Gene Symbol: CRY1
Description: cryptochrome circadian regulator 1
Alias: DSPD, PHLL1, cryptochrome-1, cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like), cryptochrome circadian clock 1
Species: human
Products:     CRY1

Top Publications

  1. van der Horst G, Muijtjens M, Kobayashi K, Takano R, Kanno S, Takao M, et al. Mammalian Cry1 and Cry2 are essential for maintenance of circadian rhythms. Nature. 1999;398:627-30 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, in addition to a possible photoreceptor and antagonistic clock-adjusting function, both proteins are essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythmicity. ..
  2. Todo T, Ryo H, Yamamoto K, Toh H, Inui T, Ayaki H, et al. Similarity among the Drosophila (6-4)photolyase, a human photolyase homolog, and the DNA photolyase-blue-light photoreceptor family. Science. 1996;272:109-12 pubmed
    ..A homolog of the Drosophila (6-4)photolyase gene was also cloned from human cells. ..
  3. Kondratov R, Kondratova A, Lee C, Gorbacheva V, Chernov M, Antoch M. Post-translational regulation of circadian transcriptional CLOCK(NPAS2)/BMAL1 complex by CRYPTOCHROMES. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:890-5 pubmed
    ..The products of these genes, CRY1 and CRY2, in turn repress CLOCK/BMAL1 transcriptional activity by an unknown mechanism...
  4. Busino L, Bassermann F, Maiolica A, Lee C, Nolan P, Godinho S, et al. SCFFbxl3 controls the oscillation of the circadian clock by directing the degradation of cryptochrome proteins. Science. 2007;316:900-4 pubmed
    ..Among its downstream targets, two genes, Cry1 and Cry2, encode inhibitors of the Clock-Bmal1 complex that establish a negative-feedback loop...
  5. Kume K, Zylka M, Sriram S, Shearman L, Weaver D, Jin X, et al. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. Cell. 1999;98:193-205 pubmed
    ..Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially. ..
  6. Griffin E, Staknis D, Weitz C. Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 1999;286:768-71 pubmed
    ..Mammalian CRY1 and CRY2 are here shown to act as light-independent inhibitors of CLOCK-BMAL1, the activator driving Per1 ..
  7. Sancar A. Regulation of the mammalian circadian clock by cryptochrome. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34079-82 pubmed
  8. Lewintre E, Martín C, Ballesteros C, Montaner D, Rivera R, Mayans J, et al. Cryptochrome-1 expression: a new prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Haematologica. 2009;94:280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Cryptochrome-1 was a valuable predictor of disease progression in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia, therefore it can be introduced in clinical practice with the advantage of a simplified method of quantification. ..
  9. Ye R, Selby C, Ozturk N, Annayev Y, Sancar A. Biochemical analysis of the canonical model for the mammalian circadian clock. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:25891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support some aspects of the canonical model, but also suggest that some key features of the model need to be revised. ..

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. van der Spek P, Kobayashi K, Bootsma D, Takao M, Eker A, Yasui A. Cloning, tissue expression, and mapping of a human photolyase homolog with similarity to plant blue-light receptors. Genomics. 1996;37:177-82 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization with a cDNA-derived probe localized this human gene to chromosome 12q23-q24.1. Southern analysis of the cloned human gene suggests a wide distribution of the gene family in various species. ..
  2. Langmesser S, Tallone T, Bordon A, Rusconi S, Albrecht U. Interaction of circadian clock proteins PER2 and CRY with BMAL1 and CLOCK. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:41 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism how positive and negative components of the clock interplay, we characterized the interactions of PER2, CRY1 and CRY2 with BMAL1 and CLOCK using a mammalian two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation assays...
  3. Zhang E, Liu Y, Dentin R, Pongsawakul P, Liu A, Hirota T, et al. Cryptochrome mediates circadian regulation of cAMP signaling and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nat Med. 2010;16:1152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of gene expression is achieved by two transcriptional activators, Clock and Bmal1, which stimulate cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry2) and Period (Per1, Per2 and Per3) repressors that feed back on Clock-Bmal1 activity...
  4. Hanoun M, Eisele L, Suzuki M, Greally J, Hüttmann A, Aydin S, et al. Epigenetic silencing of the circadian clock gene CRY1 is associated with an indolent clinical course in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34347 pubmed publisher
    Disruption of circadian rhythm is believed to play a critical role in cancer development. Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) is a core component of the mammalian circadian clock and we have previously shown its deregulated expression in a subgroup of ..
