Gene Symbol: CSNK1D
Description: casein kinase 1 delta
Alias: ASPS, CKIdelta, FASPS2, HCKID, casein kinase I isoform delta, casein kinase I, CKI-delta, CKId, tau-protein kinase CSNK1D
Species: human
Products:     CSNK1D

Top Publications

  1. Graves P, Roach P. Role of COOH-terminal phosphorylation in the regulation of casein kinase I delta. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21689-94 pubmed
    b>Casein kinase I delta is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) family, a group of second messenger independent protein kinases. We present evidence that the COOH-terminal domain of CKI delta has regulatory properties...
  2. Fish K, Cegielska A, Getman M, Landes G, Virshup D. Isolation and characterization of human casein kinase I epsilon (CKI), a novel member of the CKI gene family. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:14875-83 pubmed
    The casein kinase I (CKI) gene family is a rapidly enlarging group whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair...
  3. Sillibourne J, Milne D, Takahashi M, Ono Y, Meek D. Centrosomal anchoring of the protein kinase CK1delta mediated by attachment to the large, coiled-coil scaffolding protein CG-NAP/AKAP450. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:785-97 pubmed
    Protein kinase CK1 (formerly termed casein kinase I) is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells and comprises a family of as many as 14 isoforms (including splice variants) in mammalian cells...
  4. Liu C, Li Y, Semenov M, Han C, Baeg G, Tan Y, et al. Control of beta-catenin phosphorylation/degradation by a dual-kinase mechanism. Cell. 2002;108:837-47 pubmed
    ..Our study uncovers distinct roles and steps of beta-catenin phosphorylation, identifies CKIalpha as a component in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, and has implications to pathogenesis/therapeutics of human cancers and diabetes. ..
  5. Longenecker K, Roach P, Hurley T. Crystallographic studies of casein kinase I delta toward a structural understanding of auto-inhibition. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1998;54:473-5 pubmed
    A recombinant form of mammalian casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta) containing the catalytic domain and an auto-inhibitory domain was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. X-ray data were collected to 2...
  6. Inuzuka H, Tseng A, Gao D, Zhai B, Zhang Q, Shaik S, et al. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I promotes the turnover of the Mdm2 oncoprotein via the SCF(beta-TRCP) ubiquitin ligase. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Mdm2 is rapidly degraded after DNA damage and that phosphorylation of Mdm2 by casein kinase I (CKI) at multiple sites triggers its interaction with, and subsequent ubiquitination and destruction, by SCF(..
  7. Shaik S, Nucera C, Inuzuka H, Gao D, Garnaas M, Frechette G, et al. SCF(?-TRCP) suppresses angiogenesis and thyroid cancer cell migration by promoting ubiquitination and destruction of VEGF receptor 2. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1289-307 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCF(?-TRCP) promotes ubiquitination and destruction of VEGFR2 in a casein kinase I (CKI)-dependent manner...
  8. Wolff S, Stöter M, Giamas G, Piesche M, Henne Bruns D, Banting G, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) interacts with the SNARE associated protein snapin. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6477-84 pubmed
    ..The identification of snapin as a new substrate of CK1delta points towards a possible function for CK1delta in modulating snapin specific functions. ..
  9. Alsheich Bartok O, Haupt S, Alkalay Snir I, Saito S, Appella E, Haupt Y. PML enhances the regulation of p53 by CK1 in response to DNA damage. Oncogene. 2008;27:3653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that following DNA damage, PML facilitates Thr18 phosphorylation by recruiting p53 and CK1 into PML nuclear bodies, thereby protecting p53 from inhibition by Mdm2, leading to p53 activation. ..

More Information


  1. Stöter M, Bamberger A, Aslan B, Kurth M, Speidel D, Löning T, et al. Inhibition of casein kinase I delta alters mitotic spindle formation and induces apoptosis in trophoblast cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:7964-75 pubmed
    The serine/threonine-specific casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta) is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, is p53 dependently induced in stress situations and plays an important role in various cellular processes...
