CTBS

Summary

Gene Symbol: CTBS
Description: chitobiase
Alias: CTB, di-N-acetylchitobiase, chitobiase, di-N-acetyl-
Species: human
Products:     CTBS

Top Publications

  1. Oikawa A, Shoji J, Inada N, Sawa M. Transconjunctival immunotherapy using cholera toxin B to treat experimental allergic conjunctivitis in a mouse model. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2011;55:534-540 pubmed publisher
    ..first group was treated by topical instillation of OVA after the instillation of combined OVA and cholera toxin B (CTB) solution B group). The second group was treated by topical instillation of OVA alone (allergy group)...
  2. Terrinoni M, Nordqvist S, Källgård S, Holmgren J, Lebens M. A Novel Nonantibiotic, lgt-Based Selection System for Stable Maintenance of Expression Vectors in Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84: pubmed publisher
    ..coli The resulting strain was used to produce the secreted recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) protein, a component of licensed as well as newly developed oral cholera vaccines...
  3. Peng W, Chen Y, Luo X, Shan N, Lan X, Olson D, et al. DNA methylation-associated repression of MEST/PEG1 expression contributes to the invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2016;46:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak MEST expression was found in cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) and the choriocarcinoma-derived CTB cell line JEG-3...
  4. Finley J. Transposable elements, placental development, and oocyte activation: Cellular stress and AMPK links jumping genes with the creation of human life. Med Hypotheses. 2018;118:44-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular stress also plays a critical role in human placental development, with cytotrophoblast (CTB) differentiation leading to the formation of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), a cellular layer that facilitates ..
  5. Ullah R, Dar S, Ahmad T, de Renty C, Usman M, DePamphilis M, et al. CDK1 inhibition facilitates formation of syncytiotrophoblasts and expression of human Chorionic Gonadotropin. Placenta. 2018;66:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..FACS and microscopic analysis was used to optimize Forskolin-induced fusion of BeWo cells (surrogate of CTBs) and subsequently, changes in the expression of different cell cycle regulator genes were analyzed through Western ..
  6. Nuschke A, Farrell S, Levesque J, Chauhan B. Assessment of retinal ganglion cell damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy: Axon transport, injury and soma loss. Exp Eye Res. 2015;141:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), rhodamine-B-isothiocyanate (RITC) and cholera toxin-B (CTB) fluorescent conjugates have proven to be effective reporters of AT...
  7. Shaw P, Sang A, Wang Y, Ho D, Douglas C, Dia L, et al. Topical administration of a Rock/Net inhibitor promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Exp Eye Res. 2017;158:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..IOP was measured starting 3 days before and up to 9 days after injury. On day 12, cholera toxin B (CTB) was injected intravitreally to trace optic nerve regeneration. On day 14, retinas and optic nerves were collected...
  8. Wang R, Wu J, Chen Z, Xia F, Sun Q, Liu L. Postconditioning with inhaled hydrogen promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Brain Res. 2016;1632:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..RGC density was counted using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and retrograde labeling with cholera toxin beta (CTB). Visual function was assessed using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP) and pupillary light reflex (PLR)...
  9. Zou Z, Xie G, Yang L. Papain-like cysteine protease encoding genes in rubber (Hevea brasiliensis): comparative genomics, phylogenetic, and transcriptional profiling analysis. Planta. 2017;246:999-1018 pubmed publisher
    ..e., RD21 (6), CEP (4), XCP (4), XBCP3 (2), THI (1), SAG12 (18), RD19 (4), ALP (2), and CTB (2)...

More Information

Publications150 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kumar S, Singh U, Goswami C, Singru P. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), a highly Ca2+ -selective TRP channel in the rat brain: relevance to neuroendocrine regulation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017;29: pubmed publisher
    ..Following iontophoresis of retrograde neuronal tracer, cholera toxin β (CtB) into the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and median preoptic nucleus, retrograde accumulation of CtB was ..
  2. Gohar A, Abdeltawab N, Fahmy A, Amin M. Development of safe, effective and immunogenic vaccine candidate for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli main pathotypes in a mouse model. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:80 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We also evaluated alum and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as potential adjuvant systems for our candidate vaccine...
  3. Wakabayashi A, Shimizu M, Shinya E, Takahashi H. HMGB1 released from intestinal epithelia damaged by cholera toxin adjuvant contributes to activation of mucosal dendritic cells and induction of intestinal cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IgA. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:631 pubmed publisher
    ..OVA-specific CD8+ CTLs were not induced by oral administration of the CT active (CTA) or CT binding (CTB) subunit as an adjuvant and CD11c+ DCs were involved in cross-priming of intestinal CTLs...