  5. Ozgur S, Sancar A. Analysis of autophosphorylating kinase activities of Arabidopsis and human cryptochromes. Biochemistry. 2006;45:13369-74 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana and humans possess two cryptochromes. Recently, it was found that Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 (AtCry1) binds ATP and exhibits autokinase activity that is simulated by blue light...
  6. Hsu D, Zhao X, Zhao S, Kazantsev A, Wang R, Todo T, et al. Putative human blue-light photoreceptors hCRY1 and hCRY2 are flavoproteins. Biochemistry. 1996;35:13871-7 pubmed
    ..a second human gene whose amino acid sequence displays 73% identity to the first one and have named the two genes CRY1 and CRY2, respectively...
  7. Miyazaki K, Mesaki M, Ishida N. Nuclear entry mechanism of rat PER2 (rPER2): role of rPER2 in nuclear localization of CRY protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6651-9 pubmed
    ..intact rPER2 was preferentially translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus when coexpressed with human CRY1 (hCRY1)...
  8. Eisele L, Prinz R, Klein Hitpass L, Nuckel H, Lowinski K, Thomale J, et al. Combined PER2 and CRY1 expression predicts outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur J Haematol. 2009;83:320-7 pubmed publisher confirm previous results regarding the differential expression and prognostic significance of the circadian gene CRY1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and its relationship with the expression of other circadian genes ..
  9. Shi J, Wittke Thompson J, Badner J, Hattori E, Potash J, Willour V, et al. Clock genes may influence bipolar disorder susceptibility and dysfunctional circadian rhythm. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..collection of 36 trios and 79 quads (Sample I), and 10 circadian genes (ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHB2, BHLHB3, CLOCK, CRY1, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, DBP, and NR1D1) in an extended family collection of 70 trios and 237 quads (Sample II), which ..
  10. Zhu Y, Stevens R, Hoffman A, FitzGerald L, Kwon E, Ostrander E, et al. Testing the circadian gene hypothesis in prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..genes (rs885747 and rs2289591 in PER1; rs7602358 in PER2; rs1012477 in PER3; rs1534891 in CSNK1E; rs12315175 in CRY1; rs2292912 in CRY2; rs7950226 in ARNTL; rs11133373 in CLOCK; and rs1369481, rs895521, and rs17024926 in NPAS2) was ..
  11. Zou X, Huang W, Lu F, Fang K, Wang D, Zhao S, et al. The effects of Jiao-Tai-Wan on sleep, inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity-resistant rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:165 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of clock gene cryptochromes (Cry1 and Cry2) and inflammation gene nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMC) were also ..
  12. Soares da Silva J, Queirós S, de Aguiar J, Viana J, Neta M, Da Silva M, et al. Molecular characterization of the gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner isolated from Brazilian ecosystems and showing pathogenic activity against mosquito larvae of medical importance. Acta Trop. 2017;176:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..quinquefasciatus and An. darlingi and characterized according to the presence of 14 cry genes (cry1, cry2, cry4, cry10, cry11, cry24, cry32, cry44Aa, cry1Ab, cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba), six cyt ..
  13. Cao Q, Zhao X, Bai J, Gery S, Sun H, Lin D, et al. Circadian clock cryptochrome proteins regulate autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12548-12553 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mice deficient of the circadian clock genes Cry1 and Cry2 [Cry double knockout (DKO)] develop an autoimmune phenotype including high serum IgG ..
  14. Meneses Santos D, Buonfiglio D, Peliciari Garcia R, Ramos Lobo A, Souza D, Carpinelli A, et al. Chronic treatment with dexamethasone alters clock gene expression and melatonin synthesis in rat pineal gland at night. Nat Sci Sleep. 2018;10:203-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression of Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Cry1, and Cry2 in pineal glands of rats treated with dexamethasone...
  15. Genzer Y, Chapnik N, Froy O. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on hepatocyte metabolism. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;88:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, the expression levels of the clock genes Bmal1 and Cry1, whose protein products play also a metabolic role, were ?2-fold increased and decreased, respectively...
  16. Satyanarayanan S, Chien Y, Chang J, Huang S, Guu T, Su H, et al. Melatonergic agonist regulates circadian clock genes and peripheral inflammatory and neuroplasticity markers in patients with depression and anxiety. Brain Behav Immun. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..significant association between RMT treatment and alterations of the nine core circadian genes (CLOCK, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, NR1D1, NR1D2, DEC1 and TIMELESS) in the patient group when compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05)...
