CTCF

Summary

Gene Symbol: CTCF
Description: CCCTC-binding factor
Alias: MRD21, transcriptional repressor CTCF, 11 zinc finger transcriptional repressor, 11-zinc finger protein, CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein), CTCFL paralog
Species: human
Products:     CTCF

Top Publications

  1. Docquier F, Farrar D, D Arcy V, Chernukhin I, Robinson A, Loukinov D, et al. Heightened expression of CTCF in breast cancer cells is associated with resistance to apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2005;65:5112-22 pubmed
    b>CTCF is a candidate tumor suppressor gene encoding a multifunctional transcription factor...
  2. Hark A, Schoenherr C, Katz D, Ingram R, Levorse J, Tilghman S. CTCF mediates methylation-sensitive enhancer-blocking activity at the H19/Igf2 locus. Nature. 2000;405:486-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that CTCF, a zinc finger protein implicated in vertebrate boundary function, binds to several sites in the unmethylated ..
  3. Perez Juste G, Garcia Silva S, Aranda A. An element in the region responsible for premature termination of transcription mediates repression of c-myc gene expression by thyroid hormone in neuroblastoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1307-14 pubmed
    ..These studies provide insight into mechanisms by which TR mediate transcriptional repression and contribute to the understanding of the important effects of thyroid hormones on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells. ..
  4. Lee B, Iyer V. Genome-wide studies of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin provide insight into chromatin structure and regulation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30906-13 pubmed publisher
    ..CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a sequence-specific transcription factor, serves as a chromatin organizer in building this complex chromatin ..
  5. Fiorentino F, Macaluso M, Miranda F, Montanari M, Russo A, Bagella L, et al. CTCF and BORIS regulate Rb2/p130 gene transcription: a novel mechanism and a new paradigm for understanding the biology of lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..fibroblasts the expression of Rb2/p130 gene is directly controlled by the chromatin insulator CCCTC-binding factor, CTCF, which by binding to the Rb2/p130 gene promoter induces, and/or maintains, a specific local chromatin organization ..
  6. Tanimoto K, Sugiura A, Omori A, Felsenfeld G, Engel J, Fukamizu A. Human beta-globin locus control region HS5 contains CTCF- and developmental stage-dependent enhancer-blocking activity in erythroid cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8946-52 pubmed
    ..describe genetic evidence demonstrating that human HS5 includes enhancer-blocking (insulator) activity that is both CTCF and developmental stage dependent...
  7. Ross Innes C, Brown G, Carroll J. A co-ordinated interaction between CTCF and ER in breast cancer cells. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:593 pubmed publisher
    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a conserved zinc finger transcription factor that is involved in both intra- and interchromasomal looping...
  8. Filippova G, Cheng M, Moore J, Truong J, Hu Y, Nguyen D, et al. Boundaries between chromosomal domains of X inactivation and escape bind CTCF and lack CpG methylation during early development. Dev Cell. 2005;8:31-42 pubmed
    ..We report that the 5' end of Jarid1c, a mouse escape gene adjacent to an inactivated gene, binds CTCF, displays high levels of histone H3 acetylation, and functions as a CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator...
  9. Aulmann S, Blaker H, Penzel R, Rieker R, Otto H, Sinn H. CTCF gene mutations in invasive ductal breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;80:347-52 pubmed
    The CTCF gene encodes for a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc oncogene and has previously been mapped to one of the smallest regions of overlapping interstitial deletions on chromosome 16q22.1 in invasive breast cancer...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Gomes N, Espinosa J. Gene-specific repression of the p53 target gene PUMA via intragenic CTCF-Cohesin binding. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1022-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the insulator protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) and the Cohesin complex occupy these intragenic chromatin boundaries...
  2. Heath H, Ribeiro de Almeida C, Sleutels F, Dingjan G, van de Nobelen S, Jonkers I, et al. CTCF regulates cell cycle progression of alphabeta T cells in the thymus. EMBO J. 2008;27:2839-50 pubmed publisher
    The 11-zinc finger protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved protein, involved in imprinting, long-range chromatin interactions and transcription...
  3. Stedman W, Kang H, Lin S, Kissil J, Bartolomei M, Lieberman P. Cohesins localize with CTCF at the KSHV latency control region and at cellular c-myc and H19/Igf2 insulators. EMBO J. 2008;27:654-66 pubmed publisher
    Cohesins, which mediate sister chromatin cohesion, and CTCF, which functions at chromatin boundaries, play key roles in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes...
