CLU

Summary

Gene Symbol: CLU
Description: clusterin
Alias: AAG4, APO-J, APOJ, CLI, CLU1, CLU2, KUB1, NA1/NA2, SGP-2, SGP2, SP-40, TRPM-2, TRPM2, clusterin, aging-associated protein 4, apolipoprotein J, complement cytolysis inhibitor, complement lysis inhibitor, complement-associated protein SP-40,40, ku70-binding protein 1, sulfated glycoprotein 2, testosterone-repressed prostate message 2
Species: human
Products:     CLU

Top Publications

  1. Dumont P, Chainiaux F, Eliaers F, Petropoulou C, Remacle J, Koch Brandt C, et al. Overexpression of apolipoprotein J in human fibroblasts protects against cytotoxicity and premature senescence induced by ethanol and tert-butylhydroperoxide. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2002;7:23-35 pubmed
    ..deletion, and an increase in the steady-state level of several senescence-associated genes such as apolipoprotein J (apo J). Apo J has been described as a survival gene against cytotoxic stress...
  2. Reeder D, Stuart W, Witte D, Brown T, Harmony J. Local synthesis of apolipoprotein J in the eye. Exp Eye Res. 1995;60:495-504 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein J (apoJ), a secretory glycoprotein known to transport lipids and to regulate terminal complement function, is present in the human eye in both aqueous and vitreous, as well as in the retina...
  3. Schjeide B, Schnack C, Lambert J, Lill C, Kirchheiner J, Tumani H, et al. The role of clusterin, complement receptor 1, and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein in Alzheimer disease risk and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:207-13 pubmed publisher
    Two recent and simultaneously published genome-wide association studies independently implicated clusterin (CLU), complement receptor 1 (CR1), and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) as putative novel ..
  4. Wang X, Luo L, Dong D, Yu Q, Zhao K. Clusterin plays an important role in clear renal cell cancer metastasis. Urol Int. 2014;92:95-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is implicated in regulating clear renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) progression and metastasis, yet the mechanisms are not elucidated. In the present study, we explored the potential role of CLU in CRCC metastasis...
  5. Poon S, Rybchyn M, Easterbrook Smith S, Carver J, Pankhurst G, Wilson M. Mildly acidic pH activates the extracellular molecular chaperone clusterin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39532-40 pubmed
    Many features of the chaperone action of clusterin are similar to those of the intracellular small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) that, like clusterin, exist in solution as heterogeneous aggregates...
  6. Hazzaa S, Elashry O, Afifi I. Clusterin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pathol Oncol Res. 2010;16:101-9 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the feasibility of profiling and measuring the concentration of clusterin in urine and serum for individuals with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and comparing it with nontumor controls...
  7. Fink T, Zimmer M, Tschopp J, Etienne J, Jenne D, Lichter P. Human clusterin (CLI) maps to 8p21 in proximity to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. Genomics. 1993;16:526-8 pubmed
    b>Clusterin (gene symbol: CLI) is a post-translationally nicked, two-chain plasma and tissue glycoprotein of 80 kDa...
  8. de Silva H, Harmony J, Stuart W, Gil C, Robbins J. Apolipoprotein J: structure and tissue distribution. Biochemistry. 1990;29:5380-9 pubmed
    ..ApoJ appears to be the human analogue of a rat protein present in high concentrations in the testis, sulfated glycoprotein 2. ApoJ mRNA (1.9 kb) is expressed in all but one tissue examined...
  9. Shiota M, Zardan A, Takeuchi A, Kumano M, Beraldi E, Naito S, et al. Clusterin mediates TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis via Twist1 in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2012;72:5261-72 pubmed publisher
    TGF-? promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces clusterin (CLU) expression, linking these genes to cancer metastasis...