  17. Khristi V, Ratri A, Ghosh S, Pathak D, Borosha S, Dai E, et al. Disruption of ESR1 alters the expression of genes regulating hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in male rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Pathway analyses demonstrate that the differentially expressed genes include transcriptional regulators (Cry1, Nr1d1, Nr0b2), transporters (Slc1a2), and regulators of biosynthesis (Cyp7b1, Cyp8b1), and hormone metabolism (..
  18. von Schantz M. Natural Variation in Human Clocks. Adv Genet. 2017;99:73-96 pubmed publisher
    ..gene encoding casein kinase I delta have been shown to cause advanced sleep phase disorder, and a mutation in the CRY1 gene delayed sleep phase disorder...
  19. Wang J, Peng Y, Xiao K, Wei B, Hu J, Wang Z, et al. Transcriptomic response of wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, to transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein. BMC Biotechnol. 2017;17:7 pubmed publisher
    Bacillum thuringiensis (Bt) toxin produced in Cry1-expressing genetically modified rice (Bt rice) is highly effective to control lepidopteran pests, which reduces the needs for synthetic insecticides...
  20. Goh G, Mark P, Maloney S. Altered energy intake and the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm are associated with changes in phase, but not amplitude, of clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus in vivo. Chronobiol Int. 2016;33:85-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the clock genes Bmal1, Per2, Cry1, and Rev-erbα, the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, and the heat shock protein Hsp90aa1, were determined ..
  21. Silva M, Siqueira H, Silva L, Marques E, Barros R. Cry Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Active against Diamondback Moth and Fall Armyworm. Neotrop Entomol. 2015;44:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..profile of the majority of the isolates produced bands of approximately 130 kDa, suggesting the presence of Cry1, Cry8 and Cry9 proteins. The gene content of the isolates of B...
  22. Jourdan N, Martino C, El Esawi M, Witczak J, Bouchet P, d Harlingue A, et al. Blue-light dependent ROS formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome-2 may contribute toward its signaling role. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e1042647 pubmed publisher
    ..In a prior study, it has also been shown that Arabidopsis cry1 activation by blue light results in direct enzymatic conversion of molecular oxygen (O2) to ROS (reactive oxygen ..
  23. Eski A, Demir I, Güllü M, Demirbag Z. Biodiversity and pathogenicity of bacteria associated with the gut microbiota of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Microb Pathog. 2018;121:350-358 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of cry1 and cry2 gene content of this isolate displayed that B...
  24. Mogi M, Yokoi H, Suzuki T. Analyses of the cellular clock gene expression in peripheral tissue, caudal fin, in the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;248:97-105 pubmed publisher the present study we analyzed the in vivo and in vitro expression of three clock genes, per2, per1, and cry1, in the caudal fin and the effects of cortisol and melatonin administration on the expression of each clock gene...
  25. Yang S, Yu C, Jiang J, Liu L, Fang X, Wu C. Hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts the balance of the expression of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Lett. 2014;8:2715-2720 pubmed
    ..05), while no significant difference was observed in the expression levels of CLOCK, BMAL1, Cry1 and casein kinase 1É› (CK1É›; P>0.05)...
  26. El Esawi M, Glascoe A, ENGLE D, Ritz T, Link J, Ahmad M. Cellular metabolites modulate in vivo signaling of Arabidopsis cryptochrome-1. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e1063758 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work we extend these observations to Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 and demonstrate that Trp triad substitution mutants at W400F and W324F positions which are not photoreduced in ..
  27. Reyaz A, Gunapriya L, Indra Arulselvi P. Molecular characterization of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from Kashmir valley. 3 Biotech. 2017;7:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Lepidopteron active genes (cry1, cry2Ab, cry2Ab) were present in six Bt strains. Further, analysis of a full-length cry2A gene (~1...
  28. Singh D, Trivedi A, Rani S, Panda S, Kumar V. Circadian timing in central and peripheral tissues in a migratory songbird: dependence on annual life-history states. FASEB J. 2015;29:4248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured period 2 (Per2), cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), brain and muscle arnt-like protein 1 (Bmal1), and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) mRNA ..
  29. Lee Y, Jang A, Francey L, Sehgal A, Hogenesch J. KPNB1 mediates PER/CRY nuclear translocation and circadian clock function. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data show that KPNB1 is required for timely nuclear import of PER/CRY in the negative feedback regulation of the circadian clock. ..