  4. Filippova G, Lindblom A, Meincke L, Klenova E, Neiman P, Collins S, et al. A widely expressed transcription factor with multiple DNA sequence specificity, CTCF, is localized at chromosome segment 16q22.1 within one of the smallest regions of overlap for common deletions in breast and prostate cancers. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1998;22:26-36 pubmed
    ..We have cloned one such MYC regulatory factor, termed CTCF, which is a highly evolutionarily conserved-11-zinc finger transcriptional factor possessing multiple DNA sequence ..
  5. Farrar D, Rai S, Chernukhin I, Jagodic M, Ito Y, Yammine S, et al. Mutational analysis of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites of the transcription factor CTCF provides an insight into the mechanism of its regulation by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1199-216 pubmed publisher
    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the conserved multifunctional transcription factor CTCF was previously identified as important to maintain CTCF insulator and chromatin barrier functions...
  6. Horakova A, Moseley S, McLaughlin C, Tremblay D, Chadwick B. The macrosatellite DXZ4 mediates CTCF-dependent long-range intrachromosomal interactions on the human inactive X chromosome. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4367-77 pubmed
    ..to X chromosome, inactivation is organized into euchromatin bound by the insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) on the inactive X chromosome (Xi)...
  7. Torrano V, Chernukhin I, Docquier F, D Arcy V, Leon J, Klenova E, et al. CTCF regulates growth and erythroid differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28152-61 pubmed
    b>CTCF is a transcription factor and a candidate tumor suppressor that contains a DNA-binding domain composed of 11 zinc fingers...
  8. Yu W, Ginjala V, Pant V, Chernukhin I, Whitehead J, Docquier F, et al. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates CTCF-dependent chromatin insulation. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1105-10 pubmed
    ..We show that the chromatin insulator protein CTCF carries a post-translational modification: poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation...
  9. Yusufzai T, Tagami H, Nakatani Y, Felsenfeld G. CTCF tethers an insulator to subnuclear sites, suggesting shared insulator mechanisms across species. Mol Cell. 2004;13:291-8 pubmed
    ..Almost all described vertebrate insulators require binding of the regulatory protein CTCF for their activity...
  10. Hou C, Dale R, Dean A. Cell type specificity of chromatin organization mediated by CTCF and cohesin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3651-6 pubmed publisher
    b>CTCF sites are abundant in the genomes of diverse species but their function is enigmatic...
  11. Kim T, Abdullaev Z, Smith A, Ching K, Loukinov D, Green R, et al. Analysis of the vertebrate insulator protein CTCF-binding sites in the human genome. Cell. 2007;128:1231-45 pubmed
    ..In vertebrates, insulator's function requires association with the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a protein that recognizes long and diverse nucleotide sequences...
  12. Zuin J, Dixon J, van der Reijden M, Ye Z, Kolovos P, Brouwer R, et al. Cohesin and CTCF differentially affect chromatin architecture and gene expression in human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:996-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..The boundary sequences between domains are enriched for binding sites of CTCC-binding factor (CTCF) and the cohesin complex, implicating these two factors in the establishment or maintenance of topological domains...
  13. Shukla S, Kavak E, Gregory M, Imashimizu M, Shutinoski B, Kashlev M, et al. CTCF-promoted RNA polymerase II pausing links DNA methylation to splicing. Nature. 2011;479:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide the first evidence that a DNA-binding protein, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), can promote inclusion of weak upstream exons by mediating local RNA polymerase II pausing both in a mammalian ..
  14. Qi C, Martensson A, Mattioli M, Dalla Favera R, Lobanenkov V, Morse H. CTCF functions as a critical regulator of cell-cycle arrest and death after ligation of the B cell receptor on immature B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:633-8 pubmed
    ..b>CTCF is a transcription factor identified as a repressor of MYC recently shown to cause cell growth inhibition...
  15. Schoenherr C, Levorse J, Tilghman S. CTCF maintains differential methylation at the Igf2/H19 locus. Nat Genet. 2003;33:66-9 pubmed
    ..One candidate regulator of methylation, the zinc-finger protein CTCF, binds to the imprinting control region (ICR) of the genes Igf2 (encoding insulin-like growth factor 2) and H19 (..
  16. Ong C, Corces V. CTCF: an architectural protein bridging genome topology and function. Nat Rev Genet. 2014;15:234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..organization is partly established by a special class of architectural proteins, of which CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is the best characterized...