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bettens K, Brouwers N, Engelborghs S, Lambert J, Rogaeva E, Vandenberghe R, et al. Both common variations and rare non-synonymous substitutions and small insertion/deletions in CLU are associated with increased Alzheimer risk. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:3 pubmed publisher
    We have followed-up on the recent genome-wide association (GWA) of the clusterin gene (CLU) with increased risk for Alzheimer disease (AD), by performing an unbiased resequencing of all CLU coding exons and regulatory regions in an ..
  2. Nishida K, Kawasaki S, Adachi W, Kinoshita S. Apolipoprotein J expression in human ocular surface epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37:2285-92 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein J (apoJ) expression has been detected in various mouse mucosal epithelial cells, as well as in the human ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and aqueous humor...
  3. Desikan R, Thompson W, Holland D, Hess C, Brewer J, Zetterberg H, et al. The role of clusterin in amyloid-?-associated neurodegeneration. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71:180-7 pubmed publisher
    Converging evidence indicates that clusterin, a chaperone glycoprotein, influences Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. However, the precise role of clusterin in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis is still not well understood...
  4. Lambert J, Heath S, Even G, Campion D, Sleegers K, Hiltunen M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and CR1 associated with Alzheimer's disease. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1094-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two loci gave replicated evidence of association: one within CLU (also called APOJ), encoding clusterin or apolipoprotein J, on chromosome 8 (rs11136000, OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.90, P = 7...
  5. Liao F, Lee Y, Ko J, Tsai C, Tseng C, Sheu G. Hepatitis delta virus epigenetically enhances clusterin expression via histone acetylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..HCC) cell line Huh7, which stably expresses HDAgs, was differentially screened and the results showed that clusterin gene expression was enhanced. The mechanisms for HDAg-mediated clusterin gene upregulation were investigated...
  6. Schürmann B, Wiese B, Bickel H, Weyerer S, Riedel Heller S, Pentzek M, et al. Association of the Alzheimer's disease clusterin risk allele with plasma clusterin concentration. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;25:421-4 pubmed publisher
    A variant within the clusterin gene has been recently associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in genome wide association studies...
  7. Giannakopoulos P, Kovari E, French L, Viard I, Hof P, Bouras C. Possible neuroprotective role of clusterin in Alzheimer's disease: a quantitative immunocytochemical study. Acta Neuropathol. 1998;95:387-94 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is expressed in response to tissue injury both in peripheral organs and in the brain...
  8. Miyake H, Hara I, Gleave M, Eto H. Protection of androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by overexpression of clusterin and its modulation by androgen. Prostate. 2004;61:318-23 pubmed
    ..of oxidative stress on cell injury using androgen-dependent human prostate cancer LNCaP cells overexpressing clusterin, which has been shown to play crucial roles in the acquisition of resistance to several apoptotic stimuli...
  9. Balantinou E, Trougakos I, Chondrogianni N, Margaritis L, Gonos E. Transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of clusterin by the two main cellular proteolytic pathways. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:1267-74 pubmed
    Clusterin/apolipoprotein J (CLU) is a secreted glycoprotein associated with many severe physiological disturbances that represent states of increased oxidative stress, such as aging, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and renal and ..
  10. Wong P, Taillefer D, Lakins J, Pineault J, Chader G, Tenniswood M. Molecular characterization of human TRPM-2/clusterin, a gene associated with sperm maturation, apoptosis and neurodegeneration. Eur J Biochem. 1994;221:917-25 pubmed
    The TRPM-2/clusterin gene and its cognate protein has been characterized in a number of species...
  11. Shannan B, Seifert M, Leskov K, Willis J, Boothman D, Tilgen W, et al. Challenge and promise: roles for clusterin in pathogenesis, progression and therapy of cancer. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:12-9 pubmed
    b>Clusterin (CLU) has been implicated in various cell functions involved in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. There are two known CLU protein isoforms generated in human cells...
  12. Kang S, Yoon S, Park J, Kim D. Unglycosylated clusterin variant accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum and induces cytotoxicity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:221-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin is a stress-responsive and highly glycosylated secretory protein that plays cytoprotective role in most body fluids...
  13. Poon S, Easterbrook Smith S, Rybchyn M, Carver J, Wilson M. Clusterin is an ATP-independent chaperone with very broad substrate specificity that stabilizes stressed proteins in a folding-competent state. Biochemistry. 2000;39:15953-60 pubmed