  2. Gao Z, Seeling J, Hill V, Yochum A, Virshup D. Casein kinase I phosphorylates and destabilizes the beta-catenin degradation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1182-7 pubmed
    Wnt signaling plays a key role in cell proliferation and development. Recently, casein kinase I (CKI) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) have emerged as positive and negative regulators of the Wnt pathway, respectively...
  3. Milne D, Looby P, Meek D. Catalytic activity of protein kinase CK1 delta (casein kinase 1delta) is essential for its normal subcellular localization. Exp Cell Res. 2001;263:43-54 pubmed
    ..Localization is a property of the protein kinase domain and is independent of the C-terminal noncatalytic domain. These data are consistent with roles for CK1delta in mammalian cells analogous to those of its yeast counterparts. ..
  4. Zemp I, Wandrey F, Rao S, Ashiono C, Wyler E, Montellese C, et al. CK1? and CK1? are components of human 40S subunit precursors required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that CK1? and CK1? play a decisive role in triggering late steps of pre-40S maturation that are required for acquisition of functionality of 40S ribosomal subunits in protein translation. ..
  5. Behrend L, Stöter M, Kurth M, Rutter G, Heukeshoven J, Deppert W, et al. Interaction of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) with post-Golgi structures, microtubules and the spindle apparatus. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:240-51 pubmed
    ..The high affinity of CK1delta to the spindle apparatus in DNA-damaged cells and its ability to phosphorylate several microtubule-associated proteins points to a regulatory role of CK1delta at mitosis...
  6. Meng Q, Logunova L, Maywood E, Gallego M, Lebiecki J, Brown T, et al. Setting clock speed in mammals: the CK1 epsilon tau mutation in mice accelerates circadian pacemakers by selectively destabilizing PERIOD proteins. Neuron. 2008;58:78-88 pubmed publisher
  7. Xu Y, Padiath Q, Shapiro R, Jones C, Wu S, Saigoh N, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature. 2005;434:640-4 pubmed
    ..to be well-characterized, and was shown to result from a mutation in a phosphorylation site within the casein kinase I (CKI)-binding domain of the human PER2 gene...
  8. Isojima Y, Nakajima M, Ukai H, Fujishima H, Yamada R, Masumoto K, et al. CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is a temperature-insensitive, period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most compounds inhibited casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) or CKIdelta phosphorylation of the PER2 protein...
  9. Li G, Yin H, Kuret J. Casein kinase 1 delta phosphorylates tau and disrupts its binding to microtubules. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15938-45 pubmed
    ..Here we characterized the contribution of one CK1 isoform, Ckidelta, to the phosphorylation of tau at residues Ser202/Thr205 and Ser396/Ser404 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells ..
  10. Yu S, Roth M. Casein kinase I regulates membrane binding by ARF GAP1. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2559-70 pubmed
    ..by a factor in cytosol and this increase was inhibited by IC261, an inhibitor selective for casein kinase Idelta (CKIdelta), or when cytosol was treated with antibody to CKIdelta...
  11. Wang Z, Inuzuka H, Zhong J, Fukushima H, Wan L, Liu P, et al. DNA damage-induced activation of ATM promotes ?-TRCP-mediated Mdm2 ubiquitination and destruction. Oncotarget. 2012;3:1026-35 pubmed
    ..we identified SCF?-TRCP as a novel E3 ligase that targets Mdm2 for ubiquitination and destruction in a Casein Kinase I? (CKI?)-dependent manner...
  12. Greer Y, Rubin J. Casein kinase 1 delta functions at the centrosome to mediate Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:993-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong evidence that the centrosomal localization of CK1? is required for Wnt-3a-dependent neuritogenesis. ..
  13. Zyss D, Ebrahimi H, Gergely F. Casein kinase I delta controls centrosome positioning during T cell activation. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:781-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we uncover a critical requirement for the centrosomal casein kinase I delta (CKI?) in centrosome translocation to the IS...
  14. Amit S, Hatzubai A, Birman Y, Andersen J, Ben Shushan E, Mann M, et al. Axin-mediated CKI phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser 45: a molecular switch for the Wnt pathway. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1066-76 pubmed
    ..Using mass spectrometry and phosphopeptide-specific antibodies, we show that a complex of axin and casein kinase I (CKI) induces beta-catenin phosphorylation at a single site: serine 45 (S45)...