  4. Gao X, Wu C, Wang X, Xu H, Wu Y, Li Y, et al. The DosR antigen Rv1737c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers inflammation regulation in tuberculosis infection. Scand J Immunol. 2019;89:e12729 pubmed publisher
    ..Following Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) challenge, rRv1737c adjuvanted with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) induced diffuse lung inflammation and fibrosis compared to the control mice...
  5. Lorenzon Ojea A, Guzzo C, Kapidzic M, Fisher S, Bevilacqua E. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 2: A Novel Protein that Interferes in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Human Placental Cells. Biol Reprod. 2016;95:41 pubmed publisher
    ..Second-trimester cytotrophoblast cells (CTBs) in the differentiation process, monitored through chorionic gonadotropin production, showed upregulation of SDF2 ..
  6. Lowin T, Apitz M, Anders S, Straub R. Anti-inflammatory effects of N-acylethanolamines in rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells are mediated by TRPV1 and TRPA1 in a COX-2 dependent manner. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:321 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by proteome profiling. Proliferation was quantified by CTB reagent. Adhesion was assessed by the xCELLigence system...
  7. Nezafat N, Karimi Z, Eslami M, Mohkam M, Zandian S, Ghasemi Y. Designing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine against Vibrio cholerae via combined immunoinformatics and protein interaction based approaches. Comput Biol Chem. 2016;62:82-95 pubmed publisher
    ..factors such as toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), outer membrane proteins (Omps), and nontoxic cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Nowadays, there is a great interest in designing an efficient epitope vaccine against cholera...
  8. Maglione A, Taranto P, Hamermesz B, Souza J, Cafarchio E, Ogihara C, et al. Impact of swimming exercise on inflammation in medullary areas of sympathetic outflow control in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33:1649-1660 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), AT-1 receptor (AT-1r), neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Ctb) in cNTS and RVLM was carried out by qPCR. We observed that COX-2 g.e...
  9. Wilson G, Inman D, Dengler Crish C, Denger Crish C, Smith M, Crish S. Early pro-inflammatory cytokine elevations in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Gpnmb (+) (control) mice using the anterograde tracer cholera toxin-B (CTB) to assay axonal transport deficits...
  10. Patry R, Stahl M, Perez Muñoz M, Nothaft H, Wenzel C, Sacher J, et al. Bacterial AB5 toxins inhibit the growth of gut bacteria by targeting ganglioside-like glycoconjugates. Nat Commun. 2019;10:1390 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the toxin B-subunits (CTB and LTB) inhibit C...
  11. Beltrán López J, Romero Maldonado A, Monreal Escalante E, Bañuelos Hernández B, Paz Maldonado L, Rosales Mendoza S. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts express an orally immunogenic protein targeting the p210 epitope implicated in atherosclerosis immunotherapies. Plant Cell Rep. 2016;35:1133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..this study a chimeric protein consisting of the B subunit of the cholera toxin and the p210 epitope from ApoB100 (CTB:p210) has been expressed in C...
  12. Zhang M, Wang M, Gao R, Liu X, Chen X, Geng Y, et al. Altered β1,6-GlcNAc and bisecting GlcNAc-branched N-glycan on integrin β1 are associated with early spontaneous miscarriage in humans. Hum Reprod. 2015;30:2064-75 pubmed publisher
    ..GnT-V was located mainly in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs) and chorionic villous cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), in both the ESM group and the normal group...
  13. Kim N, Mbongue J, Nicholas D, Esebanmen G, Unternaehrer J, Firek A, et al. Chimeric Vaccine Stimulation of Human Dendritic Cell Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase Occurs via the Non-Canonical NF-κB Pathway. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147509 pubmed publisher
    A chimeric protein vaccine composed of the cholera toxin B subunit fused to proinsulin (CTB-INS) was shown to suppress type 1 diabetes onset in NOD mice and upregulate biosynthesis of the tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-..
  14. Kamper M, Mittermayer F, Cabuk R, Gelles K, Ellinger I, Hermann M. Estrogen-enhanced apical and basolateral secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 by polarized trophoblast-derived BeWo cells. Biochimie. 2017;138:116-123 pubmed publisher
    ..These lipoprotein particles may serve as cholesterol source for STB precursor cells, the CTBs, as well as all stromal cells of the chorionic villi including FECs, which were herein demonstrated to express apoB ..
