Gene Symbol: CTNNA2
Description: catenin alpha 2
Alias: CAP-R, CAPR, CT114, CTNR, catenin alpha-2, alpha-N-catenin, alpha-catenin-related protein, cadherin-associated protein, related, cancer/testis antigen 114, catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 2
Species: human
Products:     CTNNA2

Top Publications

  1. Zeng Z, Huo X, Zhang Y, Hylkema M, Wu Y, Xu X. Differential DNA methylation in newborns with maternal exposure to heavy metals from an e-waste recycling area. Environ Res. 2019;171:536-545 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, BAI1 and CTNNA2 (involving in neuron differentiation and development) were further verified to be hyper- and hypo-methylated, ..
  2. Pedrosa E, Sandler V, Shah A, CARROLL R, Chang C, Rockowitz S, et al. Development of patient-specific neurons in schizophrenia using induced pluripotent stem cells. J Neurogenet. 2011;25:88-103 pubmed publisher
    ..remodeling proteins and synaptic proteins relevant to SZ pathogenesis, including ZNF804A, RELN, CNTNAP2, CTNNA2, SMARCA2, and NRXN1...
  3. Smith S, Gandhy S, Gopal A, Reddy P, Shadman M, Till B, et al. Modified VR-CAP, Alternating With Rituximab and High-dose Cytarabine: An Effective Pre-transplant Induction Regimen for Mantle Cell Lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2019;19:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Modified VR-CAP/R+ara-C is feasible pretransplant therapy for patients with MCL and is associated with a high rate of complete response and eligibility for autologous stem cell transplantation. ..
  4. Lee G, Lee S, Kim K, Ryu C. Foliar application of the leaf-colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens. Sci Rep. 2017;7:39432 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional molecular analysis of the induced resistance marker genes Capsicum annuum Pathogenesis-Related (CaPR) 4 and CaPR5 indicated that strain RGJ1 elicited plant defense priming...
  5. McGranahan N, Favero F, de Bruin E, Birkbak N, Szallasi Z, Swanton C. Clonal status of actionable driver events and the timing of mutational processes in cancer evolution. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:283ra54 pubmed publisher
    ..of subclonal driver mutations and uncovered putative cancer genes involved in subclonal expansions, including CTNNA2 and ATXN1...
  6. Musters G, Bemelman W, Bosker R, Burger J, Van Duijvendijk P, van Etten B, et al. Randomized controlled multicentre study comparing biological mesh closure of the pelvic floor with primary perineal wound closure after extralevator abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer (BIOPEX-study). BMC Surg. 2014;14:58 pubmed publisher
    Primary perineal wound closure after conventional abdominoperineal resection (cAPR) for rectal cancer has been the standard of care for many years...
  7. Schaffer A, Breuss M, Caglayan A, Al Sanaa N, Al Abdulwahed H, Kaymakcalan H, et al. Biallelic loss of human CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, leads to ARP2/3 complex overactivity and disordered cortical neuronal migration. Nat Genet. 2018;50:1093-1101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify biallelic truncating mutations in CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, in patients with a distinct recessive form of pachygyria...
  8. Nuhn J, Fuerst P. Developmental localization of adhesion and scaffolding proteins at the cone synapse. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;16:36-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds to our knowledge of cone synapse development by characterizing the developmental localization of these factors and identifies these factors as candidates for functional analysis of cone synapse formation. ..
  9. Salatino Oliveira A, Genro J, Polanczyk G, Zeni C, Schmitz M, Kieling C, et al. Cadherin-13 gene is associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2015;168B:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At the genome level, genes involved in neurodevelopmental pathways were pointed as candidates. CDH13 and CTNNA2 genes are within GWAS top hits in ADHD and there are emerging notions about their contribution to ADHD ..

More Information


  1. Chao W, Lee L, Liu T, Tsou Y, Chan K, Wu C. Behavior problems in children with cochlear implants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79:648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Good family support as well as aural-verbal rehabilitation are of particular importance in determining behavioral outcomes in CI children. ..
