CRY2

Summary

Gene Symbol: CRY2
Description: cryptochrome circadian regulator 2
Alias: HCRY2, PHLL2, cryptochrome-2, cryptochrome 2 (photolyase-like), cryptochrome circadian clock 2, growth-inhibiting protein 37
Species: human
Products:     CRY2

Top Publications

  1. Tsinkalovsky O, Smaaland R, Rosenlund B, Sothern R, Hirt A, Steine S, et al. Circadian variations in clock gene expression of human bone marrow CD34+ cells. J Biol Rhythms. 2007;22:140-50 pubmed
    ..in stem/progenitor cells, the authors have studied mRNA expression of the clock genes hPer1 , hPer2, hCry1, hCry2, hBmal1, hRev-erb alpha, and hClock in human hematopoietic CD34-positive (CD34( +)) cells...
  2. Utge S, Soronen P, Loukola A, Kronholm E, Ollila H, Pirkola S, et al. Systematic analysis of circadian genes in a population-based sample reveals association of TIMELESS with depression and sleep disturbance. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9259 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a connection between circadian genes and gender-dependent depression and defective sleep regulation. ..
  3. Lavebratt C, Sjöholm L, Soronen P, Paunio T, Vawter M, Bunney W, et al. CRY2 is associated with depression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9407 pubmed publisher
    ..Circadian clock genes are targets of interest in these patients. CRY2 is a circadian gene that participates in regulation of the evening oscillator...
  4. Zhao S, Sancar A. Human blue-light photoreceptor hCRY2 specifically interacts with protein serine/threonine phosphatase 5 and modulates its activity. Photochem Photobiol. 1997;66:727-31 pubmed
    ..Recently, we identified two human genes, hCRY1 and hCRY2, belonging to this family...
  5. Nievergelt C, Kripke D, Barrett T, Burg E, Remick R, Sadovnick A, et al. Suggestive evidence for association of the circadian genes PERIOD3 and ARNTL with bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:234-41 pubmed
    ..assessed evidence for linkage and association involving polymorphisms in 10 circadian clock genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, CSNK1epsilon, DBP, GSK3beta, NPAS2, PER1, PER2, and PER3) to BPAD...
  6. Shi J, Wittke Thompson J, Badner J, Hattori E, Potash J, Willour V, et al. Clock genes may influence bipolar disorder susceptibility and dysfunctional circadian rhythm. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted an association study of five circadian genes (CRY2, PER1-3, and TIMELESS) in a family collection of 36 trios and 79 quads (Sample I), and 10 circadian genes (ARNTL, ..
  7. Hsu D, Zhao X, Zhao S, Kazantsev A, Wang R, Todo T, et al. Putative human blue-light photoreceptors hCRY1 and hCRY2 are flavoproteins. Biochemistry. 1996;35:13871-7 pubmed
    ..The corresponding proteins hCRY1 and hCRY2 were purified and characterized as maltose-binding fusion proteins...
  8. Yagita K, Tamanini F, Yasuda M, Hoeijmakers J, van der Horst G, Okamura H. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and mCRY-dependent inhibition of ubiquitylation of the mPER2 clock protein. EMBO J. 2002;21:1301-14 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these data we propose a model in which shuttling mPER2 is ubiquitylated and degraded by the proteasome unless it is retained in the nucleus by mCRY proteins. ..
  9. Ozgur S, Sancar A. Purification and properties of human blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome 2. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2926-32 pubmed
    ..In this study, we purified cryptochrome 2 (hCRY2) from human cells and characterized it...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Boesgaard T, Grarup N, Jørgensen T, Borch Johnsen K, Hansen T, Pedersen O. Variants at DGKB/TMEM195, ADRA2A, GLIS3 and C2CD4B loci are associated with reduced glucose-stimulated beta cell function in middle-aged Danish people. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1647-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Eleven variants in or near DGKB/TMEM195, ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, FADS1, CRY2, SLC2A2, GLIS3, PROX1, C2CD4B and IGF1 were genotyped in 6,784 middle-aged participants of the population-based ..
  2. Otway D, Mäntele S, Bretschneider S, Wright J, Trayhurn P, Skene D, et al. Rhythmic diurnal gene expression in human adipose tissue from individuals who are lean, overweight, and type 2 diabetic. Diabetes. 2011;60:1577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We have taken the novel approach of analyzing serial human WAT biopsies across a 24-h cycle in controlled laboratory conditions...
