CTSK

Summary

Gene Symbol: CTSK
Description: cathepsin K
Alias: CTS02, CTSO, CTSO1, CTSO2, PKND, PYCD, cathepsin K, cathepsin O, cathepsin O1, cathepsin O2, cathepsin X
Species: human
Products:     CTSK

Top Publications

  1. Bossard M, Tomaszek T, Thompson S, Amegadzie B, Hanning C, Jones C, et al. Proteolytic activity of human osteoclast cathepsin K. Expression, purification, activation, and substrate identification. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:12517-24 pubmed
    Human cathepsin K is a recently identified protein with high primary sequence homology to members of the papain cysteine protease superfamily including cathepsins S, L, and B and is selectively expressed in osteoclasts (Drake, F.H...
  2. Gelb B, Shi G, Chapman H, Desnick R. Pycnodysostosis, a lysosomal disease caused by cathepsin K deficiency. Science. 1996;273:1236-8 pubmed
    ..b>Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease gene that is highly expressed in osteoclasts, localized to the pycnodysostosis region...
  3. Novinec M, Kovacic L, Lenarcic B, Baici A. Conformational flexibility and allosteric regulation of cathepsin K. Biochem J. 2010;429:379-89 pubmed publisher
    The human cysteine peptidase cathepsin K is a key enzyme in bone homoeostasis and other physiological functions...
  4. Naeem M, Sheikh S, Ahmad W. A mutation in CTSK gene in an autosomal recessive pycnodysostosis family of Pakistani origin. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding cathepsin K (CTSK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, have been found to be responsible for this disease.
  5. Jevnikar Z, Obermajer N, Bogyo M, Kos J. The role of cathepsin X in the migration and invasiveness of T lymphocytes. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2652-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin X is a lysosomal cysteine protease exhibiting carboxypeptidase activity. Its expression is high in the cells of immune system and its function has been related to the processes of inflammatory and immune responses...
  6. Hou W, Li Z, Gordon R, Chan K, Klein M, Levy R, et al. Cathepsin k is a critical protease in synovial fibroblast-mediated collagen degradation. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:2167-77 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of cathepsin K in SFs, the correlation between cathepsin K expression and disease severity, and the contribution of cathepsin ..
  7. Troen B. The regulation of cathepsin K gene expression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1068:165-72 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin K is essential for normal bone resorption...
  8. Brubaker K, Vessella R, True L, Thomas R, Corey E. Cathepsin K mRNA and protein expression in prostate cancer progression. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:222-30 pubmed
    ..Increased bone resorption may release factors from the extracellular matrix that contribute to tumor growth. Cathepsin K (cat K) is a cysteine protease that exhibits strong degradative activity against the extracellular matrix and ..
  9. Li Z, Yasuda Y, Li W, Bogyo M, Katz N, Gordon R, et al. Regulation of collagenase activities of human cathepsins by glycosaminoglycans. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5470-9 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin K, a lysosomal papain-like cysteine protease, forms collagenolytically highly active complexes with chondroitin sulfate and represents the most potent mammalian collagenase...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Hua Y, Xu X, Shi G, Chicco A, Ren J, Nair S. Cathepsin K knockout alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertension. 2013;61:1184-92 pubmed publisher
    Evidence from human and animal studies has documented elevated levels of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K in failing hearts...
  2. Cheng X, Kikuchi R, Ishii H, Yoshikawa D, Hu L, Takahashi R, et al. Circulating cathepsin K as a potential novel biomarker of coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2013;228:211-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in atherosclerosis-based vascular disease. We investigated whether circulating CatK is associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  3. Nallaseth F, Lecaille F, Li Z, Bromme D. The role of basic amino acid surface clusters on the collagenase activity of cathepsin K. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7742-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K is a highly potent collagenase in osteoclasts and is responsible for bone degradation...
