gap junctional intercellular communication. ..
  20. Laird D. Closing the gap on autosomal dominant connexin-26 and connexin-43 mutants linked to human disease. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2997-3001 pubmed
    ..For instance, the most prevalent connexin in the human body is connexin-43 (Cx43), yet autosomal dominant mutations in the GJA1 gene, which encodes Cx43, exhibit modest developmental disorders ..
  21. Huang T, Shao Q, Macdonald A, Xin L, Lorentz R, Bai D, et al. Autosomal recessive GJA1 (Cx43) gene mutations cause oculodentodigital dysplasia by distinct mechanisms. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2857-66 pubmed publisher
    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is mainly an autosomal dominant human disease caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene, which encodes the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43)...
  22. Richardson R, Donnai D, Meire F, Dixon M. Expression of Gja1 correlates with the phenotype observed in oculodentodigital syndrome/type III syndactyly. J Med Genet. 2004;41:60-7 pubmed
  23. Kameritsch P, Pogoda K, Pohl U. Channel-independent influence of connexin 43 on cell migration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:1993-2001 pubmed publisher
    In this review we focus on the role of connexins, especially of Cx43, as modulators of migration - a fundamental process in embryogenesis and in physiologic functions of the adult organism...
  24. Toyofuku T, Akamatsu Y, Zhang H, Kuzuya T, Tada M, Hori M. c-Src regulates the interaction between connexin-43 and ZO-1 in cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1780-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that c-Src regulates the interaction between connexin-43 and ZO-1 through tyrosine phosphorylation and through the binding of its SH2 domain to connexin-43. ..
  25. Leithe E, Kjenseth A, Sirnes S, Stenmark H, Brech A, Rivedal E. Ubiquitylation of the gap junction protein connexin-43 signals its trafficking from early endosomes to lysosomes in a process mediated by Hrs and Tsg101. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ubiquitin is strongly relocalized to connexin-43 (Cx43; also known as Gja1) gap junction plaques in response to activation of protein kinase C...
  26. Carystinos G, Kandouz M, Alaoui Jamali M, Batist G. Unexpected induction of the human connexin 43 promoter by the ras signaling pathway is mediated by a novel putative promoter sequence. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;63:821-31 pubmed
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) is essential for survival and is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
  27. ElZarrad M, Haroon A, Willecke K, Dobrowolski R, Gillespie M, Al Mehdi A. Connexin-43 upregulation in micrometastases and tumor vasculature and its role in tumor cell attachment to pulmonary endothelium. BMC Med. 2008;6:20 pubmed publisher
  28. Tang B, Peng Z, Yu P, Yu G, Qian F, Zeng D, et al. Aberrant expression of Cx43 is associated with the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer and Cx43-mediated gap junction enhances gastric cancer cell diapedesis from peritoneal mesothelium. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74527 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we detected the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in primary gastric cancer tissues, intra-abdominal exfoliated cancer cells, and matched metastatic ..
  29. Fidler L, Wilson G, Liu F, Cui X, Scherer S, Taylor G, et al. Abnormal connexin43 in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy caused by plakophilin-2 mutations. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:4219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced connexin43 expression and localization to the intercalated disk occurs in heterozygous human PKP-2 mutations, potentially explaining the delayed conduction and propensity to develop arrhythmias seen in this disease. ..
  30. Cervellati F, Franceschetti G, Lunghi L, Franzellitti S, Valbonesi P, Fabbri E, et al. Effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on trophoblastic connexins. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..HF-EMF exposure significantly and selectively increased Cx40 and Cx43, without altering protein expression...
  31. Foss B, Tronstad K, Bruserud Ø. Connexin-based signaling in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:1-8 pubmed publisher
  32. Smyth J, Hong T, Gao D, Vogan J, Jensen B, Fong T, et al. Limited forward trafficking of connexin 43 reduces cell-cell coupling in stressed human and mouse myocardium. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:266-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate that protecting the microtubule-based forward delivery apparatus of connexons could improve cell-cell coupling and reduce ischemia-related cardiac arrhythmias. ..