  3. van der Horst G, Muijtjens M, Kobayashi K, Takano R, Kanno S, Takao M, et al. Mammalian Cry1 and Cry2 are essential for maintenance of circadian rhythms. Nature. 1999;398:627-30 pubmed
    ..The mammalian proteins Cryl and Cry2, which are members of the family of plant blue-light receptors (cryptochromes) and photolyases, have been proposed ..
  4. Thompson C, Bowes Rickman C, Shaw S, Ebright J, Kelly U, Sancar A, et al. Expression of the blue-light receptor cryptochrome in the human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4515-21 pubmed
    To analyze the patterns of expression of the cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, in the human retina and to correlate expression of these putative blue-light receptors with nonvisual photoreceptor localization...
  5. Dupuis J, Langenberg C, Prokopenko I, Saxena R, Soranzo N, Jackson A, et al. New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet. 2010;42:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1)...
  6. Partonen T. Clock gene variants in mood and anxiety disorders. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:1133-45 pubmed
    ..rs3750420, rs1157358, rs3903529) and NR1D1 (rs2314339) with bipolar disorder, and those of NPAS2 (rs11541353) and CRY2 (rs10838524) with seasonal affective disorder or winter depression...
  7. Kume K, Zylka M, Sriram S, Shearman L, Weaver D, Jin X, et al. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. Cell. 1999;98:193-205 pubmed
    ..Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially. ..
  8. Miyazaki K, Nagase T, Mesaki M, Narukawa J, Ohara O, Ishida N. Phosphorylation of clock protein PER1 regulates its circadian degradation in normal human fibroblasts. Biochem J. 2004;380:95-103 pubmed
    ..Transcripts of hPer1, hPer2, hPer3, hBMAL1 and hCry2 (where h is human) underwent circadian oscillation...
  9. Soria V, Martínez Amorós E, Escaramis G, Valero J, Pérez Egea R, Garcia C, et al. Differential association of circadian genes with mood disorders: CRY1 and NPAS2 are associated with unipolar major depression and CLOCK and VIP with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 19 circadian genes (ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHB2, BHLHB3, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E, DBP, NPAS2, NR1D1, PER1, PER2, PER3, RORA, TIMELESS, VIP, and VIPR2) in a sample of 534 MD patients (335 ..
  10. Sjöholm L, Backlund L, Cheteh E, Ek I, Frisén L, Schalling M, et al. CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder patients. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12632 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CRY2 participates in the core clock that generates circadian rhythms...
  11. Griffin E, Staknis D, Weitz C. Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 1999;286:768-71 pubmed
    ..Mammalian CRY1 and CRY2 are here shown to act as light-independent inhibitors of CLOCK-BMAL1, the activator driving Per1 transcription...
  12. Lee C, Weaver D, Reppert S. Direct association between mouse PERIOD and CKIepsilon is critical for a functioning circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:584-94 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that the CKIepsilon-binding domain is critical not only for mPER phosphorylation but also for a functioning circadian clock. ..
  13. Unsal Kaçmaz K, Mullen T, Kaufmann W, Sancar A. Coupling of human circadian and cell cycles by the timeless protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3109-16 pubmed
    ..We have found that the human Timeless protein interacts with both the circadian clock protein cryptochrome 2 and with the cell cycle checkpoint proteins Chk1 and the ATR-ATRIP complex and plays an important role in the ..
  14. Kondratov R, Kondratova A, Lee C, Gorbacheva V, Chernov M, Antoch M. Post-translational regulation of circadian transcriptional CLOCK(NPAS2)/BMAL1 complex by CRYPTOCHROMES. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:890-5 pubmed
    ..The products of these genes, CRY1 and CRY2, in turn repress CLOCK/BMAL1 transcriptional activity by an unknown mechanism...
  15. Zou X, Huang W, Lu F, Fang K, Wang D, Zhao S, et al. The effects of Jiao-Tai-Wan on sleep, inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity-resistant rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:165 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of clock gene cryptochromes (Cry1 and Cry2) and inflammation gene nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMC) were also determined...
  16. Amare A, Schubert K, Klingler Hoffmann M, Cohen Woods S, Baune B. The genetic overlap between mood disorders and cardiometabolic diseases: a systematic review of genome wide and candidate gene studies. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7:e1007 pubmed publisher
    ..CACNA1D, CACNB2, GNAS, ADRB1, NCAN, REST, FTO, POMC, BDNF, CREB, ITIH4, LEP, GSK3B, SLC18A1, TLR4, PPP1R1B, APOE, CRY2, HTR1A, ADRA2A, TCF7L2, MTNR1B and IGF1...