  2. Zhou C, Li S, Wang S. Examining the Impacts of Urban Form on Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Case Study of China's Megacities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15: pubmed publisher
    ..indicators: mean air pollution index (MAPI), air pollution ratio (APR), and continuous air pollution ratio (CAPR), to evaluate air pollution levels...
  3. Li J, Loebel A, Meltzer H. Identifying the genetic risk factors for treatment response to lurasidone by genome-wide association study: A meta-analysis of samples from three independent clinical trials. Schizophr Res. 2018;199:203-213 pubmed publisher
    ..78 × 10-8). rs10180106 (p = 4.92 × 10-7), located at an intron region of CTNNA2, a SCZ risk gene important for dendritic spine stabilization, was one of other best response markers for EUR ..
  4. Jin J, Okamoto R, Yoon S, Shih L, Zhu J, Liu T, et al. Bortezomib-based therapy for transplant-ineligible East Asian patients with newly diagnosed mantle-cell lymphoma. Onco Targets Ther. 2018;11:3869-3882 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent adverse events were hematologic toxicities. VR-CAP was effective in East Asian patients with newly diagnosed MCL, and could be considered for patients in whom stem-cell transplantation is not an option. ..
  5. Monies D, Abouelhoda M, AlSayed M, Alhassnan Z, Alotaibi M, Kayyali H, et al. The landscape of genetic diseases in Saudi Arabia based on the first 1000 diagnostic panels and exomes. Hum Genet. 2017;136:921-939 pubmed publisher
  6. Greenwood T, Lazzeroni L, Calkins M, Freedman R, Green M, Gur R, et al. Genetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study. Schizophr Res. 2016;170:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes...
  7. Negoi I, Hostiuc S, Paun S, Negoi R, Beuran M. Extralevator vs conventional abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer-A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Surg. 2016;212:511-26 pubmed publisher
    ..oncologic benefits of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) with conventional abdominoperineal resection (CAPR) for patients with rectal cancer...
  8. Wong V, Petta S, Hiriart J, Cammà C, Wong G, Marra F, et al. Validity criteria for the diagnosis of fatty liver by M probe-based controlled attenuation parameter. J Hepatol. 2017;67:577-584 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, other clinical factors such as adiposity and liver enzyme levels do not affect the performance of CAP. ..
  9. Silipigni R, Cattaneo E, Baccarin M, Fumagalli M, Bedeschi M. Rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 2p11.2p12. Report of a new patient with developmental delay and unusual clinical features. Eur J Med Genet. 2016;59:39-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The common deleted region involves several genes (CTNNA2, LRRTM1, REEP1), highly expressed in the nervous system...
  10. de Barros F, Setúbal S, Martinho J, Leite N, Guaraná T, Monteiro A, et al. The Correlation Between Obesity-Related Diseases and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Women in the Pre-operative Evaluation for Bariatric Surgery Assessed by Transient Hepatic Elastography. Obes Surg. 2016;26:2089-2097 pubmed publisher
    ..Morbidly obese women submitted to FibroScan® presented a high prevalence of severe steatosis and advanced fibrosis in our sample. Insulin resistance parameters were correlated with steatosis, but less with fibrosis. ..
  11. Hamada M, Ono Y, Kiryu H, Sato K, Kato Y, Fukunaga T, et al. Rtools: a web server for various secondary structural analyses on single RNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:W302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The web server is available at http://rtools.cbrc.jp, which integrates software tools, CentroidFold, CentroidHomfold, IPKnot, CapR, Raccess, Rchange and RintD.
  12. Reich J, Papoulas O. Caprin controls follicle stem cell fate in the Drosophila ovary. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35365 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper ..
  13. Wadham C, Gamble J, Vadas M, Khew Goodall Y. The protein tyrosine phosphatase Pez is a major phosphatase of adherens junctions and dephosphorylates beta-catenin. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2520-9 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, the dominant negative Pez mutant enhanced cell motility in an in vitro "wound" assay. This suggests that Pez is also a regulator of cell motility, most likely through its action on cell-cell adhesion. ..