  33. Giepmans B, Moolenaar W. The gap junction protein connexin43 interacts with the second PDZ domain of the zona occludens-1 protein. Curr Biol. 1998;8:931-4 pubmed
    ..Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and the most well-studied member of this family...
  34. Schalper K, Sánchez H, Lee S, Altenberg G, Nathanson M, Saez J. Connexin 43 hemichannels mediate the Ca2+ influx induced by extracellular alkalinization. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C1504-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that extracellular alkalinization induces opening of connexin 43 hemichannels (Cx43 HCs). Increasing extracellular pH from 7.4 to 8...
  35. Zhao W, Han H, Zhang Z. Suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis by connexin43 involves the secretion of follistatin-like 1 mediated via histone acetylation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that transfection of connexin43 (Cx43) cDNA retarded the growth of a highly metastatic human pulmonary giant cell carcinoma cell line, PG, both in vitro ..
  36. Brandner J, Houdek P, Hüsing B, Kaiser C, Moll I. Connexins 26, 30, and 43: differences among spontaneous, chronic, and accelerated human wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:1310-20 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the staining patterns of the GJ proteins Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43 in human cutaneous wound healing and compared ex vivo spontaneous wound healing to non-healing wounds (chronic leg ..
  37. Crespin S, Bechberger J, Mesnil M, Naus C, Sin W. The carboxy-terminal tail of connexin43 gap junction protein is sufficient to mediate cytoskeleton changes in human glioma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:589-97 pubmed publisher
    Connexin43 (Cx43) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the gap junction protein family that mediates gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) by allowing exchange of cytosolic materials...
  38. Oviedo Orta E, Hoy T, Evans W. Intercellular communication in the immune system: differential expression of connexin40 and 43, and perturbation of gap junction channel functions in peripheral blood and tonsil human lymphocyte subpopulations. Immunology. 2000;99:578-90 pubmed
    ..Connexin43 (Cx43) mRNA was expressed in peripheral blood and tonsil lymphocytes, but Cx40 mRNA expression was confined to tonsil-..
  39. Simek J, Churko J, Shao Q, Laird D. Cx43 has distinct mobility within plasma-membrane domains, indicative of progressive formation of gap-junction plaques. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:554-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a dynamic molecule, having a short half-life of only a few hours...
  40. Lauf U, Giepmans B, Lopez P, Braconnot S, Chen S, Falk M. Dynamic trafficking and delivery of connexons to the plasma membrane and accretion to gap junctions in living cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10446-51 pubmed
    ..investigated delivery of GJ channel subunits (connexons) assembled from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged connexin 43 (Cx43) to the PM and GJs in living cells...
  41. Pizzuti A, Flex E, Mingarelli R, Salpietro C, Zelante L, Dallapiccola B. A homozygous GJA1 gene mutation causes a Hallermann-Streiff/ODDD spectrum phenotype. Hum Mutat. 2004;23:286 pubmed
    ..However, while ODDD is a dominantly inherited disorder due to mutations in the connexin 43 gene GJA1, the inheritance pattern of the HSS syndrome is still debated...
  42. Gong X, Shao Q, Langlois S, Bai D, Laird D. Differential potency of dominant negative connexin43 mutants in oculodentodigital dysplasia. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19190-202 pubmed
    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is a congenital autosomal dominant disorder with phenotypic variability, which has been associated with mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding connexin43 (Cx43)...
  43. Li Z, Zhou Z, Saunders M, Donahue H. Modulation of connexin43 alters expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C1248-55 pubmed
    ..19 (hfob/cx43(-))...
  44. Caltabiano R, Torrisi A, Condorelli D, Albanese V, Lanzafame S. High levels of connexin 43 mRNA in high grade astrocytomas. Study of 32 cases with in situ hybridization. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of the research reported here were (1) to evaluate the Cx43 protein and mRNA of both low histological grade and high histological grade astrocyte tumors; (2) to evaluate if ..