  17. Cao Q, Zhao X, Bai J, Gery S, Sun H, Lin D, et al. Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12548-12553 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mice deficient of the circadian clock genes Cry1 and Cry2 [Cry double knockout (DKO)] develop an autoimmune phenotype including high serum IgG concentrations, ..
  18. Meneses Santos D, Buonfiglio D, Peliciari Garcia R, Ramos Lobo A, Souza D, Carpinelli A, et al. Chronic treatment with dexamethasone alters clock gene expression and melatonin synthesis in rat pineal gland at night. Nat Sci Sleep. 2018;10:203-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression of Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Cry1, and Cry2 in pineal glands of rats treated with dexamethasone...
  19. Satyanarayanan S, Chien Y, Chang J, Huang S, Guu T, Su H, et al. Melatonergic agonist regulates circadian clock genes and peripheral inflammatory and neuroplasticity markers in patients with depression and anxiety. Brain Behav Immun. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..association between RMT treatment and alterations of the nine core circadian genes (CLOCK, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, NR1D1, NR1D2, DEC1 and TIMELESS) in the patient group when compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05)...
  20. von Schantz M. Natural Variation in Human Clocks. Adv Genet. 2017;99:73-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the negative feedback protein-encoding genes PER2 and CRY2 as well as the CSNK1D gene encoding casein kinase I delta have been shown to cause advanced sleep phase disorder, ..
  21. Silva M, Siqueira H, Silva L, Marques E, Barros R. Cry Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Active against Diamondback Moth and Fall Armyworm. Neotrop Entomol. 2015;44:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..frugiperda. These isolates carried the cry1, cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B, cry1C, cry1D, cry1F, cry2, cry2A, cry8, and cry9C genes. The obtained gene profiles showed great potential for the control of P...
  22. Eski A, Demir I, Güllü M, Demirbag Z. Biodiversity and pathogenicity of bacteria associated with the gut microbiota of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Microb Pathog. 2018;121:350-358 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of cry1 and cry2 gene content of this isolate displayed that B...
  23. Yang S, Yu C, Jiang J, Liu L, Fang X, Wu C. Hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts the balance of the expression of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Lett. 2014;8:2715-2720 pubmed
    ..Compared with the paired peritumoral tissues, the mRNA levels of the Per1, Per2, Per3 and Cry2 genes in HCC tissue were significantly lower (P<0...
  24. El Kersh T, Ahmed A, Al Sheikh Y, Tripet F, Ibrahim M, Metwalli A. Isolation and characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Saudi Arabia with enhanced larvicidal toxicity against the mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae (s.l.). Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:647 pubmed
    ..No strains harbouring cry2, cry17 + 27, cry24 + 40, cry25, cry29, cry30, or cyt2Ba were detected...
  25. Andersen M, Black M, Campbell J, Pendse S, Clewell H, Pottenger L, et al. Combining transcriptomics and PBPK modeling indicates a primary role of hypoxia and altered circadian signaling in dichloromethane carcinogenicity in mouse lung and liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;332:149-158 pubmed publisher
    ..showed strong concentration-related response at higher concentrations (Arntl, Npas2, and Clock were down-regulated; Cry2, Wee1, Bhlhe40, Per3, Nr1d1, Nr1d2 and Dbp) were up-regulated with similar directionality in both tissues...
  26. Ye D, Cai S, Jiang X, Ding Y, Chen K, Fan C, et al. Associations of polymorphisms in circadian genes with abdominal obesity in Chinese adult population. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016;10 Suppl 1:S133-S141 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three circadian genes, CLOCK, CRY1 and CRY2, were genotyped by MassArray technique...
  27. Zhao W, Zhao W, Zhao J, Wang D, Li J. Screening of potential target genes for cataract by analyzing mRNA expression profile of mouse Hsf4-null lens. BMC Ophthalmol. 2015;15:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, nine GO terms were obtained, and DEGs such as SGK1, CRY2 and REV1 were enriched in response to DNA damage stimulus...
  28. Noguchi T, Lo K, Diemer T, Welsh D. Lithium effects on circadian rhythms in fibroblasts and suprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Cry knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2016;619:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..for these effects involves inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which regulates degradation of CRY2, a canonical clock protein determining circadian period...