  4. Pangrazio A, Puddu A, Oppo M, Valentini M, Zammataro L, Vellodi A, et al. Exome sequencing identifies CTSK mutations in patients originally diagnosed as intermediate osteopetrosis. Bone. 2014;59:122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..thought to be affected by "intermediate osteopetrosis", which identified a homozygous mutation in the CTSK gene...
  5. Quintanilla Dieck M, Codriansky K, Keady M, Bhawan J, Rünger T. Expression and regulation of cathepsin K in skin fibroblasts. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:596-602 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K (catK) is a lysosomal cysteine protease with strong collagenolytic activity well known to mediate bone resorption in osteoclasts. Recently, catK has also been reported to be expressed in other tissues...
  6. Donnarumma M, Regis S, Tappino B, Rosano C, Assereto S, Corsolini F, et al. Molecular analysis and characterization of nine novel CTSK mutations in twelve patients affected by pycnodysostosis. Mutation in brief #961. Online. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:524 pubmed
    ..unrelated patients affected by the autosomal recessive osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia, Pycnodysostosis (cathepsin k deficiency), revealed 11 different genotypes...
  7. Rünger T, Quintanilla Dieck M, Bhawan J. Role of cathepsin K in the turnover of the dermal extracellular matrix during scar formation. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:293-7 pubmed
    ..The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K plays a pivotal role in bone resorption and lung matrix homeostasis, but so far has not been described in skin...
  8. Gelb B, Willner J, Dunn T, Kardon N, Verloes A, Poncin J, et al. Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 revealed by molecular analysis of a patient with pycnodysostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:848-54 pubmed
    Molecular analysis of a patient affected by the autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, pycnodysostosis (cathepsin K deficiency; MIM 265800), revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation (A277V)...
  9. Khan B, Ahmed Z, Ahmad W. A novel missense mutation in cathepsin K (CTSK) gene in a consanguineous Pakistani family with pycnodysostosis. J Investig Med. 2010;58:720-4 pubmed publisher
    Deficiency of cathepsin K (CTSK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, has been shown earlier as a cause of an autosomal recessive osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia pycnodysostosis...
  10. Obermajer N, Doljak B, Jamnik P, Fonović U, Kos J. Cathepsin X cleaves the C-terminal dipeptide of alpha- and gamma-enolase and impairs survival and neuritogenesis of neuronal cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1685-96 pubmed publisher
    The cysteine carboxypeptidase cathepsin X has been recognized as an important player in degenerative processes during normal aging and in pathological conditions...
  11. Buhling F, Rocken C, Brasch F, Hartig R, Yasuda Y, Saftig P, et al. Pivotal role of cathepsin K in lung fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:2203-16 pubmed
    ..This study examined the putative role of cathepsin K (catK) in the pathology of lung fibrosis in mice and its relevance to the human disease activity...
  12. Li Z, Kienetz M, Cherney M, James M, Bromme D. The crystal and molecular structures of a cathepsin K:chondroitin sulfate complex. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:78-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K is the major collagenolytic enzyme produced by bone-resorbing osteoclasts...
  13. Quintanilla Dieck M, Codriansky K, Keady M, Bhawan J, Rünger T. Cathepsin K in melanoma invasion. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2281-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K (catK) is a lysosomal cysteine protease with strong collagenolytic activity that mediates bone resorption in osteoclasts...
  14. Ruettger A, Schueler S, Mollenhauer J, Wiederanders B. Cathepsins B, K, and L are regulated by a defined collagen type II peptide via activation of classical protein kinase C and p38 MAP kinase in articular chondrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1043-51 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the induction is associated with the activation of protein kinase C and p38 MAP kinase. ..
  15. Jevnikar Z, Obermajer N, Pecar Fonović U, Karaoglanovic Carmona A, Kos J. Cathepsin X cleaves the beta2 cytoplasmic tail of LFA-1 inducing the intermediate affinity form of LFA-1 and alpha-actinin-1 binding. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3217-27 pubmed publisher
    The motility of T cells depends on the dynamic spatial regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion and de-adhesion. Cathepsin X, a cysteine protease, has been shown to regulate T-cell migration by interaction with lymphocyte function ..