  15. Lee K, Johmura Y, Yu L, Park J, Gao Y, Bang J, et al. Identification of a novel Wnt5a-CK1?-Dvl2-Plk1-mediated primary cilia disassembly pathway. EMBO J. 2012;31:3104-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study may provide new insights into the mechanism underlying ciliary disassembly processes and various cilia-related disorders. ..
  16. Kategaya L, Hilliard A, Zhang L, Asara J, Ptacek L, Fu Y. Casein kinase 1 proteomics reveal prohibitin 2 function in molecular clock. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31987 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, isolating CK1 protein complexes led to the identification of PHB2 as an inhibitor of circadian transcription. Furthermore, we show that CK1? and CK1? differentially regulate the expression of PHB2. ..
  17. Greer Y, Gao B, Yang Y, Nussenzweig A, Rubin J. Lack of Casein Kinase 1 Delta Promotes Genomic Instability - The Accumulation of DNA Damage and Down-Regulation of Checkpoint Kinase 1. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170903 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed cells with abnormally large nuclei in tissue from Csnk1d null embryos, and multiple centrosomes in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in CK1? (MEFCsnk1d null)...
  18. Kennaway D, Varcoe T, Voultsios A, Salkeld M, Rattanatray L, Boden M. Acute inhibition of casein kinase 1δ/ε rapidly delays peripheral clock gene rhythms. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;398:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..are generated through a transcription-translation feedback loop involving clock genes and the casein kinases CSNK1D and CSNK1E...
  19. Camacho F, Cilio M, Guo Y, Virshup D, Patel K, Khorkova O, et al. Human casein kinase Idelta phosphorylation of human circadian clock proteins period 1 and 2. FEBS Lett. 2001;489:159-65 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical staining of rat brains demonstrates that CKIdelta protein is localized in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the central location of the master clock...
  20. Brennan K, Bates E, Shapiro R, Zyuzin J, Hallows W, Huang Y, et al. Casein kinase i? mutations in familial migraine and advanced sleep phase. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:183ra56, 1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two families, each with a distinct missense mutation in the gene encoding casein kinase I? (CKI?), in which the mutation cosegregated with both the presence of migraine and advanced sleep phase...
  21. Ding L, Wang Z, Yan J, Yang X, Liu A, Qiu W, et al. Human four-and-a-half LIM family members suppress tumor cell growth through a TGF-beta-like signaling pathway. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By establishing a link between FHL proteins and Smad proteins, this study identifies what we believe to be a novel TGF-beta-like signaling pathway and indicates that FHL proteins may be useful molecular targets for cancer therapy. ..
  22. Gonzalez R, Gonzalez S, Villa E, Ramirez M, Zavala J, Armas R, et al. Identification of circadian gene variants in bipolar disorder in Latino populations. J Affect Disord. 2015;186:367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These included CSNK1E (rs1534891, p=0.00689), ARNTL (rs3789327, p=0.021172), CSNK1D (rs4510078, p=0.022801), CLOCK (rs17777927, p=0.031664)...
  23. Allebrandt K, Teder Laving M, Akyol M, Pichler I, Muller Myhsok B, Pramstaller P, et al. CLOCK gene variants associate with sleep duration in two independent populations. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67:1040-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This adds another putative function for CLOCK besides its possible involvement in circadian timing, depression, obesity, and personality. ..
  24. Tsai I, Woolf M, Neklason D, Branford W, Yost H, Burt R, et al. Disease-associated casein kinase I delta mutation may promote adenomatous polyps formation via a Wnt/beta-catenin independent mechanism. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1005-12 pubmed
    ..Two closely related isoforms of casein kinase I (CKIdelta and epsilon) are positive regulators of this pathway...
  25. Rosenberg L, Lafitte M, Quereda V, Grant W, Chen W, Bibian M, et al. Therapeutic targeting of casein kinase 1δ in breast cancer. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:318ra202 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that CSNK1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in human breast tumors and that casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) is a vulnerability ..