  29. Ikarashi R, Akechi H, Kanda Y, Ahmad A, Takeuchi K, Morioka E, et al. Regulation of molecular clock oscillations and phagocytic activity via muscarinic Ca2+ signaling in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44175 pubmed publisher
    ..This is consistent with significant M3 muscarinic receptor expression and little photo-sensor (Cry2 and Opn4) expression in these cells...
  30. Kawamoto T, Noshiro M, Sato F, Maemura K, Takeda N, Nagai R, et al. A novel autofeedback loop of Dec1 transcription involved in circadian rhythm regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:117-24 pubmed
    ..The autofeedback loop of Dec1 may be interlocked with the core feedback loop of Per in some situations. ..
  31. Takasu N, Nakamura T, Tokuda I, Todo T, Block G, Nakamura W. Recovery from Age-Related Infertility under Environmental Light-Dark Cycles Adjusted to the Intrinsic Circadian Period. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Although female mice deficient in Cry1 or Cry2, the core components of the molecular circadian clock, exhibited regular estrous cycles during youth, they showed ..
  32. Su L, Shan J, Gao J, Lin H. OsHAL3, a Blue Light-Responsive Protein, Interacts with the Floral Regulator Hd1 to Activate Flowering in Rice. Mol Plant. 2016;9:233-244 pubmed publisher
    ..Several photoreceptors, including PHYA, PHYB, CRY2, and FKF1 in Arabidopsis and their homologs (OsPHYA, OsPHYB, OsPHYC, and OsCRY2) in rice, have been identified to ..
  33. Swanson G, Gorenz A, Shaikh M, Desai V, Kaminsky T, van den Berg J, et al. Night workers with circadian misalignment are susceptible to alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability with social drinking. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..also altered peripheral clock gene amplitude of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CLOCK, BMAL, PER1, CRY1, and CRY2 in both groups, and inflammatory markers lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, LPS, and IL-6 had an elevated mesor at ..
  34. Mei Q, Sadovy Y, Dvornyk V. Molecular evolution of cryptochromes in fishes. Gene. 2015;574:112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic tree of fish Cry features two major clades: Cry1 and Cry2. Teleosts possess extra copies of Cry1 due to the genome duplication, which resulted in 3 main paralogous ..
  35. Lee S, Ye A, Kim J. DNA-Binding Motif of the Imprinted Transcription Factor PEG3. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0145531 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these identified targets include Tufm, Mrpl45, Cry2, Per1, Slc25a29 and Slc38a2...
  36. Pedmale U, Huang S, Zander M, Cole B, Hetzel J, Ljung K, et al. Cryptochromes Interact Directly with PIFs to Control Plant Growth in Limiting Blue Light. Cell. 2016;164:233-245 pubmed publisher
    ..For growth under a canopy, where blue light is diminished, CRY1 and CRY2 perceive this change and respond by directly contacting two bHLH transcription factors, PIF4 and PIF5...
  37. Foley L, Gegear R, Reppert S. Human cryptochrome exhibits light-dependent magnetosensitivity. Nat Commun. 2011;2:356 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show using a transgenic approach that human CRY2, which is heavily expressed in the retina, can function as a magnetosensor in the magnetoreception system of ..
  38. Sarid Krebs L, Panigrahi K, Fornara F, Takahashi Y, Hayama R, Jang S, et al. Phosphorylation of CONSTANS and its COP1-dependent degradation during photoperiodic flowering of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2015;84:451-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of the PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA), CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 (CRY2) photoreceptors in the phyA cry1 cry2 triple mutant most strongly reduces the amount of the ..
  39. Terajima H, Yoshitane H, Ozaki H, Suzuki Y, Shimba S, Kuroda S, et al. ADARB1 catalyzes circadian A-to-I editing and regulates RNA rhythm. Nat Genet. 2017;49:146-151 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes were associated with abnormal accumulation of CRY2. The present study identifies A-to-I RNA editing as a key mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation in the ..
  40. Teschke M, Wendt S, Kawaguchi S, Kramer A, Meyer B. A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26090 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness...
  41. Qiu C, Gelaye B, Denis M, Tadesse M, Luque Fernández M, Enquobahrie D, et al. Circadian clock-related genetic risk scores and risk of placental abruption. Placenta. 2015;36:1480-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined 119 SNPs in 13 candidate genes known to control circadian rhythms (e.g., CRY2, ARNTL, and RORA)...
  42. Zhou Z, Peng X, Chen J, Wu X, Wang Y, Hong Y. Identification of zebrafish magnetoreceptor and cryptochrome homologs. Sci China Life Sci. 2016;59:1324-1331 pubmed
    ..has four cry1 genes (cry1aa, cry1ab, cry1ba and cry1bb) homologous to human CRY1 and a single ortholog of human CRY2 as well as 2 cry-like genes (cry4 and cry5)...