  15. Xing Y, Liu W, Li X, Guo L, Lv X, Xi T. Immunogenicity characterization of the multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE with chitosan-CpG as combination adjuvants against Helicobacter pylori. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;462:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori) infection. Our previous study reported a novel multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE which was composed of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and five cell epitopes from urease ..
  16. Noe M, Messingham K, Brandt D, Andrews J, Fairley J. Pregnant women have increased incidence of IgE autoantibodies reactive with the skin and placental antigen BP180 (type XVII collagen). J Reprod Immunol. 2010;85:198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence confirmed the expression of BP180 on the surface of cultured CTBs. Finally, it was demonstrated that IgE antibodies in the pregnancy sera labeled not only cultured CTBs, but also ..
  17. Xiao Y, Kwon K, Hoffman B, Kamesh A, Jones N, Herzog R, et al. Low cost delivery of proteins bioencapsulated in plant cells to human non-immune or immune modulatory cells. Biomaterials. 2016;80:68-79 pubmed publisher
    Targeted oral delivery of GFP fused with a GM1 receptor binding protein (CTB) or human cell penetrating peptide (PTD) or dendritic cell peptide (DCpep) was investigated...
  18. Faunes M, Botelho J, Wild J. Innervation of the syrinx of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:2847-2860 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, ..
  19. Mogoung Wafo A, Nana Djeunga H, Domche A, Fossuo Thotchum F, Bopda J, Mbickmen Tchana S, et al. Prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection over twenty-three years in three communities of the Mbalmayo health district (Central Cameroon). BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19:146 pubmed publisher
    ..All volunteers, males and females aged five years and above, underwent daytime calibrated thick blood smears (CTBS) to search for L. loa microfilariae (mf)...
  20. Chang C, Wakeland A, Parast M. Trophoblast lineage specification, differentiation and their regulation by oxygen tension. J Endocrinol. 2018;236:R43-R56 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) are the so-called epithelial 'stem cells' of the placenta, which, depending on the signals they receive, can ..
  21. Sun G, Lei J, Ren H, Zhang Y, Guo K, Long S, et al. Intranasal immunization with recombinant Trichinella spiralis serine protease elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Exp Parasitol. 2019;201:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..rTsSP coupled with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was used to vaccinate mice via intranasal route...
  22. Kwon K, Nityanandam R, New J, Daniell H. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells. Plant Biotechnol J. 2013;11:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery ..
  23. Rharbaoui F, Drabner B, Borsutzky S, Winckler U, Morr M, Ensoli B, et al. The Mycoplasma-derived lipopeptide MALP-2 is a potent mucosal adjuvant. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2857-65 pubmed
    ..first immunization, and the IgG titers were similar to those observed using 10 microg of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as adjuvant. The mucosal immune system was also effectively stimulated (p<0...
  24. Kim M, Kim B, Oh S, Reljic R, Jang Y, Yang M. Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII antigen induces antibodies to all four dengue serotypes. Plant Mol Biol. 2016;92:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL ..
  25. Wang B, Wang P, Parobchak N, Treff N, Tao X, Wang J, et al. Integrated RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis reveals a feed-forward loop regulating H3K9ac and key labor drivers in human placenta. Placenta. 2019;76:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by gene sequencing (ChIP-seq) in primary term human cytotrophoblast (CTB) with use of antibodies to RelB, CBP, HDAC1 and H3K9ac...
  26. Liu W, Tan Z, Xue J, Luo W, Song H, Lv X, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of oral immunization with a non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis-based vaccine CUE-GEM induces local immunity against Helicobacter pylori infection. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:6219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori-associated gastric diseases. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE (CUE) was displayed on the surface of non-genetically modified Lactococcus lactis particles (GEM) to enhance ..
  27. Akhtar M, Qadri F, Bhuiyan T, Akter S, Rafique T, Khan A, et al. Kinetics of antibody-secreting cell and fecal IgA responses after oral cholera vaccination in different age groups in a cholera endemic country. Vaccine. 2017;35:321-328 pubmed publisher
    ..After the first vaccine dose, anti-CTB ALS IgA responses in adults and toddlers were high and comparable on day 5 and 7, while responses were low and ..
  28. Ciriello J, Caverson M. Effect of estrogen on vagal afferent projections to the brainstem in the female. Brain Res. 2016;1636:21-42 pubmed publisher
    ..agglutinin- (WGA; preferentially transported by non-myelinated afferent C-fibers; 2%), or cholera toxin B-subunit- (CTB, 5%; preferentially transported by large myelinated afferent A-fibers) conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in ..