  26. Vidaki A, Ballard D, Aliferi A, Miller T, Barron L, Syndercombe Court D. DNA methylation-based forensic age prediction using artificial neural networks and next generation sequencing. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2017;28:225-236 pubmed publisher
    ..located in 16 different genomic regions, with the top 3 predictors of age belonged to the genes NHLRC1, SCGN and CSNK1D. The proposed model was further tested using independent cohorts of 53 monozygotic twins (MAE=7...
  27. Walter J, Capell A, Grunberg J, Pesold B, Schindzielorz A, Prior R, et al. The Alzheimer's disease-associated presenilins are differentially phosphorylated proteins located predominantly within the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Med. 1996;2:673-91 pubmed
    ..Selective phosphorylation of PS-2 proteins within the acidic domain missing in PS-1 indicates differences in the biological functions and regulation of the two highly homologous proteins. ..
  28. Zhong J, Shaik S, Wan L, Tron A, Wang Z, Sun L, et al. SCF ?-TRCP targets MTSS1 for ubiquitination-mediated destruction to regulate cancer cell proliferation and migration. Oncotarget. 2013;4:2339-53 pubmed
    ..Mechanistically, we defined that Casein Kinase I? (CKI?) phosphorylates Ser322 to trigger MTSS1's interaction with ?-TRCP for subsequent ubiquitination and ..
  29. Pronin A, Morris A, Surguchov A, Benovic J. Synucleins are a novel class of substrates for G protein-coupled receptor kinases. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:26515-22 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that GPCRs may be able to indirectly stimulate PLD2 activity via their ability to regulate GRK-promoted phosphorylation of synuclein. ..
  30. Zmuda J, Cauley J, Ferrell R. Molecular epidemiology of vitamin D receptor gene variants. Epidemiol Rev. 2000;22:203-17 pubmed
  31. Shinohara Y, Koyama Y, Ukai Tadenuma M, Hirokawa T, Kikuchi M, Yamada R, et al. Temperature-Sensitive Substrate and Product Binding Underlie Temperature-Compensated Phosphorylation in the Clock. Mol Cell. 2017;67:783-798.e20 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, this domain can confer temperature compensation on a temperature-sensitive TTBK1. These findings suggest the temperature-sensitive substrate- and product-binding mechanisms underlie temperature compensation. ..
  32. Walter J, Fluhrer R, Hartung B, Willem M, Kaether C, Capell A, et al. Phosphorylation regulates intracellular trafficking of beta-secretase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14634-41 pubmed
    ..In contrast, nonphosphorylatable BACE S498A is retained within early endosomes. Our results therefore demonstrate regulated trafficking of BACE within the secretory and endocytic pathway. ..
  33. Shi J, Wittke Thompson J, Badner J, Hattori E, Potash J, Willour V, et al. Clock genes may influence bipolar disorder susceptibility and dysfunctional circadian rhythm. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..of 36 trios and 79 quads (Sample I), and 10 circadian genes (ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHB2, BHLHB3, CLOCK, CRY1, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, DBP, and NR1D1) in an extended family collection of 70 trios and 237 quads (Sample II), which includes ..
  34. Kumar A, Rajendran V, Sethumadhavan R, Purohit R. Relationship between a point mutation S97C in CK1? protein and its affect on ATP-binding affinity. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2014;32:394-405 pubmed publisher
    CK1? (Casein kinase I isoform delta) is a member of CK1 kinase family protein that mediates neurite outgrowth and the function as brain-specific microtubule-associated protein...
  35. Walter J, Schindzielorz A, Grunberg J, Haass C. Phosphorylation of presenilin-2 regulates its cleavage by caspases and retards progression of apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1391-6 pubmed
    ..Alterations in the phosphorylation of PS-2 may therefore promote the pathogenesis of AD by affecting the susceptibility of neurons to apoptotic stimuli. ..
  36. Hildebrandt M, Reyes M, Lin M, He Y, Nguyen S, Hawk E, et al. Germline Genetic Variants in the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway as Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..19 × 10(-8)). Gene-based analysis implicated CSNK1D (P = 0.014), FZD3 (P = 0.023), and APC (P = 0.027) as significant for colorectal cancer risk...