  17. Ohlsson R, Renkawitz R, Lobanenkov V. CTCF is a uniquely versatile transcription regulator linked to epigenetics and disease. Trends Genet. 2001;17:520-7 pubmed
    b>CTCF is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger (ZF) phosphoprotein that binds through combinatorial use of its 11 ZFs to approximately 50 bp target sites that have remarkable sequence variation...
  18. Bell A, Felsenfeld G. Methylation of a CTCF-dependent boundary controls imprinted expression of the Igf2 gene. Nature. 2000;405:482-5 pubmed
    ..The activity of this element is dependent upon the vertebrate enhancer-blocking protein CTCF. Methylation of CpGs within the CTCF-binding sites eliminates binding of CTCF in vitro, and deletion of these sites ..
  19. Fu Y, Sinha M, Peterson C, Weng Z. The insulator binding protein CTCF positions 20 nucleosomes around its binding sites across the human genome. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000138 pubmed publisher
    ..and we discovered an array of well-positioned nucleosomes flanking sites occupied by the insulator binding protein CTCF across the human genome. These nucleosomes are highly enriched for the histone variant H2A...
  20. Ishihara K, Oshimura M, Nakao M. CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator is linked to epigenetic remodeling. Mol Cell. 2006;23:733-42 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the SNF2-like chromodomain helicase protein CHD8 interacts with the insulator binding protein CTCF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that CHD8 was present at known CTCF target sites, such as the ..
  21. Lutz M, Burke L, Barreto G, Goeman F, Greb H, Arnold R, et al. Transcriptional repression by the insulator protein CTCF involves histone deacetylases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1707-13 pubmed
    The highly conserved zinc-finger protein, CTCF, is a candidate tumor suppressor protein that binds to highly divergent DNA sequences...
  22. Li T, Lu L. Functional role of CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) in stress-induced apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3057-65 pubmed
    b>CTCF, a nuclear transcriptional factor, is a multifunctional protein and involves regulation of growth factor- and cytokine-induced cell proliferation/differentiation...
  23. Lu L, Wang L, Li T, Wang J. NF-kappaB subtypes regulate CCCTC binding factor affecting corneal epithelial cell fate. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9373-82 pubmed publisher
    CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) controls DNA imprinting, insulates important gene expression, and mediates growth factor- and stress-induced cell fate. However, regulatory mechanisms involved in intracellular CTCF activity are largely unknown...
  24. Li T, Hu J, Qiu X, Ling J, Chen H, Wang S, et al. CTCF regulates allelic expression of Igf2 by orchestrating a promoter-polycomb repressive complex 2 intrachromosomal loop. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6473-82 pubmed publisher
    b>CTCF is a zinc finger DNA-binding protein that regulates the epigenetic states of numerous target genes...
  25. Cuddapah S, Jothi R, Schones D, Roh T, Cui K, Zhao K. Global analysis of the insulator binding protein CTCF in chromatin barrier regions reveals demarcation of active and repressive domains. Genome Res. 2009;19:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..They can be functionally classified as either enhancer blockers or domain barriers. CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is the only known major insulator-binding protein in the vertebrates and has been shown to ..
  26. Kang H, Lieberman P. Cell cycle control of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency transcription by CTCF-cohesin interactions. J Virol. 2009;83:6199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have shown that this major latency control region is occupied by the cellular chromatin boundary factor CTCF and chromosome structural maintenance proteins SMC1, SMC3, and RAD21, which comprise the cohesin complex...
  27. Kemp C, Moore J, Moser R, Bernard B, Teater M, Smith L, et al. CTCF haploinsufficiency destabilizes DNA methylation and predisposes to cancer. Cell Rep. 2014;7:1020-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CTCF, a DNA-binding protein that regulates higher-order chromatin organization, is frequently altered by hemizygous ..
  28. Chang J, Hsu H, Ni H, Chuang C, Hsiung C, Huang T, et al. Distinct epigenetic domains separated by a CTCF bound insulator between the tandem genes, BLU and RASSF1A. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12847 pubmed publisher
    ..Using gel shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR (ChIP-PCR), we found that CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) bound to insulator sequences located between these two genes...
  29. Torrano V, Navascues J, Docquier F, Zhang R, Burke L, Chernukhin I, et al. Targeting of CTCF to the nucleolus inhibits nucleolar transcription through a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent mechanism. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1746-59 pubmed
    Multiple functions have been reported for the transcription factor and candidate tumour suppressor, CTCF. Among others, they include regulation of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, enhancer-blocking activity and control of ..