  45. Plotkin L, Manolagas S, Bellido T. Transduction of cell survival signals by connexin-43 hemichannels. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8648-57 pubmed
  46. Boengler K, Dodoni G, Rodriguez Sinovas A, Cabestrero A, Ruiz Meana M, Gres P, et al. Connexin 43 in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase by ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;67:234-44 pubmed
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43) is involved in infarct size reduction by ischemic preconditioning (IP); the underlying mechanism of protection, however, is unknown...
  47. Wu C, Yang J, Yang J, Lin Y, Tsai H, Lin C, et al. Androgen excess down-regulates connexin43 in a human granulosa cell line. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2938-41 pubmed publisher
    ..High levels of androgen may impair folliculogenesis and in turn lead to ovulatory dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. ..
  48. Schubert A, Schubert W, Spray D, Lisanti M. Connexin family members target to lipid raft domains and interact with caveolin-1. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5754-64 pubmed
    ..We show that connexin 43 (Cx43) colocalizes, cofractionates, and coimmunoprecipitates with caveolin-1...
  49. Li H, Brodsky S, Kumari S, Valiunas V, Brink P, Kaide J, et al. Paradoxical overexpression and translocation of connexin43 in homocysteine-treated endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H2124-33 pubmed
    ..of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with homocysteine (Hcy) revealed that connexin43 (Cx43) was upregulated. Expression of Cx43 was increased more than twofold in Hcy-treated HUVEC...
  50. Bruce A, Rothery S, Dupont E, Severs N. Gap junction remodelling in human heart failure is associated with increased interaction of connexin43 with ZO-1. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;77:757-65 pubmed
    Remodelling of gap junctions, involving reduction of total gap junction quantity and down-regulation of connexin43 (Cx43), contributes to the arrhythmic substrate in congestive heart failure...
  51. Valiunas V, Doronin S, Valiuniene L, Potapova I, Zuckerman J, Walcott B, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells make cardiac connexins and form functional gap junctions. J Physiol. 2004;555:617-26 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining revealed typical punctate staining for Cx43 and Cx40 along regions of intimate cell-to-cell contact between hMSCs...
  52. Sheen I, Jeng K, Wang P, Shih S, Chang W, Wang H, et al. Are gap junction gene connexins 26, 32 and 43 of prognostic values in hepatocellular carcinoma? A prospective study. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:2785-90 pubmed
    ..048). The levels of Cx 26 and Cx 32 mRNAs correlated significantly with cell differentiation (P = 0.031). A low expression of Cx 26 and Cx 32 mRNAs in HCC tissues is predictive of postoperative recurrence of HCCs. ..
  53. Bao B, JIANG J, Yanase T, Nishi Y, Morgan J. Connexon-mediated cell adhesion drives microtissue self-assembly. FASEB J. 2011;25:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether connexon 43 (Cx43)-mediated cell adhesion modulates self-assembly of human KGN granulosa cells, normal human fibroblasts (NHFs), and ..
  54. Hesketh G, Shah M, Halperin V, Cooke C, Akar F, Yen T, et al. Ultrastructure and regulation of lateralized connexin43 in the failing heart. Circ Res. 2010;106:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary gap junction protein in the working myocardium, connexin43 (Cx43), exhibits increased localization at the lateral membranes of cardiomyocytes in a variety of heart diseases, ..
  55. Govindarajan R, Zhao S, Song X, Guo R, Wheelock M, Johnson K, et al. Impaired trafficking of connexins in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines and its mitigation by alpha-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50087-97 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that impaired trafficking, and not the inability to form gap junctions, is the major cause of communication deficiency in human prostate cancer cell lines. ..
  56. Olbina G, Eckhart W. Mutations in the second extracellular region of connexin 43 prevent localization to the plasma membrane, but do not affect its ability to suppress cell growth. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1:690-700 pubmed
    b>Connexin 43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed gap junction protein, has a role in regulation of cell growth...