  30. Hirano A, Nakagawa T, Yoshitane H, Oyama M, Kozuka Hata H, Lanjakornsiripan D, et al. USP7 and TDP-43: Pleiotropic Regulation of Cryptochrome Protein Stability Paces the Oscillation of the Mammalian Circadian Clock. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154263 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian Cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, function as principal regulators of a transcription-translation-based negative feedback loop underlying the mammalian circadian clockwork...
  31. Yuan S, Zhang Z, Zheng C, Zhao Z, Wang Y, Feng L, et al. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 functions in nitrogen regulation of flowering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:7661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..time control in Arabidopsis thaliana, namely ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase and the blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1)...
  32. Wegner S, Belle M, Hughes A, Diekman C, Piggins H. Delayed Cryptochrome Degradation Asymmetrically Alters the Daily Rhythm in Suprachiasmatic Clock Neuron Excitability. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7824-7836 pubmed publisher
    Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons contain an intracellular molecular circadian clock and the Cryptochromes (CRY1/2), key transcriptional repressors of this molecular apparatus, are subject to post-translational modification through ..
  33. Han W, Zou J, Wang K, Su Y, Zhu Y, Song C, et al. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Hypothalamic MicroRNAs as Novel Partners Involved in Timing the Rapid Development of Chicken (Gallus gallus) Gonads. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129738 pubmed publisher
    ..0, P < 0.01). Of these genes, 7 putative circadian clock genes, Per2, Bmal1/2, Clock, Cry1/2, and Star were found to be targeted multiple times by the miRNAs...
  34. Wu P, Li Y, Cheng J, Chen L, Zhu X, Feng Z, et al. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcript levels in fast and slow muscle fibers from Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi). BMC Genomics. 2016;17:1008 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the molecular clock components (clock, arntl1/2, cry1/2/3, cry-dash, npas2, nr1d1/2, per1/2/3, ror? and tim genes) and their daily transcription levels were ..
  35. Yúfera M, Perera E, Mata Sotres J, Calduch Giner J, Martinez Rodriguez G, Pérez Sánchez J. The circadian transcriptome of marine fish (Sparus aurata) larvae reveals highly synchronized biological processes at the whole organism level. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12943 pubmed publisher
    ..Various core clock genes (per1, per2, per3, bmal1, cry1, cry2, clock) were identified in clusters 1-3, and their expression was significantly correlated with several genes ..
  36. Xu F, He S, Zhang J, Mao Z, Wang W, Li T, et al. Photoactivated CRY1 and phyB Interact Directly with AUX/IAA Proteins to Inhibit Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 2018;11:523-541 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibits auxin signaling through stabilization of AUX/IAAs by blue and red light-dependent interactions of cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) and phytochrome B with AUX/IAAs, respectively...
  37. Tamaru T, Takamatsu K. Circadian modification network of a core clock driver BMAL1 to harmonize physiology from brain to peripheral tissues. Neurochem Int. 2018;119:11-16 pubmed publisher
    ..g., BMAL1: CLOCK circadian transcription driver and CRY1/2 and PER1/2 suppressors, and is modulated by various regulatory loops including clock protein modifications...
  38. Lowe M, Lage J, Paatela E, Munson D, Hostager R, Yuan C, et al. Cry2 Is Critical for Circadian Regulation of Myogenic Differentiation by Bclaf1-Mediated mRNA Stabilization of Cyclin D1 and Tmem176b. Cell Rep. 2018;22:2118-2132 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that one of the core regulators of circadian rhythms, Cry2, but not Cry1, is critical for the circadian patterns of these two critical steps in myogenic differentiation...
  39. Soria V, Martínez Amorós E, Escaramis G, Valero J, Pérez Egea R, Garcia C, et al. Differential association of circadian genes with mood disorders: CRY1 and NPAS2 are associated with unipolar major depression and CLOCK and VIP with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 19 circadian genes (ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHB2, BHLHB3, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E, DBP, NPAS2, NR1D1, PER1, PER2, PER3, RORA, TIMELESS, VIP, and VIPR2) in a sample of 534 MD patients (..
  40. Grujčić V, Nuy J, Salcher M, Shabarova T, Kasalicky V, Boenigk J, et al. Cryptophyta as major bacterivores in freshwater summer plankton. ISME J. 2018;12:1668-1681 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the growth of a small lineage of Cryptophyta (CRY1 clade) was strongly stimulated by one Limnohabitans strain in our experiment...