  14. Hirano S, Kimoto N, Shimoyama Y, Hirohashi S, Takeichi M. Identification of a neural alpha-catenin as a key regulator of cadherin function and multicellular organization. Cell. 1992;70:293-301 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that alpha N-catenin is crucial not only for cadherin function but also for organization of multicellular structures. ..
  15. Rizzato C, Campa D, Talar Wojnarowska R, Halloran C, Kupcinskas J, Butturini G, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms with survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. Carcinogenesis. 2016;37:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed statistically significant associations for five of the selected regions. One association in the CTNNA2 gene on chromosome 2p12 [rs1567532, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.58, P = 0...
  16. Kohutek Z, Rosati L, Hong J, Poling J, Attiyeh M, Makohon Moore A, et al. An unusual genomic variant of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with an indolent clinical course. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2017;3: pubmed publisher
    ..and whole-genome sequencing identified a somatic mutation of RNF213 and an inversion/deletion of CTNNA2 as the genetic basis of his PDA...
  17. Alani A, Luo Y, Nakanishim R, Matsumoto S, Budoff M. Coronary artery-positive remodeling in current smokers. Coron Artery Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    This study aims to evaluate the association of the coronary artery-positive remodeling (CAPR) observed on cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with cigarette smoking.
  18. Wilkinson C, Pennay A, MacLean S, Livingston M, Room R, Hamilton M, et al. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR), Melbourne: a decade on. Addiction. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Established in 2006, the Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR) is Australia's only research centre with a primary focus on alcohol policy...
  19. Claverie J, Hardelin J, Legouis R, Levilliers J, Bougueleret L, Mattei M, et al. Characterization and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a protein related to the murine 102-kDa cadherin-associated protein (alpha-catenin). Genomics. 1993;15:13-20 pubmed
    ..Using in situ hybridization, the CAP-R gene could be mapped to the p11.1-p12 region of human chromosome 2 and to the homologous B3-D region of mouse chromosome 6. ..
  20. Song C, Zhang H. TARV: tree-based analysis of rare variants identifying risk modifying variants in CTNNA2 and CNTNAP2 for alcohol addiction. Genet Epidemiol. 2014;38:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By applying TARV to the study of addiction: genetics and environment (SAGE) data, we successfully detected gene CTNNA2 and its 43 specific variants that increase the risk of alcoholism in women, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94...
  21. Goodbourn P, Bosten J, Bargary G, Hogg R, Lawrance Owen A, Mollon J. Variants in the 1q21 risk region are associated with a visual endophenotype of autism and schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2014;13:144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that perceptual abnormalities observed in two different disorders may be linked by common genetic elements. ..
  22. Kim J, Kim E, Lee K, Choi J, Jhun B, Kim J. Leucine zipper domain of HIV-1 gp41 interacted specifically with alpha-catenin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:1239-44 pubmed
  23. Fanjul Fernandez M, Quesada V, Cabanillas R, Cadinanos J, Fontanil T, Obaya A, et al. Cell-cell adhesion genes CTNNA2 and CTNNA3 are tumour suppressors frequently mutated in laryngeal carcinomas. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2531 pubmed publisher
    ..We detect frequent mutations (14 of 90, 15%) in CTNNA2 and CTNNA3-encoding ?-catenins...
  24. Krauss R, Cole F, Gaio U, Takaesu G, Zhang W, Kang J. Close encounters: regulation of vertebrate skeletal myogenesis by cell-cell contact. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2355-62 pubmed
    ..Mechanistic studies in vitro indicate that specific cadherins and immunoglobulin superfamily proteins exert some of their effects in an interdependent fashion by signaling from a multiprotein complex found at sites of cell-cell contact. ..
  25. Bogaerts S, Vanlandschoot A, van Hengel J, van Roy F. Nuclear translocation of alphaN-catenin by the novel zinc finger transcriptional repressor ZASC1. Exp Cell Res. 2005;311:1-13 pubmed
    ..The interaction and nuclear cotranslocation of a neural alpha-catenin with a putative proto-oncogene product as reported here provides novel insights into the signaling functions of alpha-catenins. ..