  29. Wang Y, Li W, Jia H, Zhai F, Qu W, Cheng Y, et al. KLF7-transfected Schwann cell graft transplantation promotes sciatic nerve regeneration. Neuroscience. 2017;340:319-332 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, HRP-labeled motoneurons in the spinal cord, CTB-labeled sensory neurons in the DRG, motor endplate density and the weight ratios of target muscles were increased ..
  30. Choe T, Abbott C, Piper C, Wang L, Fortune B. Comparison of longitudinal in vivo measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retinal ganglion cell density after optic nerve transection in rat. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113011 pubmed publisher
    ..RGCs were labeled by retrograde transport of fluorescently conjugated cholera toxin B (CTB) from the superior colliculus 48 hours prior to ONT or sham surgery...
  31. Lai B, Che M, Du B, Zeng X, Ma Y, Feng B, et al. Transplantation of tissue engineering neural network and formation of neuronal relay into the transected rat spinal cord. Biomaterials. 2016;109:40-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Biotin conjugates of cholera toxin B subunit (b-CTB, a transneuronal tracer) was injected into the crushed sciatic nerve to label spinal cord neurons...
  32. van Splunter M, van Hoffen E, Floris Vollenbroek E, Timmerman H, de Bos E, Meijer B, et al. Oral cholera vaccination promotes homing of IgA+ memory B cells to the large intestine and the respiratory tract. Mucosal Immunol. 2018;11:1254-1264 pubmed publisher
    ..After vaccination, antibody responses to cholera toxin B (CTB) and Dukoral® were detected in serum and nasal wash...
  33. Karkhah A, Saadi M, Nouri H. In silico analyses of heat shock protein 60 and calreticulin to designing a novel vaccine shifting immune response toward T helper 2 in atherosclerosis. Comput Biol Chem. 2017;67:244-254 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cholera toxin B (CTB) was employed as an adjuvant...
  34. Li S, Shi Y, Kirouac G. The hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray are the sources of dopamine fibers in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus in the rat. Front Neuroanat. 2014;8:136 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was done to re-examine this question. Small iontophoretic injections of cholera toxin B (CTb) were made in the PVT to retrogradely label tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons...
  35. Hoang V, Zou Y, Kurata K, Enomoto K. Expression of recombinant T-cell epitopes of major Japanese cedar pollen allergens fused with cholera toxin B subunit in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2015;109:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To apply cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, cry j 1 epi and cry j 2 epi were linked and then fused to the CTB gene in tandem to construct a ..
  36. Song H, Lv X, Yang J, Liu W, Yang H, Xi T, et al. A novel chimeric flagellum fused with the multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE prevents Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer in a BALB/c mouse model. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;99:9495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..A dual-antigen epitope and dual-adjuvant vaccine called CTB-UE-CF (CCF) was constructed by combining a multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE with a novel chimeric flagellum (CF) to ..
  37. van Zyl L, du Plessis J, Viljoen J. Cutaneous tuberculosis overview and current treatment regimens. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015;95:629-638 pubmed publisher
    ..Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is uncommon, comprising 1-1.5% of all extra-pulmonary tuberculosis manifestations, which manifests only in 8.4-13...
  38. Li X, Ge S, Li Y, Wang H. Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Immunopositive Neurons in the Medullary Dorsal Horn Provide Collateral Axons to both the Thalamus and Parabrachial Nucleus in Rats. Neurochem Res. 2017;42:375-388 pubmed publisher
    ..After stereotactic injection of fluorogold (FG) and cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) into the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN), respectively, triple ..
  39. Colnaghi S, Colagiorgio P, Ramat S, D Angelo E, Koch G, Versino M. After Effects of Cerebellar Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation on Reflexive Saccades and Smooth Pursuit in Humans. Cerebellum. 2017;16:764-771 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the after effects of 20 and 40 s continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) as compared to sham stimulation, applied over the lateral cerebellar vermis and paravermis on Reflexive Saccades (..
  40. Chung S, Lewis B, Rogasch N, Saeki T, Thomson R, Hoy K, et al. Demonstration of short-term plasticity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with theta burst stimulation: A TMS-EEG study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017;128:1117-1126 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effects of intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) on cortical reactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. 10 healthy participants were stimulated with either iTBS, cTBS or sham at F3 electrode...
  41. Cardenas A, Fernández Olivares P, Díaz Franulic I, González Jamett A, Shimahara T, Segura Aguilar J, et al. Knockdown of Myo-Inositol Transporter SMIT1 Normalizes Cholinergic and Glutamatergic Function in an Immortalized Cell Line Established from the Cerebral Cortex of a Trisomy 16 Fetal Mouse, an Animal Model of Human Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome). Neurotox Res. 2017;32:614-623 pubmed publisher
    ..SMIT1 is overexpressed in CTb cells, an immortalized cell line established from the cerebral cortex of a Ts16 mouse fetus...