  41. Thompson C, Bowes Rickman C, Shaw S, Ebright J, Kelly U, Sancar A, et al. Expression of the blue-light receptor cryptochrome in the human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4515-21 pubmed
    To analyze the patterns of expression of the cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, in the human retina and to correlate expression of these putative blue-light receptors with nonvisual photoreceptor localization...
  42. Gao P, Yoo S, Lee K, Rosensweig C, Takahashi J, Chen B, et al. Phosphorylation of the cryptochrome 1 C-terminal tail regulates circadian period length. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We then identified serine 588 in the C-terminal tail of mouse CRY1 as a potential DNA-PK phosphorylation site but surprisingly found that the phosphomimetic mutation S588D also ..
  43. Krishnaiah S, Wu G, Altman B, Growe J, Rhoades S, Coldren F, et al. Clock Regulation of Metabolites Reveals Coupling between Transcription and Metabolism. Cell Metab. 2017;25:961-974.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..BMAL1 knockdown diminished metabolite rhythms, while CRY1 or CRY2 perturbation generally shortened or lengthened rhythms, respectively...
  44. Tong X, Zhang D, Guha A, Arthurs B, Cazares V, Gupta N, et al. CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 Ligase Regulates the Molecular Clock Activity by Promoting Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation of the Mammalian CRY1. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139725 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase ubiquitinates CRY1 and promotes its degradation both in vitro and in vivo...
  45. Guo B, Yang N, Borysiewicz E, Dudek M, Williams J, Li J, et al. Catabolic cytokines disrupt the circadian clock and the expression of clock-controlled genes in cartilage via an NFкB-dependent pathway. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23:1981-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ex vivo cartilage explants were isolated from the Cry1-luc or PER2::LUC clock reporter mice...
  46. Reszka E, Przybek M, Muurlink O, Pepłońska B. Circadian gene variants and breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;390:137-145 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize fifteen epidemiological studies, including five studies on shift work that have indicated BMAL1, BMAL2, CLOCK, NPAS2, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER3 and TIMELESS as a candidate breast cancer risk variants.
  47. Rosensweig C, Reynolds K, Gao P, Laothamatas I, Shan Y, Ranganathan R, et al. An evolutionary hotspot defines functional differences between CRYPTOCHROMES. Nat Commun. 2018;9:1138 pubmed publisher a transcription/translation feedback loop composed of positive regulators (CLOCK/BMAL1) and repressors (CRYPTOCHROME 1/2 (CRY1/2) and PER1/2)...
  48. Yang M, Lin P, Hsiao H, Hsu J, Lin H, Hsu C, et al. Up-regulation of PER3 Expression Is Correlated with Better Clinical Outcome in Acute Leukemia. Anticancer Res. 2015;35:6615-22 pubmed
    ..In AML, the expression of period 1 (PER1), period 2 (PER2), period 3 (PER3), cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like 1 (..
  49. Oosterman J, Belsham D. Glucose Alters Per2 Rhythmicity Independent of AMPK, Whereas AMPK Inhibitor Compound C Causes Profound Repression of Clock Genes and AgRP in mHypoE-37 Hypothalamic Neurons. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146969 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C was utilized, and mRNA levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (Cpt1c), and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine ..
  50. Row H, Jeong J, Cho S, Kim S, Kim K. HL271, a novel chemical compound derived from metformin, differs from metformin in its effects on the circadian clock and metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..manner, and produced shortening of the circadian period and enhanced degradation of the clock genes PER2 and CRY1. Although the molecular effects of HL271 resembled those of metformin, it produced different physiological effects ..
  51. Katamune C, Koyanagi S, Shiromizu S, Matsunaga N, Shimba S, Shibata S, et al. Different Roles of Negative and Positive Components of the Circadian Clock in Oncogene-induced Neoplastic Transformation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:10541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..prepared from animals deficient in negative circadian clock regulators, Period2 (Per2) or Cryptochrome1/2 (Cry1/2), were prone to transformation induced by co-expression of H-ras(V12) and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT)...
  52. Huisman S, Ahmadi A, Ijzermans J, Verhoef C, van der Horst G, de Bruin R. Disruption of clock gene expression in human colorectal liver metastases. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:13973-13981 pubmed
    ..chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of 10 clock genes: CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E, TIM, TIPIN, and 2 clock-controlled genes: Cyclin-D1, and WEE1...
  53. Wang Y, Chen J, Zhu F, Hong Y. Identification of medaka magnetoreceptor and cryptochromes. Sci China Life Sci. 2017;60:271-278 pubmed publisher
    ..and magr were found to be the orthologs of human Cry2 and Magr, with cry1aa and cry1ab being coorthologs of human Cry1. Therefore, magr and cry2 have remained as single copy genes, whereas cry1 has undergone two rounds of gene ..