  16. Novinec M, Grass R, Stark W, Turk V, Baici A, Lenarcic B. Interaction between human cathepsins K, L, and S and elastins: mechanism of elastinolysis and inhibition by macromolecular inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7893-902 pubmed
    ..Studies of enzyme partitioning between the phases showed that cathepsin K favors adsorption on elastin; cathepsin L prefers the aqueous environment, and cathepsin S is equally ..
  17. Lecaille F, Choe Y, Brandt W, Li Z, Craik C, Bromme D. Selective inhibition of the collagenolytic activity of human cathepsin K by altering its S2 subsite specificity. Biochemistry. 2002;41:8447-54 pubmed
    ..Despite the high amino acid sequence identities and structural similarities between cathepsins K and L, only cathepsin K is capable of cleaving interstitial collagens in their triple helical domains...
  18. Obermajer N, Premzl A, Zavasnik Bergant T, Turk B, Kos J. Carboxypeptidase cathepsin X mediates beta2-integrin-dependent adhesion of differentiated U-937 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2515-27 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin X is a lysosomal carboxypeptidase with a potential role in processes of inflammation and immune response...
  19. Nascimento F, Rizzi C, Nantes I, Stefe I, Turk B, Carmona A, et al. Cathepsin X binds to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;436:323-32 pubmed
    ..The interaction between cathepsin X and heparin has been revealed by affinity chromatography using heparin-Sepharose...
  20. Staudt N, Aicher W, Kalbacher H, Stevanovic S, Carmona A, Bogyo M, et al. Cathepsin X is secreted by human osteoblasts, digests CXCL-12 and impairs adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to osteoblasts. Haematologica. 2010;95:1452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we examined the expression, secretion and function of the cysteine protease cathepsin X by cells of the human bone marrow...
  21. Podgorski I, Linebaugh B, Koblinski J, Rudy D, Herroon M, Olive M, et al. Bone marrow-derived cathepsin K cleaves SPARC in bone metastasis. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1255-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the involvement of cathepsin K in the progression of prostate tumors in the bone, which occurs both by direct degradation of bone matrix ..
  22. LaLonde J, Zhao B, Janson C, D alessio K, McQueney M, Orsini M, et al. The crystal structure of human procathepsin K. Biochemistry. 1999;38:862-9 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease present in human osteoclasts that plays an important role in bone resorption. Cathepsin K is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme and activated under conditions of low pH...
  23. Toral López J, Gonzalez Huerta L, Sosa B, Orozco S, González H, Cuevas Covarrubias S. Familial pycnodysostosis: identification of a novel mutation in the CTSK gene (cathepsin K). J Investig Med. 2011;59:277-80 pubmed publisher
    ..mutation leads to the substitution of the amino acid glycine at position 303 by glutamic acid (G303E) in cathepsin K protease. No genotype/phenotype correlation was present in affected members of the family with pycnodysostosis.
  24. Gelb B, Shi G, Heller M, Weremowicz S, Morton C, Desnick R, et al. Structure and chromosomal assignment of the human cathepsin K gene. Genomics. 1997;41:258-62 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase that is the major protease responsible for bone resorption and remodeling. Mutations in this gene cause the sclerosing osteochondrodysplasia pycnodysostosis...
  25. Chilosi M, Pea M, Martignoni G, Brunelli M, Gobbo S, Poletti V, et al. Cathepsin-k expression in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible to speculate that mTOR inhibitors may exert part of their action by limiting the destructive remodelling of lung structure. ..
  26. Kleer C, Bloushtain Qimron N, Chen Y, Carrasco D, Hu M, Yao J, et al. Epithelial and stromal cathepsin K and CXCL14 expression in breast tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5357-67 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the expression of cathepsin K (CTSK) and CXCL14 in stromal and epithelial cells in human breast tumor progression...