  42. Fernández Montoya J, Martin Y, Negredo P, Avendano C. Changes in the axon terminals of primary afferents from a single vibrissa in the rat trigeminal nuclei after active touch deprivation or exposure to an enriched environment. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223:47-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We made intraneural injections of a mixture of cholera-toxin B (CTB) and isolectin B4, tracers for myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, respectively, in three groups of young adult ..
  43. Takeyama N, Yuki Y, Tokuhara D, Oroku K, Mejima M, Kurokawa S, et al. Oral rice-based vaccine induces passive and active immunity against enterotoxigenic E. coli-mediated diarrhea in pigs. Vaccine. 2015;33:5204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has a high level of amino acid identity to the ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) B-subunit (LTB), we selected MucoRice-..
  44. Miller H, Castro Gomes T, Corrotte M, Tam C, Maugel T, Andrews N, et al. Lipid raft-dependent plasma membrane repair interferes with the activation of B lymphocytes. J Cell Biol. 2015;211:1193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Wounding induces lysosome exocytosis and endocytosis of dextran and the raft-binding cholera toxin subunit B (CTB)...
  45. Unverdorben L, Jeschke U, Santoso L, Hofmann S, Kuhn C, Arck P, et al. Comparative analyses on expression of galectins1-4, 7-10 and 12 in first trimester placenta, decidua and isolated trophoblast cells in vitro. Histol Histopathol. 2016;31:1095-111 pubmed publisher
    ..galectins 1-4, 7-10 and 12 in first trimester placenta: all examined galectins were found in the cytotrophoblast (CTB) and syncytiotrophoblast (SCT)...
  46. Sassone Corsi M, Chairatana P, Zheng T, Perez Lopez A, Edwards R, George M, et al. Siderophore-based immunization strategy to inhibit growth of enteric pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13462-13467 pubmed
    ..and synthesized conjugates of a native siderophore and the immunogenic carrier protein cholera toxin subunit B (CTB)...
  47. Li X, Shen J, Jiang Y, Shen T, You L, Sun X, et al. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Chloranthalactone B in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    Chloranthalactone B (CTB), a lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid, was obtained from the Chinese medicinal herb Sarcandra glabra, which is frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases...
  48. Picazio S, Ponzo V, Koch G. Cerebellar Control on Prefrontal-Motor Connectivity During Movement Inhibition. Cerebellum. 2016;15:680-687 pubmed
    ..The same paired-pulse protocol was applied following sham or real cerebellar continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS)...
  49. Du Z, Sun T, Hacisuleyman E, Fei T, Wang X, Brown M, et al. Integrative analyses reveal a long noncoding RNA-mediated sponge regulatory network in prostate cancer. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10982 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirm the tumour-suppressive function of two lncRNAs (TUG1 and CTB-89H12.4) and their regulation of PTEN expression in prostate cancer...
  50. Gonzalez Porras M, Durfee P, Gregory A, Sieck G, Brinker C, Mantilla C. A novel approach for targeted delivery to motoneurons using cholera toxin-B modified protocells. J Neurosci Methods. 2016;273:160-174 pubmed publisher
    ..encapsulated within a lipid bilayer (protocells) and modified with the atoxic subunit B of the cholera toxin (CTB) that binds to gangliosides present on neuronal membranes...
  51. Li X, Huo H, Li H, Nie F, Yin H, Chen F. Cyanotetrazolylborohydride (CTB) anion-based ionic liquids with low viscosity and high energy capacity as ultrafast-igniting hypergolic fuels. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:8300-8303 pubmed publisher
    A series of hypergolic cyanotetrazolylborohydride (CTB) anion-based ionic liquids have been synthesized by a straightforward N-hydroboration of tetrazole followed by a salt metathesis reaction, which exhibited remarkably low viscosity (&..
  52. Li L, Rubin L, Gong X. MEF2 transcription factors in human placenta and involvement in cytotrophoblast invasion and differentiation. Physiol Genomics. 2018;50:10-19 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, using human cytotrophoblast cell lines (HTR8/SVneo and BeWo) and primary human cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), we show that members of the MEF2 family are differentially expressed in human placental CTBs, with MEF2B and ..