  54. Patke A, Murphy P, Onat O, Krieger A, Ozcelik T, Campbell S, et al. Mutation of the Human Circadian Clock Gene CRY1 in Familial Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder. Cell. 2017;169:203-215.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..we report a hereditary form of DSPD associated with a dominant coding variation in the core circadian clock gene CRY1, which creates a transcriptional inhibitor with enhanced affinity for circadian activator proteins Clock and Bmal1...
  55. Peng Z, Chen X, Wei Z. Cryptochrome1 maybe a candidate gene of schizophrenia. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69:849-51 pubmed
    ..Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), located in a chromosomal region 12q23-q24...
  56. Lavebratt C, Sjöholm L, Partonen T, Schalling M, Forsell Y. PER2 variantion is associated with depression vulnerability. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:570-581 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, genetic variation in PER2 is associated with depression vulnerability a Swedish population-based sample. More studies are needed to determine if this is the case also for NPAS2, ARNTL, and RORA. ..
  57. Tong X, Buelow K, Guha A, Rausch R, Yin L. USP2a protein deubiquitinates and stabilizes the circadian protein CRY1 in response to inflammatory signals. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian clock protein, cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), is degraded via the FBXL3-mediated ubiquitination pathway, suggesting that it is also likely to be ..
  58. Na J, Lee K, Kim H, Shin J, Na W, Jeong H, et al. Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48152 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified the type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as an interacting molecule of CRY1. Although the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when ..
  59. Wunderer F, Kühne S, Jilg A, Ackermann K, Sebesteny T, Maronde E, et al. Clock gene expression in the human pituitary gland. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2046-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Pituitary extracts were investigated for expression of clock genes Per1, Cry1, Clock, and Bmal1 and corresponding protein products...
  60. Kovanen L, Donner K, Kaunisto M, Partonen T. CRY1, CRY2 and PRKCDBP genetic variants in metabolic syndrome. Hypertens Res. 2015;38:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..we wanted to investigate whether variants of the core circadian clock genes, cryptochrome circadian clocks 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2), or those of protein kinase C, delta binding protein (PRKCDBP), which regulate the interactions and ..
  61. Jakubowicz D, Wainstein J, Landau Z, Raz I, Ahren B, Chapnik N, et al. Influences of Breakfast on Clock Gene Expression and Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Individuals and Individuals With Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:1573-1579 pubmed publisher
    ..In healthy individuals, the expression level of Per1, Cry1, Rorα, and Sirt1 was lower (P < 0.05) but Clock was higher (P < 0...
  62. Fonseca F, Gratacos M, Escaramis G, de Cid R, Martin Santos R, Fernandez Espejo E, et al. Response to methadone maintenance treatment is associated with the MYOCD and GRM6 genes. Mol Diagn Ther. 2010;14:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the metabotropic glutamate receptors GRM6 and GRM8, the nuclear receptor NR4A2, the photolyase enzyme cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), and the transcription factor myocardin (MYOCD), which have previously been associated with the risk of ..
  63. Luo Y, Wang F, Chen L, Chen X, Chen Z, Liu P, et al. Deregulated expression of cry1 and cry2 in human gliomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:5725-8 pubmed
    ..chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques, we examined the expression of two important clock genes, cry1 and cry2, in 69 gliomas. In this study, out of 69 gliomas, 38 were cry1-positive, and 51 were cry2-positive...
  64. Reszka E, Wieczorek E, Przybek M, Jabłońska E, Kałużny P, Bukowska Damska A, et al. Circadian gene methylation in rotating-shift nurses: a cross-sectional study. Chronobiol Int. 2017;:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..methylation polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess promoter CpG methylation in PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 in genomic DNA from whole blood of 347 women having a rotating-shift work schedule ..
  65. Bouly J, Giovani B, Djamei A, Mueller M, Zeugner A, Dudkin E, et al. Novel ATP-binding and autophosphorylation activity associated with Arabidopsis and human cryptochrome-1. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2921-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a novel ATP binding and autophosphorylation activity associated with Arabidopsis cry1 protein purified from a baculovirus expression system...
  66. Ebisawa T. Analysis of the molecular pathophysiology of sleep disorders relevant to a disturbed biological clock. Mol Genet Genomics. 2013;288:185-93 pubmed publisher
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    ..b>Cryptochrome 1 is a key regulator of the circadian feedback loop and plays an important role in organisms...