  27. Kos J, Sekirnik A, Premzl A, Zavasnik Bergant V, Langerholc T, Turk B, et al. Carboxypeptidases cathepsins X and B display distinct protein profile in human cells and tissues. Exp Cell Res. 2005;306:103-13 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin X, a recently discovered lysosomal cysteine protease, shares common structural features and activity properties with cysteine protease cathepsin B...
  28. Li Z, Hou W, Escalante Torres C, Gelb B, Bromme D. Collagenase activity of cathepsin K depends on complex formation with chondroitin sulfate. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28669-76 pubmed
    ..b>Cathepsin K is the predominant protease in osteoclasts that degrades the bulk of the major bone forming organic component, ..
  29. Ren G, Tian Q, An Y, Feng B, Lu Y, Liang J, et al. Coronin 3 promotes gastric cancer metastasis via the up-regulation of MMP-9 and cathepsin K. Mol Cancer. 2012;11:67 pubmed publisher
    ..of coronin 3, the tumor cell migration and invasion were inhibited by the reduced expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K. Coronin 3 is highly expressed in gastric cancer metastases and can promote the metastatic behaviors of gastric ..
  30. Song H, Sohn Y, Choi Y, Chung Y, Jang J. A case report of pycnodysostosis with atypical femur fracture diagnosed by next-generation sequencing of candidate genes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6367 pubmed publisher
    ..Pycnodysostosis results from the deficient activity of cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease that is encoded by CTSK...
  31. Wang J, You H, Qi J, Yang C, Ren Y, Cheng H. Autocrine and paracrine STIP1 signaling promote osteolytic bone metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:17012-17026 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased cathepsin K (CTSK), the key enzyme secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone ..
  32. Shi X, Huang C, Xiao F, Liu W, Zeng J, Li X. Pycnodysostosis with novel gene mutation and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8730 pubmed publisher
    Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia caused by a mutation in the cathepsin K encoded by cathepsin K gene (CTSK). Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is also a relatively rare type of primary thyroid carcinoma...
  33. Jayakumar A, Kang Y, Frederick M, Pak S, Henderson Y, Holton P, et al. Inhibition of the cysteine proteinases cathepsins K and L by the serpin headpin (SERPINB13): a kinetic analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;409:367-74 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the serpin headpin possesses specificity for inhibiting lysosomal cysteine proteinases. ..
  34. Novinec M, Rebernik M, Lenarcic B. An allosteric site enables fine-tuning of cathepsin K by diverse effectors. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:4507-4518 pubmed publisher
    The cysteine peptidase cathepsin K is a potent collagenolytic enzyme and a promising target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we characterize its allosteric fine-tuning via a recently identified allosteric site...
  35. Herroon M, Rajagurubandara E, Rudy D, Chalasani A, Hardaway A, Podgorski I. Macrophage cathepsin K promotes prostate tumor progression in bone. Oncogene. 2013;32:1580-93 pubmed publisher
    ..BMMs are the major source of inflammatory factors and proteases, including cysteine protease cathepsin K (CTSK)...
  36. Ihn H, Lee D, Lee T, Kim S, Shin H, Bae Y, et al. Inhibitory Effects of KP-A159, a Thiazolopyridine Derivative, on Osteoclast Differentiation, Function, and Inflammatory Bone Loss via Suppression of RANKL-Induced MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0142201 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibited the expression of marker genes related to osteoclast differentiation, including TRAP (Acp5), cathepsin K (Ctsk), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and nuclear ..
  37. Li Z, Li C, Zhou Y, Chen W, Luo G, Zhang Z, et al. Advanced glycation end products biphasically modulate bone resorption in osteoclast-like cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E355-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on increased levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K (CTSK), we identified day 4 of induction as the dividing time of cell fusion stage and mature stage in RAW264...