  43. Sánchez Bermejo E, Zhu W, Tasset C, Eimer H, Sureshkumar S, Singh R, et al. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Thermal Responses of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:647-59 pubmed publisher
    ..quantitative trait loci that are shared between traits reveal a role for the blue-light receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2) in thermosensory growth responses...
  44. Efimova M, Vankova R, Kusnetsov V, Litvinovskaya R, Zlobin I, Dobrev P, et al. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves. Steroids. 2017;120:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..psbD, psbK, rbcL, atpB, and trnE/trnY) as well as the accumulation of transcripts of some photoreceptors (PHYA, CRY2, CRY1A, and CRY1B) and signaling (SERK and CAS) genes were followed in detached etiolated barley leaves exposed to ..
  45. Krishnamurthy V, Turgeon A, Khamo J, Mondal P, Sharum S, Mei W, et al. Light-mediated Reversible Modulation of the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway during Cell Differentiation and Xenopus Embryonic Development. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..that takes advantage of a bicistronic system containing photoactivatable proteins Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and the N-terminal domain of cryptochrome-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix (CIBN)...
  46. Mteyrek A, Filipski E, Guettier C, Oklejewicz M, van der Horst G, Okyar A, et al. Critical cholangiocarcinogenesis control by cryptochrome clock genes. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:2473-2483 pubmed publisher
    ..effects were reported for clock genes Per and Cry regarding xenobiotic toxicity, we questioned the role of Cry1 and Cry2 in liver carcinogenesis...
  47. Ferradás Y, Martinez O, Rey M, Gonzalez M. Identification and expression analysis of photoreceptor genes in kiwifruit leaves under natural daylength conditions and their relationship with other genes that regulate photoperiodic flowering. J Plant Physiol. 2017;213:108-121 pubmed publisher
    ..report, we determined the full sequences of the PHYB (AcPHYB) and PHYA (AcPHYA) genes and a partial sequence of the CRY2 (AcCRY2) gene in kiwifruit...
  48. Zhou R, Zhu T, Han L, Liu M, Xu M, Liu Y, et al. The asparagine-rich protein NRP interacts with the Verticillium effector PevD1 and regulates the subcellular localization of cryptochrome 2. J Exp Bot. 2017;68:3427-3440 pubmed publisher
    ..effects, which include induction of early flowering in cotton and Arabidopsis, NRP was found to interact with cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), leading to increased cytoplasmic accumulation of CRY2 in a blue light-independent manner...
  49. Jang J, Chung S, Choi Y, Lim H, Son Y, Chun S, et al. The cryptochrome inhibitor KS15 enhances E-box-mediated transcription by disrupting the feedback action of a circadian transcription-repressor complex. Life Sci. 2018;200:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (designated as KS15) that directly binds to the C-terminal region of cryptochromes (CRYs: CRY1 and CRY2) and enhances E-box-mediated transcription...
  50. Hallett R, Zimmerman S, Yumerefendi H, Bear J, Kuhlman B. Correlating in Vitro and in Vivo Activities of Light-Inducible Dimers: A Cellular Optogenetics Guide. ACS Synth Biol. 2016;5:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined the biophysical and biochemical properties of three blue-light-inducible dimer variants (cryptochrome2 (CRY2)/CIB1, iLID/SspB, and LOVpep/ePDZb) and correlated these characteristics to in vivo colocalization and functional ..
  51. Lu H, Chu Q, Xie G, Han H, Chen Z, Xu B, et al. Circadian gene expression predicts patient response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:10985-94 pubmed
    ..The genes analyzed included six core clock genes (Clock, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Cry2 and Bmal1) and three downstream target genes (Wee1, Chk2 and c-Myc)...
  52. Edwards M, Brancaccio M, Chesham J, Maywood E, Hastings M. Rhythmic expression of cryptochrome induces the circadian clock of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic nuclei through arginine vasopressin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:2732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Cry1 and Cry2 stops the SCN clock, whereas individual deletions accelerate and decelerate it, respectively...
  53. Chen S, Wirthmueller L, Stauber J, Lory N, Holtkotte X, Leson L, et al. The functional divergence between SPA1 and SPA2 in Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis maps primarily to the respective N-terminal kinase-like domain. BMC Plant Biol. 2016;16:165 pubmed publisher
    ..At last, the different affinities of SPA1 and SPA2 for cryptochrome 2 are defined by the N-terminal domain of the respective SPA protein...