  30. Essien K, Vigneau S, Apreleva S, Singh L, Bartolomei M, Hannenhalli S. CTCF binding site classes exhibit distinct evolutionary, genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic features. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R131 pubmed publisher
    b>CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein involved in diverse functions ranging from negative regulation of MYC, to chromatin insulation of the beta-globin gene cluster, to imprinting of the Igf2 locus...
  31. Burton T, Liang B, Dibrov A, Amara F. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced transcription of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor protein gene involves interaction between the CTCF-complex and Smads. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:713-23 pubmed
    ..This site interacts with the zinc finger nuclear factor CTCF, involved in APP transcriptional activity...
  32. Filippova G, Fagerlie S, Klenova E, Myers C, Dehner Y, Goodwin G, et al. An exceptionally conserved transcriptional repressor, CTCF, employs different combinations of zinc fingers to bind diverged promoter sequences of avian and mammalian c-myc oncogenes. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2802-13 pubmed
    We have isolated and analyzed human CTCF cDNA clones and show here that the ubiquitously expressed 11-zinc-finger factor CTCF is an exceptionally highly conserved protein displaying 93% identity between avian and human amino acid ..
  33. Soto Reyes E, Recillas Targa F. Epigenetic regulation of the human p53 gene promoter by the CTCF transcription factor in transformed cell lines. Oncogene. 2010;29:2217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized a binding site for the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) in the human p53 gene promoter that contributes to its transcriptional expression, and has the ability to maintain ..
  34. De Biase I, Chutake Y, Rindler P, Bidichandani S. Epigenetic silencing in Friedreich ataxia is associated with depletion of CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) and antisense transcription. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7914 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a severe depletion of the chromatin insulator protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) in the 5'UTR of the FXN gene in FRDA, and coincident heterochromatin formation involving the ..
  35. Guo Y, MONAHAN K, Wu H, Gertz J, Varley K, Li W, et al. CTCF/cohesin-mediated DNA looping is required for protocadherin ? promoter choice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that this DNA looping requires specific binding of the CTCF/cohesin complex to two symmetrically aligned binding sites in both the transcriptionally active promoters and in ..
  36. Witcher M, Emerson B. Epigenetic silencing of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor is associated with loss of CTCF binding and a chromatin boundary. Mol Cell. 2009;34:271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the multifunctional protein CTCF associates in the vicinity of this boundary and absence of binding strongly coincides with p16 silencing in ..
  37. Vostrov A, Quitschke W. The zinc finger protein CTCF binds to the APBbeta domain of the amyloid beta-protein precursor promoter. Evidence for a role in transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:33353-9 pubmed
    ..gel electrophoresis, partial peptide sequences were obtained that completely matched the transcriptional factor CTCF. This protein is a known regulator of c-myc and lysozyme gene expression, and it binds to a variety of diverse DNA ..
  38. Kanduri M, Kanduri C, Mariano P, Vostrov A, Quitschke W, Lobanenkov V, et al. Multiple nucleosome positioning sites regulate the CTCF-mediated insulator function of the H19 imprinting control region. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3339-44 pubmed
    ..set the stage for the remarkably precise distribution of the four target sites for the chromatin insulator protein CTCF to nucleosome linker sequences in the H19 ICR...
  39. Burke L, Zhang R, Bartkuhn M, Tiwari V, Tavoosidana G, Kurukuti S, et al. CTCF binding and higher order chromatin structure of the H19 locus are maintained in mitotic chromatin. EMBO J. 2005;24:3291-300 pubmed
    ..For the zinc-finger protein CTCF, a role in interpreting and propagating epigenetic states and in separating expression domains has been documented...
  40. Gao J, Li T, Lu L. Functional role of CCCTC binding factor in insulin-stimulated cell proliferation. Cell Prolif. 2007;40:795-808 pubmed
    CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a nuclear protein containing an 11-zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. CTCF plays important roles in the regulation of epigenetics and gene transcription...
  41. Recillas Targa F, De La Rosa Velazquez I, Soto Reyes E, Benitez Bribiesca L. Epigenetic boundaries of tumour suppressor gene promoters: the CTCF connection and its role in carcinogenesis. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:554-68 pubmed
    ..We describe a previously unsuspected epigenetic factor and propose the incorporation of the 11-zinc finger CCCTC-binding factor, known as CTCF as a novel and multifunctional epigenetic regulator.