  38. Tian K, Ma J, Wang L, Wang K, Li D, Hao S, et al. Expression of Cathepsin K in Skull Base Chordoma. World Neurosurg. 2017;101:396-404 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to explore the association between cathepsin K and the clinical characteristics of skull base chordoma (SBC). This study included 58 paraffin-embedded samples and 85 frozen samples of 94 patients...
  39. Bernhardt A, Koperski K, Schumacher M, Gelinsky M. Relevance of osteoclast-specific enzyme activities in cell-based in vitro resorption assays. Eur Cell Mater. 2017;33:28-42 pubmed publisher
    ..correlated with the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and cathepsin K (CTSK)...
  40. Husmann K, Muff R, Bolander M, Sarkar G, Born W, Fuchs B. Cathepsins and osteosarcoma: Expression analysis identifies cathepsin K as an indicator of metastasis. Mol Carcinog. 2008;47:66-73 pubmed
    ..Diagnostic relevance of cathepsin K expression in osteosarcoma was revealed upon correlation of survival and metastasis with immunohistochemical ..
  41. Tibullo D, Di Rosa M, Giallongo C, La Cava P, Parrinello N, Romano A, et al. Bortezomib modulates CHIT1 and YKL40 in monocyte-derived osteoclast and in myeloma cells. Front Pharmacol. 2015;6:226 pubmed publisher
    ..OCs exposition to bortezomib (BO) was able to inhibit the expression of different OCs markers such as RANK, CTSK, TRAP, and MMP9...
  42. Haase D, Rieger J, Witten A, Stoll M, Bornberg Bauer E, Kalbe M, et al. Comparative transcriptomics of stickleback immune gene responses upon infection by two helminth parasites, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and Schistocephalus solidus. Zoology (Jena). 2016;119:307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes indicated a role for enhanced toll like receptor (TLR) activity (CTSK, CYP27B1) and an associated positive regulation of macrophages (CYP27B1, THBS1) for general helminth defense...
  43. Richard Greenblatt M, Bach H, Adamson J, Peña Diaz S, Li W, Steyn A, et al. Regulation of Ergothioneine Biosynthesis and Its Effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Infectivity. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:23064-76 pubmed publisher
    ..EgtD was found to be phosphorylated by the serine/threonine protein kinase PknD. PknD phosphorylates EgtD both in vitro and in a cell-based system on Thr(213)...
  44. Johnson M, Polymeropoulos M, Vos H, Ortiz de Luna R, Francomano C. A nonsense mutation in the cathepsin K gene observed in a family with pycnodysostosis. Genome Res. 1996;6:1050-5 pubmed
    ..Expressed sequence tagged markers corresponding to cathepsin K, a cysteine protease highly expressed in osteoclasts and thought to be important in bone resorption, were ..
  45. Kim K, Kim T, Ihn H, Kim J, Choi J, Shin H, et al. Inhibitory Effect of Purpurogallin on Osteoclast Differentiation in Vitro through the Downregulation of c-Fos and NFATc1. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..causing cytotoxicity, and suppressed upregulation of osteoclast-specific markers, including TRAP (Acp5), cathepsin K (Ctsk), and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp)...
  46. Wen X, Yi L, Liu F, Wei J, Xue Y. The role of cathepsin K in oral and maxillofacial disorders. Oral Dis. 2016;22:109-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K (CTSK) was thought to be a collagenase, specifically expressed by osteoclasts, and played an important role in bone resorption...
  47. Dongre A, Clements D, Fisher A, Johnson S. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1750-1762 pubmed publisher
    ..On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001)...
  48. Scalize P, Bombonato Prado K, de Sousa L, Rosa A, Beloti M, Semprini M, et al. Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Trifluorethylene)/barium titanate membrane promotes de novo bone formation and may modulate gene expression in osteoporotic rat model. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2016;27:180 pubmed
    ..of RUNX2, BSP, OPN, OSX and RANKL were lower on P(VDF-TrFE)/BT membrane; the gene expression of ALP, OC, RANK and CTSK were similar and the gene expression of OPG, CALCR and MMP9 were higher when compared to PTFE...