  54. Sato M, Wakamura T, Morita T, Okamoto A, Akashi M, Matsui T, et al. Effects of bright light exposure during daytime on peripheral clock gene expression in humans. Int J Biometeorol. 2017;61:1133-1138 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant changes were observed in the expression of Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Cry2, Rev-erb-α (Nr1d1), or Dec1 following exposure to bright light conditions...
  55. Sun Q, Yang Y, Li X, He B, Jia Y, Zhang N, et al. Folate deprivation modulates the expression of autophagy- and circadian-related genes in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells through GR-mediated pathway. Steroids. 2016;112:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, 4 out of 7 circadian-related genes detected, Clock, Cry1, Cry2 and Per2, were significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated...
  56. Kriebs A, Jordan S, Soto E, Henriksson E, Sandate C, Vaughan M, et al. Circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 broadly interact with nuclear receptors and modulate transcriptional activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:8776-8781 pubmed publisher
    ..CRY1 and CRY2 bind independently of other core clock factors to many genomic sites, which are enriched for NR recognition motifs...
  57. Chu L, Zhu Y, Yu K, Zheng T, Yu H, Zhang Y, et al. Variants in circadian genes and prostate cancer risk: a population-based study in China. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11:342-8 pubmed
    ..Men with the cryptochrome 2 (CRY2)-variant C allele had a significant 1...
  58. Naukkarinen J, Surakka I, Pietiläinen K, Rissanen A, Salomaa V, Ripatti S, et al. Use of genome-wide expression data to mine the "Gray Zone" of GWA studies leads to novel candidate obesity genes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000976 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents a new approach to utilizing gene expression studies for informing choice of candidate genes for complex human phenotypes, such as obesity. ..
  59. Partonen T. Black dog barks at brown fat. Ann Med. 2013;45:465-6 pubmed publisher
    b>CRY2 genetic variants associate with the depressive episodes in a range of mood disorders. Expression of core clock genes is highly responsive to stimuli in brown fat...
  60. Kovanen L, Donner K, Kaunisto M, Partonen T. CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants in seasonality: A longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res. 2016;242:101-110 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to analyze the associations of CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants with the problematicity of seasonal variations, and whether the problematicity of seasonal ..
  61. Saleem F, Shakoori A. The First Cry2Ac-Type Protein Toxic to Helicoverpa armigera: Cloning and Overexpression of Cry2ac7 Gene from SBS-BT1 Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..i>B. thuringiensis SBS BT-1 carrying the cry2 genes was isolated from soil samples in Pakistan...
  62. Honma S, Kawamoto T, Takagi Y, Fujimoto K, Sato F, Noshiro M, et al. Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock. Nature. 2002;419:841-4 pubmed
    ..A brief light pulse induced Dec1 but not Dec2 expression in the suprachiasmic nucleus in a phase-dependent manner. Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock, and form a fifth clock-gene family. ..
  63. Hamaguchi H, Fujimoto K, Kawamoto T, Noshiro M, Maemura K, Takeda N, et al. Expression of the gene for Dec2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is regulated by a molecular clock system. Biochem J. 2004;382:43-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, Cry and Per may also modulate Dec2 transcription. ..
  64. Hoffman A, Zheng T, Yi C, Stevens R, Ba Y, Zhang Y, et al. The core circadian gene Cryptochrome 2 influences breast cancer risk, possibly by mediating hormone signaling. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is essential for proper circadian timing and is a key component of the circadian regulatory feedback ..
  65. Mirzaei K, Xu M, Qi Q, De Jonge L, Bray G, Sacks F, et al. Variants in glucose- and circadian rhythm-related genes affect the response of energy expenditure to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS LOST Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent genome-wide association studies identified variants in circadian rhythm-related genes (CRY2 and MTNR1B) associated with glucose homeostasis...
  66. Li Y, Xiong W, Zhang E. The ratio of intracellular CRY proteins determines the clock period length. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:531-8 pubmed publisher
    Although a deficiency in CRY1 or CRY2 correlates with a shorter or longer circadian period, the regulation of CRY proteins in the circadian period has not been well studied...
  67. Hirano A, Shi G, Jones C, Lipzen A, Pennacchio L, Xu Y, et al. A Cryptochrome 2 mutation yields advanced sleep phase in humans. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a missense mutation in the human Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) gene that co-segregates with FASP in one family...