  37. Kulikov R, Winter M, Blattner C. Binding of p53 to the central domain of Mdm2 is regulated by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28575-83 pubmed
    ..p53 mutants that have mutations in the tetramerization domain and that fail to oligomerize do not show such an enhancement of binding in the presence of the other binding site. ..
  38. Wang X, Goode E, Fredericksen Z, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Liu Mares W, et al. Association of genetic variation in genes implicated in the beta-catenin destruction complex with risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..contribution of genetic variation in six genes encoding the beta-catenin destruction complex (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, and GSK3B) to breast cancer using a Mayo Clinic Breast Cancer Case-Control Study...
  39. Kourti M, Ikonomou G, Giakoumakis N, Rapsomaniki M, Landegren U, Siniossoglou S, et al. CK1δ restrains lipin-1 induction, lipid droplet formation and cell proliferation under hypoxia by reducing HIF-1α/ARNT complex formation. Cell Signal. 2015;27:1129-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a novel role for CK1δ in regulating lipid metabolism and, through it, cell adaptation to low oxygen conditions. ..
  40. Rivers A, Gietzen K, Vielhaber E, Virshup D. Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon and casein kinase I delta by an in vivo futile phosphorylation cycle. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:15980-4 pubmed
    b>Casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta) and casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) have been implicated in the response to DNA damage, but the understanding of how these kinases are regulated remains incomplete...
  41. Chaurushiya M, Lilley C, Aslanian A, Meisenhelder J, Scott D, Landry S, et al. Viral E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation of a cellular E3: viral mimicry of a cellular phosphorylation mark targets the RNF8 FHA domain. Mol Cell. 2012;46:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that this mechanism may constitute a broader viral strategy to target other cellular factors, highlighting the importance of this region of the ICP0 protein in countering intrinsic antiviral defenses...
  42. Dumaz N, Milne D, Meek D. Protein kinase CK1 is a p53-threonine 18 kinase which requires prior phosphorylation of serine 15. FEBS Lett. 1999;463:312-6 pubmed
  43. Kusuda J, Hidari N, Hirai M, Hashimoto K. Sequence analysis of the cDNA for the human casein kinase I delta (CSNK1D) gene and its chromosomal localization. Genomics. 1996;32:140-3 pubmed
    A cDNA clone coding for human casein kinase I (CK1) has been isolated and sequenced. The insert of 1911 bp contained an open reading frame of 415 amino acids...
  44. Greer Y, Westlake C, Gao B, Bharti K, Shiba Y, Xavier C, et al. Casein kinase 1? functions at the centrosome and Golgi to promote ciliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and retinal cells from Csnk1d (CK1?)-null mice also exhibit ciliogenesis defects...
  45. Meng Z, Bischof J, Ianes C, Henne Bruns D, Xu P, Knippschild U. CK1δ kinase activity is modulated by protein kinase C α (PKCα)-mediated site-specific phosphorylation. Amino Acids. 2016;48:1185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data contribute to a deeper understanding of cellular signal transduction networks thereby helping to form a basis for the development of future therapeutic concepts. ..
  46. Okochi M, Walter J, Koyama A, Nakajo S, Baba M, Iwatsubo T, et al. Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:390-7 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that alpha-synuclein is constitutively phosphorylated within its C terminus and may indicate that the function of alpha-synuclein is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. ..
  47. Pangou E, Befani C, Mylonis I, Samiotaki M, Panayotou G, Simos G, et al. HIF-2? phosphorylation by CK1? promotes erythropoietin secretion in liver cancer cells under hypoxia. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:4213-4226 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that casein kinase 1? (CK1?; also known as CSNK1D) phosphorylates HIF-2? at Ser383 and Thr528 in vitro We found that disruption of these phosphorylation sites, and ..
  48. Mansour H, Talkowski M, Wood J, Chowdari K, McClain L, Prasad K, et al. Association study of 21 circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11:701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Additional analyses using adequately powered samples are warranted to further evaluate these results. ..