  49. Zhao Q, Jia Y, Xiao Y. Cathepsin K: a therapeutic target for bone diseases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:721-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin K is a member of the papain family of cysteine proteases and is highly expressed in osteoclasts that mediate bone resorption...
  50. Littlewood Evans A, Kokubo T, Ishibashi O, Inaoka T, Wlodarski B, Gallagher J, et al. Localization of cathepsin K in human osteoclasts by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Bone. 1997;20:81-6 pubmed
    We have recently cloned cathepsin K from a human bone cDNA library...
  51. Su N, Li X, Tang Y, Yang J, Wen X, Guo J, et al. Deletion of FGFR3 in Osteoclast Lineage Cells Results in Increased Bone Mass in Mice by Inhibiting Osteoclastic Bone Resorption. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31:1676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of Fgfr3-deficient osteoclasts was markedly decreased accompanying with downregulated expressions of Trap, Ctsk, and Mmp 9...
  52. Yan X, Takahara M, Xie L, Tu Y, Furue M. Cathepsin K expression: a useful marker for the differential diagnosis of dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Histopathology. 2010;57:486-8 pubmed publisher
  53. MacLauchlan S, Zuriaga M, Fuster J, Cuda C, Jonason J, Behzadi F, et al. Genetic deficiency of Wnt5a diminishes disease severity in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017;19:166 pubmed publisher
    ..a reduction in osteoclast activity with concomitant reduction in tartrate-resistant acid phosph?atase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CTSK), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 in the arthritic ..
  54. Sassi M, Eriksen H, Risteli L, Niemi S, Mansell J, Gowen M, et al. Immunochemical characterization of assay for carboxyterminal telopeptide of human type I collagen: loss of antigenicity by treatment with cathepsin K. Bone. 2000;26:367-73 pubmed
    ..determinant recognized by the ICTP assay and studied the effects of two major osteoclastic proteinases, cathepsin K (EC 3.4.22.38) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9; gelatinase B; EC 3.4.24.35), on immunoreactivity...
  55. Tumminello F, Flandina C, Crescimanno M, Leto G. Circulating cathepsin K and cystatin C in patients with cancer related bone disease: clinical and therapeutic implications. Biomed Pharmacother. 2008;62:130-5 pubmed
    The clinical significance of serum cathepsin K and cystatin C was assessed in patients with breast cancer (BCa) or prostate cancer (PCa) with confined disease (M0) or bone metastasis (BM)...
  56. Obermajer N, Jevnikar Z, Doljak B, Sadaghiani A, Bogyo M, Kos J. Cathepsin X-mediated beta2 integrin activation results in nanotube outgrowth. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:1126-34 pubmed publisher
    ..formation in T cells through LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18; alpha(L)beta(2)) integrin activation by the cysteine protease cathepsin X. Cathepsin X is shown to induce persistent LFA-1 activation...
  57. Obermajer N, Magister S, Kopitar A, Tepes B, Ihan A, Kos J. Cathepsin X prevents an effective immune response against Helicobacter pylori infection. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:461-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin X, a cysteine protease, has been shown to regulate an immune response by activating beta-2 integrin receptors. In this study we demonstrate its role in regulating the immune response to infection with H. pylori...
  58. Pedica F, Pecori S, Vergine M, Brunelli M, Montagna L, Pedron S, et al. Cathepsin-k as a diagnostic marker in the identification of micro-granulomas in Crohn's disease. Pathologica. 2009;101:109-11 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, Cathepsin-k appears to be a reliable tool for the precise and rapid identification of small epithelioid granulomas in Crohn's disease. ..