  68. Huber A, Papp S, Chan A, Henriksson E, Jordan S, Kriebs A, et al. CRY2 and FBXL3 Cooperatively Degrade c-MYC. Mol Cell. 2016;64:774-789 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe an unexpected function for the circadian repressor CRY2 as a component of an FBXL3-containing E3 ligase that recruits T58-phosphorylated c-MYC for ubiquitylation...
  69. Zhang Y, Markert M, Groves S, Hardin P, Merlin C. Vertebrate-like CRYPTOCHROME 2 from monarch regulates circadian transcription via independent repression of CLOCK and BMAL1 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E7516-E7525 pubmed publisher
    ..plexippus), which possesses a vertebrate-like CRY (dpCRY2) and an ortholog of BMAL1, to show that insect CRY2 regulates circadian repression through TAD ?-helix-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
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    ..Strains containing cry1 were the most abundant (57.1%) followed by cyt2 (46.42%), cry11 (37.5%), cry2 (28.57%), cry4 (21.42%), cyt1 (19.64%), cry3 (8.9%), and cry7, 8 (7.14%). A total of 30...
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    ..Collectively, these findings provide the first biochemical evidence for the proposed conformational rearrangement of cryptochromes upon light exposure. ..
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    Although the role of core circadian gene cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) in breast tumorigenesis has been demonstrated, the correlations of CRY2 with clinical parameters in breast cancer patients and its involvement in epigenetic processes such as ..
  73. Machicao F, Peter A, Machann J, Königsrainer I, Böhm A, Lutz S, et al. Glucose-Raising Polymorphisms in the Human Clock Gene Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) Affect Hepatic Lipid Content. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0145563 pubmed publisher
    ..associations of 121 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging ARNTL, ARNTL2, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3, and TIMELESS were assessed in a study population of 1,715 non-diabetic individuals metabolically ..
  74. Sabbar M, Dkhissi Benyahya O, Benazzouz A, Lakhdar Ghazal N. Circadian Clock Protein Content and Daily Rhythm of Locomotor Activity Are Altered after Chronic Exposure to Lead in Rat. Front Behav Neurosci. 2017;11:178 pubmed publisher
    ..in the number of immunoreactive cells (ir-) of BMAL1, PER1, and PER2 without affecting the number of ir-CRY1 and ir-CRY2 cells in the SCN...
  75. Hörner M, Chatelle C, Mühlhäuser W, Stocker D, Coats M, Weber W, et al. Optogenetic control of focal adhesion kinase signaling. Cell Signal. 2018;42:176-183 pubmed publisher
    ..a single-component, photo-activatable FAK, termed optoFAK, by using blue light-induced oligomerization of cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) to activate FAK-CRY2 fusion proteins...
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    ..After serum shock, both types of cells showed clear circadian expressions of Bmal1, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Rev-erb? mRNA; meanwhile the Clock mRNA show a rhythmic expression in plaque-derived SMCs but ..
  77. Kovanen L, Donner K, Kaunisto M, Partonen T. PRKCDBP (CAVIN3) and CRY2 associate with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2017;207:136-140 pubmed publisher
    ..The cryptochrome circadian clocks 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2) proteins modulate circadian rhythms in a cell and influence emotional reactions and mood in an individual...
  78. Liu L, Shen H, Wang Y. CRY2 is suppressed by FOXM1 mediated promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:44-50 pubmed publisher
    Loss of CRY2 confers aggressive phenotypes to breast cancer. However, the mechanism of its downregulation and its prognostic value in breast cancer are still not clear...
  79. Soares da Silva J, Queirós S, de Aguiar J, Viana J, Neta M, Da Silva M, et al. Molecular characterization of the gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner isolated from Brazilian ecosystems and showing pathogenic activity against mosquito larvae of medical importance. Acta Trop. 2017;176:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..quinquefasciatus and An. darlingi and characterized according to the presence of 14 cry genes (cry1, cry2, cry4, cry10, cry11, cry24, cry32, cry44Aa, cry1Ab, cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba), six cyt genes (..
  80. Duan L, Hope J, Ong Q, Lou H, Kim N, McCarthy C, et al. Understanding CRY2 interactions for optical control of intracellular signaling. Nat Commun. 2017;8:547 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) can simultaneously undergo light-dependent CRY2-CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 hetero-dimerization, both of which have been widely used to optically control intracellular processes...