  49. Okamura A, Iwata N, Nagata A, Tamekane A, Shimoyama M, Gomyo H, et al. Involvement of casein kinase Iepsilon in cytokine-induced granulocytic differentiation. Blood. 2004;103:2997-3004 pubmed
    Two closely related casein kinase I (CKI) isoforms, CKIdelta and CKIepsilon, are ubiquitously expressed in many human tissues, but their specific biologic function remains to be clarified...
  50. Sharma P, Sharma M, Amin N, Albers R, Pant H. Regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 catalytic activity by phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11156-60 pubmed
    ..We also show that casein kinase I, but not casein kinase II, can phosphorylate and activate cdk5 in vitro.
  51. Richter J, Ullah K, Xu P, Alscher V, Blatz A, Peifer C, et al. Effects of altered expression and activity levels of CK1δ and ɛ on tumor growth and survival of colorectal cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:2799-810 pubmed publisher
  52. Singh S, Gupta D. A comparative study of structural and conformational properties of casein kinase-1 isoforms: insights from molecular dynamics and principal component analysis. J Theor Biol. 2015;371:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this paper as a first effort to concurrently study all the three isoforms of CK1 provides structural basis for development of common anticancer therapeutics against three isoforms of CK1. ..
  53. Ianes C, Xu P, Werz N, Meng Z, Henne Bruns D, Bischof J, et al. CK1δ activity is modulated by CDK2/E- and CDK5/p35-mediated phosphorylation. Amino Acids. 2016;48:579-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend our knowledge about CK1δ regulation and may be of use for future development of CK1-related therapeutic strategies in the treatment of neurological diseases or cancer. ..
  54. Walter J, Grunberg J, Schindzielorz A, Haass C. Proteolytic fragments of the Alzheimer's disease associated presenilins-1 and -2 are phosphorylated in vivo by distinct cellular mechanisms. Biochemistry. 1998;37:5961-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the potential phosphorylation sites are located directly adjacent to the recently identified caspase cleavage sites. ..
  55. Varelas X, Miller B, Sopko R, Song S, Gregorieff A, Fellouse F, et al. The Hippo pathway regulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Dev Cell. 2010;18:579-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover a cytoplasmic function of TAZ in regulating Wnt signaling and highlight the role of the Hippo pathway in coordinating morphogenetic signaling with growth control. ..
  56. Matsunaga S, Ikeda M, Kishi T, Fukuo Y, Aleksic B, Yoshimura R, et al. An evaluation of polymorphisms in casein kinase 1 delta and epsilon genes in major psychiatric disorders. Neurosci Lett. 2012;529:66-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for enhancing the susceptibility to these psychiatric disorders, we selected two circadian rhythm-related genes (CSNK1D and CSNK1E) and investigated genetic associations of the genes with these three disorders...
  57. Wang W, Huang J, Wang X, Yuan J, Li X, Feng L, et al. PTPN14 is required for the density-dependent control of YAP1. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1959-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that PTPN14 acts to suppress cell proliferation by promoting cell density-dependent cytoplasmic translocation of YAP1. ..
  58. Chia R, Haddock S, Beilina A, Rudenko I, Mamais A, Kaganovich A, et al. Phosphorylation of LRRK2 by casein kinase 1α regulates trans-Golgi clustering via differential interaction with ARHGEF7. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5827 pubmed publisher
    ..These pathways are therefore likely involved in the physiological maintenance of the Golgi in cells, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. ..
  59. Nonaka T, Suzuki G, Tanaka Y, Kametani F, Hirai S, Okado H, et al. Phosphorylation of TAR DNA-binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) by Truncated Casein Kinase 1δ Triggers Mislocalization and Accumulation of TDP-43. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:5473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, abnormal activation of CK1δ causes phosphorylation of TDP-43, leading to the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates, which, in turn, may trigger neurodegeneration. ..
  60. Hirota T, Lee J, Lewis W, Zhang E, Breton G, Liu X, et al. High-throughput chemical screen identifies a novel potent modulator of cellular circadian rhythms and reveals CKI? as a clock regulatory kinase. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000559 pubmed publisher
    ..Longdaysin provides novel possibilities in manipulating clock function due to its ability to simultaneously inhibit several key components of this conserved network across species. ..