  53. Zénon A, Klein P, Alamia A, Boursoit F, Wilhelm E, Duque J. Increased Reliance on Value-based Decision Processes Following Motor Cortex Disruption. Brain Stimul. 2015;8:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to inhibit either left or right M1 in different groups of subjects and included a third control group with no ..
  54. Huo Y, Wan X, Ling T, Wu J, Wang Z, Meng S, et al. Prevailing Sydney like Norovirus GII.4 VLPs induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice. Mol Immunol. 2015;68:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of VLPs orally in the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) didn't enhance mucosal immune response as less fecal IgA positive mice were observed when compared with those ..
  55. Zong H, Ma F, Zhang L, Lu H, Gong J, Cai M, et al. Hindlimb spasticity after unilateral motor cortex lesion in rats is reduced by contralateral nerve root transfer. Biosci Rep. 2016;36: pubmed publisher
    ..Footprint analysis, Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) retrograde tracing of gastrocnemius muscle (GM) motoneurons and immunofluorescent staining of vesicle glutamate ..
  56. Opie G, Vosnakis E, Ridding M, Ziemann U, Semmler J. Priming theta burst stimulation enhances motor cortex plasticity in young but not old adults. Brain Stimul. 2017;10:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS; LTP-like) when applied 10 min after sham stimulation, continuous TBS (cTBS; LTD-like) or an identical block of iTBS...
  57. Rainbow R, James M, Hudman D, Al Johi M, Singh H, Watson P, et al. Proximal C-terminal domain of sulphonylurea receptor 2A interacts with pore-forming Kir6 subunits in KATP channels. Biochem J. 2004;379:173-81 pubmed
    ..Three maltose-binding protein-SUR2A fusions, rSUR2A-CTA (rSUR2A residues 1254-1545), rSUR2A-CTB (residues 1254-1403) and rSUR2A-CTC (residues 1294-1403), were co-immunoprecipitated with full-length Kir6...
  58. Ssemakalu C, Ubomba Jaswa E, Motaung K, Pillay M. The Effect of Solar Irradiated Vibrio cholerae on the Secretion of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines by the JAWS II Dendritic Cell Line In Vitro. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130190 pubmed publisher
    ..As controls, LPS (1 μg/ml) and CTB (1 μg/ml) were used as stimulants...
  59. Oszlács O, Jancsó G, Kis G, Dux M, Sántha P. Perineural capsaicin induces the uptake and transganglionic transport of choleratoxin B subunit by nociceptive C-fiber primary afferent neurons. Neuroscience. 2015;311:243-52 pubmed publisher
    The distribution of spinal primary afferent terminals labeled transganglionically with the choleratoxin B subunit (CTB) or its conjugates changes profoundly after perineural treatment with capsaicin...
  60. Lee Y, Park S, Lee S, Lee H. Characterization of genetic aberrations in a single case of metastatic thymic adenocarcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:330 pubmed publisher
    ..We further investigated fusion transcripts using RNA-seq data and found an intergenic splicing event between the CTBS and GNG5 transcript...
  61. Richard A, Van Hamme A, Drevelle X, Golmard J, Meunier S, Welter M. Contribution of the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum to the anticipatory postural adjustments and execution phases of human gait initiation. Neuroscience. 2017;358:181-189 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters were recorded in 22 controls both before and after continuous theta burst transcranial stimulation (cTBS) of the SMA and cerebellum, and were compared to sham stimulation, using a randomized double-blind design study...
  62. Rocchi L, Casula E, Tocco P, Berardelli A, Rothwell J. Somatosensory Temporal Discrimination Threshold Involves Inhibitory Mechanisms in the Primary Somatosensory Area. J Neurosci. 2016;36:325-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to condition the excitability of the primary somatosensory cortex in healthy humans to examine its possible ..
  63. Saadi M, Karkhah A, Nouri H. Development of a multi-epitope peptide vaccine inducing robust T cell responses against brucellosis using immunoinformatics based approaches. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;51:227-234 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cholera toxin B (CTB) was linked to N terminal of vaccine construct as an adjuvant by using EAAAK linker...
  64. Lowe C, Manocchio F, Safati A, Hall P. The effects of theta burst stimulation (TBS) targeting the prefrontal cortex on executive functioning: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia. 2018;111:344-359 pubmed publisher
    ..up-regulating (intermittent theta burst stimulation; iTBS) and down-regulating (continuous theta burst stimulation; cTBS) variants of TBS were considered. 32 (29 cTBS; 8 iTBS) studies met the inclusion criteria...