  42. Tiffen J, Bailey C, Marshall A, Metierre C, Feng Y, Wang Q, et al. The cancer-testis antigen BORIS phenocopies the tumor suppressor CTCF in normal and neoplastic cells. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:1603-13 pubmed publisher
    BORIS and CTCF are paralogous, multivalent 11-zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in organizing higher-order chromatin architecture...
  43. Davalos Salas M, Furlan Magaril M, González Buendía E, Valdes Quezada C, Ayala Ortega E, Recillas Targa F. Gain of DNA methylation is enhanced in the absence of CTCF at the human retinoblastoma gene promoter. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:232 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we addressed the contribution of the multifunctional nuclear factor CTCF to the epigenetic regulation of the human retinoblastoma (Rb) gene promoter in different tumoral cell lines...
  44. Zhang Y, Liang J, Li Y, Xuan C, Wang F, Wang D, et al. CCCTC-binding factor acts upstream of FOXA1 and demarcates the genomic response to estrogen. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..boundary elements surrounding the well defined ERalpha target TFF1 locus are occupied by the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)...
  45. Donohoe M, Silva S, Pinter S, Xu N, Lee J. The pluripotency factor Oct4 interacts with Ctcf and also controls X-chromosome pairing and counting. Nature. 2009;460:128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Xite, two regulatory noncoding RNA genes of the X-inactivation centre, and also complexes with XCI trans-factors, Ctcf and Yy1 (ref. 17), through protein-protein interactions...
  46. Gombert W, Farris S, Rubio E, Morey Rosler K, Schubach W, Krumm A. The c-myc insulator element and matrix attachment regions define the c-myc chromosomal domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:9338-48 pubmed
    ..The enhancer-blocking activity is mediated by CTCF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that CTCF is constitutively bound at the insulator and at the ..
  47. Fedoriw A, Stein P, Svoboda P, Schultz R, Bartolomei M. Transgenic RNAi reveals essential function for CTCF in H19 gene imprinting. Science. 2004;303:238-40 pubmed
    ..Insulin-like growth factor 2 expression involves binding of the vertebrate insulator protein, CCCTC binding factor (CTCF), to the maternally hypomethylated differentially methylated domain (DMD)...
  48. Defossez P, Kelly K, Filion G, Perez Torrado R, Magdinier F, Menoni H, et al. The human enhancer blocker CTC-binding factor interacts with the transcription factor Kaiso. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:43017-23 pubmed
    CTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA-binding protein of vertebrates that plays essential roles in regulating genome activity through its capacity to act as an enhancer blocker...
  49. Xiao T, Wallace J, Felsenfeld G. Specific sites in the C terminus of CTCF interact with the SA2 subunit of the cohesin complex and are required for cohesin-dependent insulation activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2174-83 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that the protein CTCF, which plays an important role in insulation and in large-scale organization of chromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus, depends for both activities on recruitment of the cohesin complex...
  50. Kurukuti S, Tiwari V, Tavoosidana G, Pugacheva E, Murrell A, Zhao Z, et al. CTCF binding at the H19 imprinting control region mediates maternally inherited higher-order chromatin conformation to restrict enhancer access to Igf2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10684-9 pubmed
    ..the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) directs the silencing of the maternally inherited Igf2 allele through a CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator...
  51. Chernukhin I, Shamsuddin S, Kang S, Bergstrom R, Kwon Y, Yu W, et al. CTCF interacts with and recruits the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II to CTCF target sites genome-wide. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1631-48 pubmed
    b>CTCF is a transcription factor with highly versatile functions ranging from gene activation and repression to the regulation of insulator function and imprinting...
  52. Chao W, Huynh K, Spencer R, Davidow L, Lee J. CTCF, a candidate trans-acting factor for X-inactivation choice. Science. 2002;295:345-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify the insulator and transcription factor, CTCF, as a candidate trans-acting factor for X-chromosome selection...
  53. Donohoe M, Zhang L, Xu N, Shi Y, Lee J. Identification of a Ctcf cofactor, Yy1, for the X chromosome binary switch. Mol Cell. 2007;25:43-56 pubmed
    ..Although no proven trans-acting factors have been identified, a likely candidate is Ctcf, a chromatin insulator with essential function in autosomal imprinting...