  57. Valiunas V, Gemel J, Brink P, Beyer E. Gap junction channels formed by coexpressed connexin40 and connexin43. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1675-89 pubmed
    ..We examined the potential interaction of connexin Cx43 and Cx40 in HeLa cells sequentially stably transfected with these two connexins...
  58. Kjaer K, Hansen L, Eiberg H, Leicht P, Opitz J, Tommerup N. Novel Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutation causes oculo-dento-digital dysplasia with curly hair. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;127A:152-7 pubmed
    ..ocular, craniofacial, and digital anomalies, caused by mutations in the gap junction alpha-1 gene (GJA1 or Connexin 43 (CX43)) [Paznekas et al., 2003]...
  59. Li X, PAN J, Song B, Xiong E, Chen Z, Zhou Z, et al. Suppression of CX43 expression by miR-20a in the progression of human prostate cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2012;13:890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a gap junction protein, ? 1 (CX43), was identified as a direct target gene of miR-20a...
  60. Nickel B, DeFranco B, Gay V, Murray S. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:679-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles...
  61. Liu X, Xia X, Adams J, Chen Z, Welch K, Tekin M, et al. Mutations in GJA1 (connexin 43) are associated with non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:2945-51 pubmed
    ..We have found that alterations in a fifth member of this family, GJA1 (Cx43), appear to cause a common form of deafness in African Americans...
  62. Teek R, Oitmaa E, Kruustük K, Zordania R, Joost K, Raukas E, et al. Splice variant IVS2-2A>G in the SLC26A5 (Prestin) gene in five Estonian families with hearing loss. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that heterozygosity for the mutation IVS2-2A>G in SLC26A5 gene may not, by itself, be sufficient to cause hearing loss. ..
  63. Marquez Rosado L, Solan J, Dunn C, Norris R, Lampe P. Connexin43 phosphorylation in brain, cardiac, endothelial and epithelial tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:1985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most widely and highly expressed gap junction protein, both in cell culture models and in humans, thus more ..
  64. Catarino S, Ramalho J, Marques C, Pereira P, Girao H. Ubiquitin-mediated internalization of connexin43 is independent of the canonical endocytic tyrosine-sorting signal. Biochem J. 2011;437:255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The tyrosine-sorting signal (YXXØ), present at amino acids 286-289 of Cx43 (connexin43), has been implicated in the internalization of the protein...
  65. Beahm D, Oshima A, Gaietta G, Hand G, Smock A, Zucker S, et al. Mutation of a conserved threonine in the third transmembrane helix of alpha- and beta-connexins creates a dominant-negative closed gap junction channel. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7994-8009 pubmed
    ..This mutant may be useful as a tool for knocking down or knocking out connexin function in vitro or in vivo. ..
  66. Gong X, Shao Q, Lounsbury C, Bai D, Laird D. Functional characterization of a GJA1 frameshift mutation causing oculodentodigital dysplasia and palmoplantar keratoderma. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31801-11 pubmed
    ..This frameshift mutant (fs260) causes oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) that includes the added condition of palmoplantar keratoderma...
  67. Cooper C, Lampe P. Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 gap junction assembly. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44962-8 pubmed
    ..We have examined the role of casein kinase 1 (CK1) in connexin-43 (Cx43) gap junction assembly...
  68. Zhou Y, Yang W, Lurtz M, Ye Y, Huang Y, Lee H, et al. Identification of the calmodulin binding domain of connexin 43. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:35005-17 pubmed
    ..This report identifies a CaM-binding motif comprising residues 136-158 in the intracellular loop of Cx43. A 23-mer peptide encompassing this CaM-binding motif was shown to bind Ca(2+)-CaM with 1:1 stoichiometry by using ..
  69. Dobrowolski R, Sommershof A, Willecke K. Some oculodentodigital dysplasia-associated Cx43 mutations cause increased hemichannel activity in addition to deficient gap junction channels. J Membr Biol. 2007;219:9-17 pubmed
    ..ODDD is caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43)...