  68. Luo W, Ma S, Yang Y, Wang C, Zhang D, Zhang Q, et al. TFEB regulates PER3 expression via glucose-dependent effects on CLOCK/BMAL1. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;78:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..disrupts and dampens the expression of PER3 but not the expression of other circadian genes, such as PER1, PER2, CRY1 and CRY2. TFEB physically interacts with CLOCK/BMAL1 through its N-terminal region...
  69. Xu L, Wu T, Li H, Ni Y, Fu Z. An individual 12-h shift of the light-dark cycle alters the pancreatic and duodenal circadian rhythm and digestive function. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017;49:954-961 pubmed publisher
    ..of light cue on the resetting of the peripheral clocks, we investigated the expressions of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Rev-erb?, Per1, and Per2) and digestive function genes (Cck, Cck-1r, Sct, Sctr, and Ctrb1) in the pancreas and ..
  70. Nielsen D, Ji F, Yuferov V, Ho A, Chen A, Levran O, et al. Genotype patterns that contribute to increased risk for or protection from developing heroin addiction. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..coding for the mu opioid receptor, the metabotropic receptors mGluR6 and mGluR8, nuclear receptor NR4A2 and cryptochrome 1 (photolyase-like)...
  71. Sun Q, Yang Y, Li X, He B, Jia Y, Zhang N, et al. Folate deprivation modulates the expression of autophagy- and circadian-related genes in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells through GR-mediated pathway. Steroids. 2016;112:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, 4 out of 7 circadian-related genes detected, Clock, Cry1, Cry2 and Per2, were significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated...
  72. Djenane Z, Nateche F, Amziane M, Gomis Cebolla J, El Aichar F, Khorf H, et al. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity and the Entomocidal Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Algeria. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..4% of the isolates). Also, over 50% of the isolates harbored cry1, cry2, or cry9 genes, and 69.3% contained a vip3 gene...
  73. Lee J, Sancar A. Regulation of apoptosis by the circadian clock through NF-kappaB signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12036-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a mechanistic foundation for the delayed onset of tumorigenesis in clock-disrupted p53 mutant mice and suggest unique therapeutic strategies for treating cancers associated with p53 mutation. ..
  74. Vieira J, Jones A, Danon A, Sakuma M, Hoang N, Robles D, et al. Human cryptochrome-1 confers light independent biological activity in transgenic Drosophila correlated with flavin radical stability. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31867 pubmed publisher
  75. Hua P, Liu W, Chen D, Zhao Y, Chen L, Zhang N, et al. Cry1 and Tef gene polymorphisms are associated with major depressive disorder in the Chinese population. J Affect Disord. 2014;157:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Cry1 rs2287161, Cry2 rs10838524 and Tef rs738499 were screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length ..
  76. Ye D, Cai S, Jiang X, Ding Y, Chen K, Fan C, et al. Associations of polymorphisms in circadian genes with abdominal obesity in Chinese adult population. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016;10 Suppl 1:S133-S141 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three circadian genes, CLOCK, CRY1 and CRY2, were genotyped by MassArray technique...
  77. Zhao S, Sancar A. Human blue-light photoreceptor hCRY2 specifically interacts with protein serine/threonine phosphatase 5 and modulates its activity. Photochem Photobiol. 1997;66:727-31 pubmed
    ..We found that hCRY2, but not the highly homologous (6-4) photolyase, inhibits the phosphatase activity of PP5. This inhibition may be on the pathway of blue-light signal transduction reaction in humans. ..
  78. Dai H, Zhang L, Cao M, Song F, Zheng H, Zhu X, et al. The role of polymorphisms in circadian pathway genes in breast tumorigenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127:531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that polymorphisms of the CLOCK and CRY1 genes were associated with breast cancer risk...
  79. Khan S, Xu H, Ukai Tadenuma M, Burton B, Wang Y, Ueda H, et al. Identification of a novel cryptochrome differentiating domain required for feedback repression in circadian clock function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25917-26 pubmed publisher
    ..clocks in mammals are based on a negative feedback loop in which transcriptional repression by the cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, lies at the heart of the mechanism...
  80. Xie X, Guo A, Wu T, Hu Q, Huang L, Yao C, et al. Preventive effect of L-carnitine on the disorder of lipid metabolism and circadian clock of mice subjected to chronic jet-lag. Physiol Res. 2017;66:801-810 pubmed lipid metabolism (Srebp1, Acaca, Fasn, and Scd1), metabolic regulator (mTOR) and circadian rhythm (Bmal1, Per1, Cry1 and Dec1) in the liver of mice subjected to the chronic jet-lag...