  54. Zhang H, Niu B, Hu J, Ge S, Wang H, Li T, et al. Interruption of intrachromosomal looping by CCCTC binding factor decoy proteins abrogates genomic imprinting of human insulin-like growth factor II. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:475-87 pubmed publisher
    Monoallelic expression of IGF2 is regulated by CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) binding to the imprinting control region (ICR) on the maternal allele, with subsequent formation of an intrachromosomal loop to the promoter region...
  55. Parelho V, Hadjur S, Spivakov M, Leleu M, Sauer S, Gregson H, et al. Cohesins functionally associate with CTCF on mammalian chromosome arms. Cell. 2008;132:422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..occupy a subset of DNase I hypersensitive sites, many of which contain sequence motifs resembling the consensus for CTCF, a DNA-binding protein with enhancer blocking function and boundary-element activity...
  56. Rubio E, Reiss D, Welcsh P, Disteche C, Filippova G, Baliga N, et al. CTCF physically links cohesin to chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..proteomics approach, we show that the STAG1 (Scc3/SA1) subunit of cohesin interacts with the CCTC-binding factor CTCF bound to the c-myc insulator element...
  57. Holdorf M, Cooper S, Yamamoto K, Miranda J. Occupancy of chromatin organizers in the Epstein-Barr virus genome. Virology. 2011;415:1-5 pubmed publisher
    The human CCCTC-binding factor, CTCF, regulates transcription of the double-stranded DNA genomes of herpesviruses. The architectural complex cohesin and RNA Polymerase II also contribute to this organization...
  58. Renda M, Baglivo I, Burgess Beusse B, Esposito S, Fattorusso R, Felsenfeld G, et al. Critical DNA binding interactions of the insulator protein CTCF: a small number of zinc fingers mediate strong binding, and a single finger-DNA interaction controls binding at imprinted loci. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33336-45 pubmed
    The DNA-binding protein CTCF (CCCTC binding factor) mediates enhancer blocking insulation at sites throughout the genome and plays an important role in regulating allele-specific expression at the Igf2/H19 locus and at other imprinted ..
  59. Majumder P, Gomez J, Chadwick B, Boss J. The insulator factor CTCF controls MHC class II gene expression and is required for the formation of long-distance chromatin interactions. J Exp Med. 2008;205:785-98 pubmed publisher
    Knockdown of the insulator factor CCCTC binding factor (CTCF), which binds XL9, an intergenic element located between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1, was found to diminish expression of these genes...
  60. Rodriguez C, Borgel J, Court F, Cathala G, Forné T, Piette J. CTCF is a DNA methylation-sensitive positive regulator of the INK/ARF locus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting divergent promoter region is bound by the chromatin insulator protein CTCF in association with histone H3 tri-methylated on lysine 4, irrespective of transcription of ANRIL and ARF...
  61. Wendt K, Yoshida K, Itoh T, Bando M, Koch B, Schirghuber E, et al. Cohesin mediates transcriptional insulation by CCCTC-binding factor. Nature. 2008;451:796-801 pubmed publisher
    ..cohesin-binding sites in the human genome and show that most of these are associated with the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a zinc-finger protein required for transcriptional insulation...
  62. Bell A, West A, Felsenfeld G. The protein CTCF is required for the enhancer blocking activity of vertebrate insulators. Cell. 1999;98:387-96 pubmed
    ..We show that this sequence is the binding site for CTCF, a previously identified eleven-zinc finger DNA-binding protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates...
  63. Gombert W, Krumm A. Targeted deletion of multiple CTCF-binding elements in the human C-MYC gene reveals a requirement for CTCF in C-MYC expression. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6109 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies examined the functional mechanism of the MYC insulator element MINE and its CTCF binding sites in the context of transgenes that were randomly inserted into the genome by transfection...
  64. Eldholm V, Haugen A, Zienolddiny S. CTCF mediates the TERT enhancer-promoter interactions in lung cancer cells: identification of a novel enhancer region involved in the regulation of TERT gene. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:2305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..TERT is embedded in a region of condensed chromatin and the chromatin remodeling protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been implicated in the inhibition of TERT expression...
  65. Filippova G, Qi C, Ulmer J, Moore J, Ward M, Hu Y, et al. Tumor-associated zinc finger mutations in the CTCF transcription factor selectively alter tts DNA-binding specificity. Cancer Res. 2002;62:48-52 pubmed
    b>CTCF is a widely expressed 11-zinc finger (ZF) transcription factor that is involved in different aspects of gene regulation including promoter activation or repression, hormone-responsive gene silencing, methylation-dependent chromatin ..