  81. Yumimoto K, Muneoka T, Tsuboi T, Nakayama K. Substrate binding promotes formation of the Skp1-Cul1-Fbxl3 (SCF(Fbxl3)) protein complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus provide important insight into the regulation of both SCF ubiquitin ligase activity and circadian rhythmicity. ..
  82. Kobayashi K, Kanno S, Smit B, van der Horst G, Takao M, Yasui A. Characterization of photolyase/blue-light receptor homologs in mouse and human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5086-92 pubmed
    ..Using green fluorescent protein fused peptides we showed that the C-terminal region of the mouse CRY2 protein contains a unique nuclear localization signal, which is absent in the CRY1 protein...
  83. Renström F, Koivula R, Varga T, Hallmans G, Mulder H, Florez J, et al. Season-dependent associations of circadian rhythm-regulating loci (CRY1, CRY2 and MTNR1B) and glucose homeostasis: the GLACIER Study. Diabetologia. 2015;58:997-1005 pubmed publisher
    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) proximal to CRY2 and MTNR1B with fasting glucose is well established. CRY1/2 and MTNR1B encode proteins that regulate circadian rhythmicity and influence energy metabolism...
  84. Fang L, Yang Z, Zhou J, Tung J, Hsiao C, Wang L, et al. Circadian Clock Gene CRY2 Degradation Is Involved in Chemoresistance of Colorectal Cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015;14:1476-87 pubmed publisher
    Biomarkers for predicting chemotherapy response are important to the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is a circadian clock protein involved in cell cycle, but the biologic consequences of this activity in ..
  85. Hirano A, Nakagawa T, Yoshitane H, Oyama M, Kozuka Hata H, Lanjakornsiripan D, et al. USP7 and TDP-43: Pleiotropic Regulation of Cryptochrome Protein Stability Paces the Oscillation of the Mammalian Circadian Clock. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154263 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian Cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, function as principal regulators of a transcription-translation-based negative feedback loop underlying the mammalian circadian clockwork...
  86. Liu L, Jiang G, Peng Z, Li Y, Li J, Zou L, et al. The effect of high fat diet on daily rhythm of the core clock genes and muscle functional genes in the skeletal muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;213:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the HFD treatment, the circadian rhythms expressional patterns of the 8 core clock genes (Clock, Bmal2, Cry2, Per1, DBP, NFIL3, BHLHE40 and RORA) and 6 muscle functional genes (MSTN, Myf5, MyoD, MyoG, PPARa and Trim63) were ..
  87. Holtkotte X, Ponnu J, Ahmad M, Hoecker U. The blue light-induced interaction of cryptochrome 1 with COP1 requires SPA proteins during Arabidopsis light signaling. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007044 pubmed publisher
    ..Blue light is sensed by the Arabidopsis photoreceptors CRY1 and CRY2 which subsequently initiate light signal transduction by repressing the COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  88. Nogueira A, Nogueira A, Veiga J, Teixeira M. Hypothesis on the Role of Cryptochromes in Inflammation and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Outcome. Front Neurol. 2017;8:637 pubmed publisher
    ..are expressed in different cell types in humans [type II CRYs, in two forms: human cryptochrome 1 and 2 (hCRY1 and hCRY2)], and in certain species, respond to blue light and play role in magnetoreception...
  89. Busino L, Bassermann F, Maiolica A, Lee C, Nolan P, Godinho S, et al. SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins. Science. 2007;316:900-4 pubmed
    ..Among its downstream targets, two genes, Cry1 and Cry2, encode inhibitors of the Clock-Bmal1 complex that establish a negative-feedback loop...
  90. Lin Y, Chang J, Yeh K, Yang M, Liu T, Lin S, et al. Disturbance of circadian gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Carcinog. 2008;47:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that decreased expression levels of PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY2, and TIM in hepatocellular carcinomas were observed...
  91. Pathak G, Spiltoir J, Höglund C, Polstein L, Heine Koskinen S, Gersbach C, et al. Bidirectional approaches for optogenetic regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells using Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:e167 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous work, we used cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and CIB1, Arabidopsis proteins that interact upon light illumination, to regulate transcription with ..
  92. Yúfera M, Perera E, Mata Sotres J, Calduch Giner J, Martinez Rodriguez G, Pérez Sánchez J. The circadian transcriptome of marine fish (Sparus aurata) larvae reveals highly synchronized biological processes at the whole organism level. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12943 pubmed publisher
    ..Various core clock genes (per1, per2, per3, bmal1, cry1, cry2, clock) were identified in clusters 1-3, and their expression was significantly correlated with several genes in ..