  81. Bukowska Damska A, Reszka E, Kaluzny P, Wieczorek E, Przybek M, Zienolddiny S, et al. Sleep quality and methylation status of core circadian rhythm genes among nurses and midwives. Chronobiol Int. 2017;:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of PER1, PER2, PER3, BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1 CRY2 and NPAS2 genes, taking into account rotating night work and chronotype as potential confounders or modifiers...
  82. Eide E, Vielhaber E, Hinz W, Virshup D. The circadian regulatory proteins BMAL1 and cryptochromes are substrates of casein kinase Iepsilon. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17248-54 pubmed
    ..We find that CRY1 and BMAL1 are phosphoproteins in cultured cells...
  83. Chen A. The circadian rhythm of expression of Bmal1 and Cry1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of preterm neonates. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:1172-5 pubmed publisher
    ..blood was obtained from the premature babies and real-time RTPCR was used to determine the expression of Bmal1 and Cry1. The expression of bmal1 did not have statistical difference between 7AM and 7PM on the 1st day, 7th day and 14th ..
  84. Duong H, Robles M, Knutti D, Weitz C. A molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. Science. 2011;332:1436-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a function for the PER complex and a molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. ..
  85. Agarwal N, Mishra I, Komal R, Rani S, Kumar V. Circannual testis and moult cycles persist under photoperiods that disrupt circadian activity and clock gene cycles in spotted munia. J Exp Biol. 2017;220:4162-4168 pubmed publisher
    ..of the birds and 24?h mRNA oscillations of circadian clock genes (bmal1, clock, per2, cry1, cry2) in the hypothalamus, the putative site of seasonal timing...
  86. Cedernaes J, Osler M, Voisin S, Broman J, Vogel H, Dickson S, et al. Acute Sleep Loss Induces Tissue-Specific Epigenetic and Transcriptional Alterations to Circadian Clock Genes in Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:E1255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..adipose tissue biopsies for DNA methylation and gene expression analyses of core clock genes (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, PER1). Finally, baseline and 2-h post-oral glucose load plasma glucose concentrations were determined...
  87. Ode K, Ukai H, Susaki E, Narumi R, Matsumoto K, Hara J, et al. Knockout-Rescue Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mouse Reveals Circadian-Period Control by Quality and Quantity of CRY1. Mol Cell. 2017;65:176-190 pubmed publisher
    ..strains of almost completely embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived mice ("ES mice") rescued with wild-type and mutant Cry1 gene under a Cry1-/-:Cry2-/- background...
  88. Momma T, Okayama H, Saitou M, Sugeno H, Yoshimoto N, Takebayashi Y, et al. Expression of circadian clock genes in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. Oncol Lett. 2017;14:5319-5325 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of key clock genes, including period circadian protein homolog (Per) 1 and 2, cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput (Clock), brain and muscle ARNT-like ..
  89. Li Y, Zhang Y, Li M, Luo Q, Mallano A, Jing Y, et al. GmPLP1, a PAS/LOV protein, functions as a possible new type of blue light photoreceptor in soybean. Gene. 2018;645:170-178 pubmed publisher
    ..overexpression of GmPLP1 displayed the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation under blue light, and the expression of CRY1, CRY2, CKL3, CKL4, BIT1, and HY5 were simultaneously increased in GmPLP1-transgenic Arabidopsis, suggesting that ..
  90. Utge S, Soronen P, Loukola A, Kronholm E, Ollila H, Pirkola S, et al. Systematic analysis of circadian genes in a population-based sample reveals association of TIMELESS with depression and sleep disturbance. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9259 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a connection between circadian genes and gender-dependent depression and defective sleep regulation. ..
  91. Lin D, FitzGerald L, Fu R, Kwon E, Zheng S, Kolb S, et al. Genetic variants in the LEPR, CRY1, RNASEL, IL4, and ARVCF genes are prognostic markers of prostate cancer-specific mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:1928-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Five SNPs were validated (P ≤ 0.05) as being significantly associated with PCSM, one each in the LEPR, CRY1, RNASEL, IL4, and ARVCF genes...
  92. St John P, Hirota T, Kay S, Doyle F. Spatiotemporal separation of PER and CRY posttranslational regulation in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2040-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, this study provides further insight into the molecular clock machinery responsible for maintaining robust circadian rhythms. ..