  61. Cooper C, Lampe P. Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 gap junction assembly. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44962-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest CK1delta could regulate Cx43 gap junction assembly by directly phosphorylating Cx43. ..
  62. Smal C, Vertommen D, Amsailale R, Arts A, Degand H, Morsomme P, et al. Casein kinase 1delta activates human recombinant deoxycytidine kinase by Ser-74 phosphorylation, but is not involved in the in vivo regulation of its activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;502:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..presenting similarity with the consensus phosphorylation motif of casein kinase 1 (CKI), and particularly of CKI delta. We showed that recombinant CKI delta phosphorylated several residues of bacterially overexpressed dCK: Ser-74, ..
  63. Xu P, Fischer Posovszky P, Bischof J, Radermacher P, Wabitsch M, Henne Bruns D, et al. Gene expression levels of Casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms are correlated to adiponectin levels in adipose tissue of morbid obese patients and site-specific phosphorylation mediated by CK1 influences multimerization of adiponectin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;406:87-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data indicate that site-specific phosphorylation of adiponectin, especially at sites targeted by CK1δ in vitro, provides an additional regulatory mechanism for modulating adiponectin complex formation and function. ..
  64. Wang J, Davis S, Menon S, Zhang J, Ding J, Cervantes S, et al. Ypt1/Rab1 regulates Hrr25/CK1δ kinase activity in ER-Golgi traffic and macroautophagy. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:273-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are likely to serve as a paradigm for how CK1 kinases act in membrane traffic. ..
  65. Novellasdemunt L, Foglizzo V, Cuadrado L, Antas P, Kucharska A, Encheva V, et al. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating ?-Catenin Deubiquitination. Cell Rep. 2017;21:612-627 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs. ..
  66. von Schantz M. Natural Variation in Human Clocks. Adv Genet. 2017;99:73-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the negative feedback protein-encoding genes PER2 and CRY2 as well as the CSNK1D gene encoding casein kinase I delta have been shown to cause advanced sleep phase disorder, and a mutation in the CRY1 gene delayed sleep ..
  67. Eng G, Edison -, Virshup D. Site-specific phosphorylation of casein kinase 1 δ (CK1δ) regulates its activity towards the circadian regulator PER2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177834 pubmed publisher
    ..Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ, CSNK1D) is a key regulator of the clock, phosphorylating both stabilizing and destabilizing sites on the PER2 protein, in ..
  68. Knippschild U, Milne D, Campbell L, DeMaggio A, Christenson E, Hoekstra M, et al. p53 is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by the delta and epsilon isoforms of casein kinase 1 and enhances the level of casein kinase 1 delta in response to topoisomerase-directed drugs. Oncogene. 1997;15:1727-36 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that p53 is phosphorylated by CK1delta and CK1epsilon and additionally that there may be a regulatory feedback loop involving p53 and CK1delta. ..
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    ..Pharmacological inhibition, siRNA knockdown, or conditional deletion of CK1? also reduced Wee1 turnover. Thus, these studies define a previously unappreciated role for CK1? in controlling the cell cycle. ..
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    ..In vitro, Sit4p dephosphorylates COPII coat subunits. Consistent with a role in coat recycling, Sit4p and its mammalian orthologue, PP6, regulate traffic from the ER to the Golgi complex. ..
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    ..Using affinity chromatography and Western blot analysis, we found interaction with all PKC isotypes and casein kinase I isoforms, CKIalpha and CKI...
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    ..recruit these enzymes toward disease lesions, a Sos-recruitment yeast two-hybrid screen was performed with human Ckidelta (the casein kinase-1 isoform most closely linked to granulovacuolar degeneration bodies) and a human brain cDNA ..
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    ..Together, these results elucidate a novel mechanism through which circadian pacemaker transduces timing signals to the metabolic regulatory network that controls hepatic energy metabolism. ..
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    ..Our results reveal a new mechanism of ZNF322A oncoprotein destruction regulated by the CK1δ/GSK3β/FBXW7α axis. Deregulation of this signaling axis results in ZNF322A overexpression and promotes cancer progression. ..
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