  65. Khalil R, Contreras Ramirez V, Levitt J. Postnatal refinement of interareal feedforward projections in ferret visual cortex. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223:2303-2322 pubmed publisher
    ..We injected the tracer CTb into V1 of juvenile ferrets, and visualized the pattern of labeled axon terminals in extrastriate cortex...
  66. Cheng S, Lin Z, Liu X, Zheng W, Lu G, Tu Z, et al. The epitope analysis of an antibody specifically against Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa by phage library study. J Microbiol Methods. 2015;117:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A recombinant protein, containing one cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) and two MP repeats (CTB-(MP)2), was subsequently constructed and investigated for its immunological ..
  67. Lin W, Zheng X, Wang H, Yu L, Zhou X, Sun Y, et al. Purification and characterization of a novel cell-penetrating carrier similar to cholera toxin chimeric protein. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;129:128-134 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein complex EGFP-CTA2-TAT/(CTB)5 (CTB: B subunit of CT) was obtained using an in vitro recombination method and verified by monosialoganglioside-..
  68. Meza B, Ascencio F, Sierra Beltrán A, Torres J, Angulo C. A novel design of a multi-antigenic, multistage and multi-epitope vaccine against Helicobacter pylori: An in silico approach. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;49:309-317 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, emphasis was placed on the design of a new unique vaccine named CTB-multiHp...
  69. Hervig M, Jensen N, Rasmussen N, Rydbirk R, Olesen M, Hay Schmidt A, et al. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure. Behav Brain Res. 2017;326:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum...
  70. Sasaki T, Kodama S, Togashi N, Shirota Y, Sugiyama Y, Tokushige S, et al. The intensity of continuous theta burst stimulation, but not the waveform used to elicit motor evoked potentials, influences its outcome in the human motor cortex. Brain Stimul. 2018;11:400-410 pubmed publisher
    Responses to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) applied to the human primary motor cortex are highly variable between individuals...
  71. Ehrig J, Afroze S, Reyes M, Allen S, Drever N, Pilkinton K, et al. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor attenuates cardiotonic steroids-induced apoptotic and stress signaling in a Sw-71 cytotrophoblast cell line. Placenta. 2015;36:1276-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Marinobufagenin (MBG), a cardiotonic steroid (CTS), inhibits the function of cytotrophoblast cells (CTBs). We demonstrated that CTSs induce anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative effects in Sw-71 CTBs...
  72. Adam J, Bovend Eerdt T, Schuhmann T, Sack A. Allocentric coding in ventral and dorsal routes during real-time reaching: Evidence from imaging-guided multi-site brain stimulation. Behav Brain Res. 2016;300:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we used imaging-guided multi-site continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over regions of the ventral and dorsal processing streams to unravel their functional contribution on visually ..
  73. Fiúza F, Silva K, Pessoa R, Pontes A, Cavalcanti R, Pires R, et al. Age-related changes in neurochemical components and retinal projections of rat intergeniculate leaflet. Age (Dordr). 2016;38:4 pubmed publisher
    ..23 months) Wistar rats were submitted to an intraocular injection of neural tracer, cholera toxin subunit b (CTb), 5 days before a tissue fixation process by paraformaldehyde perfusion...
  74. Zhang L, Huang Y, Lin Y, Shan Y, Tan S, Cai W, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of cholera toxin B subunit in experimental stroke. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:147 pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has multifaceted immunoregulatory functions. Immunity plays an important role in the mechanism of stroke. However, little is known about whether CTB is beneficial for stroke...
  75. Lin T, Jiang L, Dou Z, Wu C, Liu F, Xu G, et al. Effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on Suprahyoid Motor Cortex Excitability in Healthy Subjects. Brain Stimul. 2017;10:91-98 pubmed publisher
    Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) are powerful patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), with substantial potential for motor function rehabilitation post-stroke...
  76. Tien N, Kim T, Kim T. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus glycoprotein production in tobacco. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;133:170-176 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycoprotein gene of VHSV was fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and expressed transiently in leaf tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana via the agroinfiltration method...
  77. Zhou S, Duan C, Han S. A novel strategy for thermometry based on the temperature-induced red shift of the charge transfer band edge. Dalton Trans. 2018;47:1599-1603 pubmed publisher
    ..novel strategy for optical temperature sensing using the temperature-induced red shift of the charge transfer band (CTB) edge of the VO43- groups in GdVO4:5% Sm3+...
  78. Hall P, Lowe C, Safati A, Li H, Klassen E, Burhan A. Effects of left dlPFC modulation on social cognitive processes following food sampling. Appetite. 2018;126:73-79 pubmed publisher
    ..N = 21; Mage = 21 years) were randomized to active or sham continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS; an inhibitory variant of rTMS) targeting the left dlPFC followed by an interference task...