  59. Gibellini D, De Crignis E, Ponti C, Borderi M, Clo A, Miserocchi A, et al. HIV-1 Tat protein enhances RANKL/M-CSF-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..M-CSF treatment increasing both the mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor, and TRAP expression and activity...
  60. Chen B, Platt M. Multiplex zymography captures stage-specific activity profiles of cathepsins K, L, and S in human breast, lung, and cervical cancer. J Transl Med. 2011;9:109 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cathepsin K was unique compared to cathepsins L and S...
  61. Sharma V, Panwar P, O Donoghue A, Cui H, Guido R, Craik C, et al. Structural requirements for the collagenase and elastase activity of cathepsin K and its selective inhibition by an exosite inhibitor. Biochem J. 2015;465:163-73 pubmed publisher
    Human cathepsin K (CatK) is a major drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although its collagenase activity is unique, CatK also exerts a potent elastolytic activity that is shared with human cathepsins V and S...
  62. Rao Q, Wang Y, Xia Q, Shi S, Shen Q, Tu P, et al. Cathepsin K in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7:1132-9 pubmed
    Recent studies have demonstrated that cathepsin K seems to be a powerful marker in identifying the microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) family tumors such as renal perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas), ..
  63. Fujita M, Cheng X, Inden Y, Shimano M, Yoshida N, Inoue A, et al. Mechanisms with clinical implications for atrial fibrillation-associated remodeling: cathepsin K expression, regulation, and therapeutic target and biomarker. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000503 pubmed publisher
    The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease...
  64. Macgregor S, Montgomery G, Liu J, Zhao Z, Henders A, Stark M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies a new melanoma susceptibility locus at 1q21.3. Nat Genet. 2011;43:1114-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3 locus span a region with ten genes, and plausible candidate genes for melanoma susceptibility include ARNT and SETDB1. Variants at the 1q21.3 locus do not seem to be associated with human pigmentation or measures of nevus density. ..
  65. Ihn H, Kim J, Cho H, Shin H, Kim G, Choi Y, et al. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol from Ishige okamurae Suppresses Osteoclast Differentiation by Downregulating the NF-?B Signaling Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1), cathepsin K (Ctsk), and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), and osteoclast-induced bone resorption...
  66. Liu Q, Xin Z, Liu Y, Zhang D, Jiang S, Chai X, et al. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression following lipopolysaccharide challenge in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;73:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCL2-like chemokine (CXCL2), goose-type lysozyme (LYZ G), and cathepsin K (CTSK) were significantly up-regulated. This study enriches the P...
  67. Choo Y, Tran P, Min B, Kim O, Nguyen H, Kwon S, et al. Sappanone A inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in BMMs and prevents inflammation-mediated bone loss. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;52:230-237 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, SPNA decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including CtsK, TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), MMP-9 and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR)...
  68. Bromme D, Okamoto K. Human cathepsin O2, a novel cysteine protease highly expressed in osteoclastomas and ovary molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue distribution. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1995;376:379-84 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the amino acid sequence of cathepsin O2 with that of known human lysosomal cysteine proteases revealed a substantial degree of similarity to cathepsins ..
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    ..Here we report that a cysteine-type carboxypeptidase, cathepsin X, is able to modulate the kallikrein-kinin system through carboxyterminal processing of the small peptide ..
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    ..autosomal recessive osteosclerosing skeletal disorder, has recently been shown to result from mutations in the cathepsin K gene...
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    b>Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease of the papain family that cleaves triple-helical type II collagen, the major structural component of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage...
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    ..Cathepsins play a role in ECM remodelling, with cathepsin D, H and K (CTSD, CTSH and CTSK) being associated with lung diseases...
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    ..Here we investigate the mechanisms of allosteric regulation of cathepsin K as a representative of cysteine cathepsins and a promising drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis...
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    The cysteine-type peptidase cathepsin X is highly upregulated in several cancers and presumably promotes tumor invasion through bypassing cellular senescence...