  70. Langlois S, Cowan K, Shao Q, Cowan B, Laird D. The tumor-suppressive function of Connexin43 in keratinocytes is mediated in part via interaction with caveolin-1. Cancer Res. 2010;70:4222-32 pubmed publisher
    Connexin43 (Cx43) is known to have tumor-suppressive effects, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood...
  71. Tang B, Peng Z, Yu P, Yu G, Qian F. Expression and significance of Cx43 and E-cadherin in gastric cancer and metastatic lymph nodes. Med Oncol. 2011;28:502-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Connexin 43(Cx43) and E-cadherin are concurrently expressed in many tumors and were ever classified as tumor suppressors in primary tumors (PT), whereas recent studies showed that these two proteins played specific roles in tumor ..
  72. Thomas M, Zosso N, Scerri I, Demaurex N, Chanson M, Staub O. A tyrosine-based sorting signal is involved in connexin43 stability and gap junction turnover. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:2213-22 pubmed
  73. Langlois S, Cowan K, Shao Q, Cowan B, Laird D. Caveolin-1 and -2 interact with connexin43 and regulate gap junctional intercellular communication in keratinocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:912-28 pubmed
    Connexin43 (Cx43) has been reported to interact with caveolin (Cav)-1, but the role of this association and whether other members of the caveolin family bind Cx43 had yet to be established...
  74. Niger C, Luciotti M, Buo A, Hebert C, Ma V, Stains J. The regulation of runt-related transcription factor 2 by fibroblast growth factor-2 and connexin43 requires the inositol polyphosphate/protein kinase C? cascade. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1468-77 pubmed publisher
    Connexin43 (Cx43) plays a critical role in osteoblast function and bone mass accrual, yet the identity of the second messengers communicated by Cx43 gap junctions, the targets of these second messengers and how they regulate osteoblast ..
  75. McLachlan E, Plante I, Shao Q, Tong D, Kidder G, Bernier S, et al. ODDD-linked Cx43 mutants reduce endogenous Cx43 expression and function in osteoblasts and inhibit late stage differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is an autosomal dominant human disease caused by mutations in the gene (GJA1) encoding the gap junction protein, ..
  76. Shao Q, Liu Q, Lorentz R, Gong X, Bai D, Shaw G, et al. Structure and functional studies of N-terminal Cx43 mutants linked to oculodentodigital dysplasia. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3312-21 pubmed publisher the gene encoding connexin-43 (Cx43) cause the human development disorder known as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD)...
  77. Villares G, Dobroff A, Wang H, Zigler M, Melnikova V, Huang L, et al. Overexpression of protease-activated receptor-1 contributes to melanoma metastasis via regulation of connexin 43. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cDNA microarray and Western blot analyses reveal that the gap junctional intracellular communication molecule connexin 43 (Cx-43), known to be involved in tumor cell diapedesis and attachment to endothelial cells, is significantly ..
  78. Cottin S, Ghani K, Caruso M. Bystander effect in glioblastoma cells with a predominant cytoplasmic localization of connexin43. Cancer Gene Ther. 2008;15:823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the level of expression, the localization and the functionality of connexin43 (Cx43) in three glioblastoma cell lines...
  79. Plotkin L, Bellido T. Bisphosphonate-induced, hemichannel-mediated, anti-apoptosis through the Src/ERK pathway: a gap junction-independent action of connexin43. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:377-82 pubmed
    ..These studies establish a role for connexin43 hemichannels in bisphosphonate action, and a novel function of connexin43--beyond gap junction communication--in the regulation of survival signaling pathways. ..
  80. Lesniewicz T, Kanczuga Koda L, Baltaziak M, Jarzabek K, Rutkowski R, Koda M, et al. Comparative evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression with connexins 26 and 43 in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009;19:1253-7 pubmed publisher
    ..on assessment of expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and PRs in relation to the expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in 88 cases of endometrial cancer and analysis of these proteins' expression in comparison with anatomoclinical ..