  26. Ehlers C, Gizer I, Bizon C, Slutske W, Peng Q, Schork N, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the REG-CTNNA2 region of chromosome 2 and NEIL3 associated with impulsivity in a Native American sample. Genes Brain Behav. 2016;15:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..significant findings were observed for a variant 50-kb upstream from catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2), a neuronal-specific catenin, in the REG gene cluster...
  27. Kask M, Pruunsild P, Timmusk T. Bidirectional transcription from human LRRTM2/CTNNA1 and LRRTM1/CTNNA2 gene loci leads to expression of N-terminally truncated CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 isoforms. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a haplotype upstream of one of the human LRRTM genes, LRRTM1 that resides in CTNNA2, was shown to be associated with handedness and schizophrenia...
  28. Scott L, Muglia P, Kong X, Guan W, Flickinger M, Upmanyu R, et al. Genome-wide association and meta-analysis of bipolar disorder in individuals of European ancestry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..37, P = 0.042). Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variant(s) in these regions influence BP risk. ..
  29. Nakagawa T, Matsusaka K, Misawa K, Ota S, Takane K, Fukuyo M, et al. Frequent promoter hypermethylation associated with human papillomavirus infection in pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;407:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The methylation of nine genes (GHSR, ITGA4, RXRG, UTF1, CDH8, FAN19A4, CTNNA2, NEFH, and CASR) was quantitatively validated in 70 pharyngeal SCC cases by pyrosequencing...
  30. Kim E, Lee K, Kim J. The cytoplasmic domain of HIV-1 gp41 interacts with the carboxyl-terminal region of alpha-catenin. Mol Cells. 1999;9:281-5 pubmed
  31. Drees F, Pokutta S, Yamada S, Nelson W, Weis W. Alpha-catenin is a molecular switch that binds E-cadherin-beta-catenin and regulates actin-filament assembly. Cell. 2005;123:903-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a new role for alpha-catenin in local regulation of actin assembly and organization at sites of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. ..
  32. Mexal S, Berger R, Pearce L, Barton A, Logel J, Adams C, et al. Regulation of a novel alphaN-catenin splice variant in schizophrenic smokers. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:759-68 pubmed publisher
    The alphaN-catenin (CTNNA2) gene represents a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia based upon previous genetic linkage, expression, and mouse knockout studies. CTNNA2 is differentially regulated by smoking in schizophrenic patients...
  33. Smeland O, Frei O, Kauppi K, Hill W, Li W, Wang Y, et al. Identification of Genetic Loci Jointly Influencing Schizophrenia Risk and the Cognitive Traits of Verbal-Numerical Reasoning, Reaction Time, and General Cognitive Function. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74:1065-1075 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovered loci improve the understanding of the common genetic basis underlying schizophrenia and cognitive function, suggesting novel molecular genetic mechanisms. ..
  34. Terracciano A, Esko T, Sutin A, De Moor M, Meirelles O, Zhu G, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants in CTNNA2 associated with excitement-seeking. Transl Psychiatry. 2011;1:e49 pubmed publisher
    ..This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps within the catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2) gene, which encodes for a brain-expressed ?-catenin critical for synaptic contact...
  35. Hong K, Kim S, Kim Y. Genome-wide association study of orthostatic hypotension and supine-standing blood pressure changes in two korean populations. Genomics Inform. 2013;11:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Four of 8 SNPs were located in the intergenic region of chromosome 2, and the nearest gene (CTNNA2) was located at 1 Mb of distance...
  36. Haryono S, Datasena I, Santosa W, Mulyarahardja R, Sari K. A pilot genome-wide association study of breast cancer susceptibility loci in Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:2231-5 pubmed
    ..Of these, however, there were only four chromosome loci with identified genes: chromosome 2p.12 with the CTNNA2 gene [Odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-1.33, P=1.08x10(-7)]; chromosome 18p11...