  79. Wang X, Luo C, Li W, Wu P, Pang X, Xu Z, et al. A practical therapeutic protocol for cervical tuberculosis. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2013;39:93-9 pubmed publisher
    Cervical tuberculosis (CTB) is a relatively rare entity, even in endemic countries. Currently, management ranges from conservative to radical surgical approaches...
  80. Bor D, Schwartzman D, Barrett A, Seth A. Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal or parietal cortex does not impair metacognitive visual awareness. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171793 pubmed publisher
    ..and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective ..
  81. Engelberth R, Silva K, Fiuza F, Soares J, Costa M, Lima R, et al. Retinal, NPY- and 5ht- inputs to the aged suprachiasmatic nucleus in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Neurosci Res. 2017;121:54-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We used intraocular injections of neural tracer Cholera toxin b (CTb) to report age-related reductions in CTb, neuropeptide Y and serotonin immunoreactivities...
  82. Fiori F, Candidi M, Acciarino A, David N, Aglioti S. The right temporoparietal junction plays a causal role in maintaining the internal representation of verticality. J Neurophysiol. 2015;114:2983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..task (the rod-and-frame test) with transient inhibition of the rTPJ via continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). A Gabor patch visual detection task was used as a control visual task...
  83. Aronson N, Halloran B. Optimum substrate size and specific anomer requirements for the reducing-end glycoside hydrolase di-N-acetylchitobiase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:1537-41 pubmed
    ..The biochemical behavior of di-N-acetylchitobiase indicates it has three subsites, -2, -1, +1, in which the reducing-end trimer of any sized chitooligosaccharide is bound. The +1 site is specific for an alpha-anomer. ..
  84. Bailey B, Desai K, Ochyl L, Ciotti S, Moon J, Schwendeman S. Self-encapsulating Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Microspheres for Intranasal Vaccine Delivery. Mol Pharm. 2017;14:3228-3237 pubmed publisher
    ..route with prime and booster doses of OVA (10 ?g) loaded into microspheres or coadministered with cholera toxin B (CTB), the gold standard of mucosal adjuvants...
  85. Leodori G, Formica A, Zhu X, Conte A, Belvisi D, Cruccu G, et al. The third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold: focusing on the temporal processing of sensory input within primary somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2017;118:2311-2317 pubmed publisher
    ..In a subgroup of 16 subjects, we evaluated the effects of S1 continuous theta-burst stimulation (S1-cTBS) on the STDT and ThirdDT. Results show that ThirdDT is shorter than STDT...
  86. Guseva E, Zuckermann R, Dill K. Foldamer hypothesis for the growth and sequence differentiation of prebiotic polymers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E7460-E7468 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism describes how specific sequences and conformations could contribute to the chemistry-to-biology (CTB) transition.
  87. Esebanmen G, Langridge W. Mechanism of chimeric vaccine stimulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase biosynthesis in human dendritic cells is independent of TGF-? signaling. Cell Immunol. 2017;319:43-52 pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines...
  88. Giboin L, Sangari S, Lackmy Vallée A, Messé A, Pradat Diehl P, Marchand Pauvert V. Corticospinal control from M1 and PMv areas on inhibitory cervical propriospinal neurons in humans. Physiol Rep. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..propriospinal neurons after a functional disruption of M1 produced by paired continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS)...
  89. Royal J, Matoba N. Therapeutic Potential of Cholera Toxin B Subunit for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases of the Mucosa. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a mucosal immunomodulatory protein that induces robust mucosal and systemic antibody responses...
  90. Marchant N, Rabei R, Kaganovsky K, Caprioli D, Bossert J, Bonci A, et al. A critical role of lateral hypothalamus in context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos...
  91. Yokota S, Oka T, Asano H, Yasui Y. Orexinergic fibers are in contact with Kölliker-Fuse nucleus neurons projecting to the respiration-related nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the rat. Brain Res. 2016;1648:512-523 pubmed publisher
    ..After injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the KFN, CTb-labeled neurons that are also immunoreactive for orexin (ORX) were found prominently in the ..
  92. Evans L, Fitzgerald M, Mitra B, Varma D. Emergency department interpretation of CT of the brain: a systematic review. Postgrad Med J. 2017;93:454-459 pubmed publisher
    CT of the brain (CTB) is one of the most common radiological investigations performed in the emergency department (ED). Emergency clinicians rely upon this imaging modality to aid diagnosis and guide management...