    We recently reported that the ubiquitous, secreted protein clusterin has chaperone activity in vitro [Humphreys et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 6875-6881]...
  14. Seshadri S, Fitzpatrick A, Ikram M, Destefano A, Gudnason V, Boada M, et al. Genome-wide analysis of genetic loci associated with Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2010;303:1832-40 pubmed publisher
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified CLU, PICALM, and CR1 as novel genes for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  15. Kim N, Yoo J, Han J, Hwang E, Kim Y, Jeong E, et al. Human nuclear clusterin mediates apoptosis by interacting with Bcl-XL through C-terminal coiled coil domain. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1157-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU), a glycoprotein, is involved in apoptosis, producing two alternatively spliced isoforms in various cell types...
  16. Reddy K, Jin G, Karode M, Harmony J, Howe P. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta)-induced nuclear localization of apolipoprotein J/clusterin in epithelial cells. Biochemistry. 1996;35:6157-63 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein J (apoJ)/clusterin was first identified as an 80 kDa secretory glycoprotein present in most body fluids. It has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes including cellular differentiation and apoptosis...
  17. Prochnow H, Gollan R, Rohne P, Hassemer M, Koch Brandt C, Baiersdörfer M. Non-secreted clusterin isoforms are translated in rare amounts from distinct human mRNA variants and do not affect Bax-mediated apoptosis or the NF-?B signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75303 pubmed publisher
    Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J, is expressed from a variety of tissues and implicated in pathological disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia and cancer...
  18. Xie D, Sham J, Zeng W, Che L, Zhang M, Wu H, et al. Oncogenic role of clusterin overexpression in multistage colorectal tumorigenesis and progression. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:3285-9 pubmed
    To investigate the expression pattern of clusterin in colorectal adenoma-carcinoma-metastasis series, and to explore the potential role of clusterin in multistage colorectal tumorigenesis and progression...
  19. Guerreiro R, Beck J, Gibbs J, Santana I, Rossor M, Schott J, et al. Genetic variability in CLU and its association with Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9510 pubmed publisher
    ..large genome wide association studies in Alzheimer disease (AD) have identified variants in three different genes (CLU, PICALM and CR1) as being associated with the risk of developing AD...
  20. Shannan B, Seifert M, Boothman D, Tilgen W, Reichrath J. Clusterin and DNA repair: a new function in cancer for a key player in apoptosis and cell cycle control. J Mol Histol. 2006;37:183-8 pubmed
    The glycoprotein clusterin (CLU), has two known isoforms generated in human cells. A nuclear form of CLU protein (nCLU) is pro-apoptotic, while a secretory form (sCLU) is pro-survival...
  21. Naj A, Jun G, Beecham G, Wang L, Vardarajan B, Buros J, et al. Common variants at MS4A4/MS4A6E, CD2AP, CD33 and EPHA1 are associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Nat Genet. 2011;43:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We also replicated previous associations at CR1 (rs6701713; P(M) = 4.6 × 10(-10), P(J) = 5.2 × 10(-11)), CLU (rs1532278; P(M) = 8.3 × 10(-8), P(J) = 1.9 × 10(-8)), BIN1 (rs7561528; P(M) = 4.0 × 10(-14), P(J) = 5...
  22. Nilselid A, Davidsson P, Nagga K, Andreasen N, Fredman P, Blennow K. Clusterin in cerebrospinal fluid: analysis of carbohydrates and quantification of native and glycosylated forms. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:718-28 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease...
  23. Lee J, Cheng R, Barral S, Reitz C, Medrano M, Lantigua R, et al. Identification of novel loci for Alzheimer disease and replication of CLU, PICALM, and BIN1 in Caribbean Hispanic individuals. Arch Neurol. 2011;68:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also replicated genetic associations for CLU, PICALM, and BIN1...
  24. Kauwe J, Cruchaga C, Karch C, Sadler B, Lee M, Mayo K, et al. Fine mapping of genetic variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM for association with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15918 pubmed publisher
    Recent genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have identified variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM that show replicable association with risk for disease...
  25. Rizzi F, Bettuzzi S. Clusterin (CLU) and prostate cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;105:1-19 pubmed publisher
    The role of clusterin (CLU) in prostate tumorigenesis is probably the most highly controversial, with evidence that CLU expression is increased or decreased in different cancer models...
  26. Yerbury J, Poon S, Meehan S, Thompson B, Kumita J, Dobson C, et al. The extracellular chaperone clusterin influences amyloid formation and toxicity by interacting with prefibrillar structures. FASEB J. 2007;21:2312-22 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is an extracellular chaperone present in all disease-associated extracellular amyloid deposits, but its roles in amyloid formation and protein deposition in vivo are poorly understood...
  27. Schwarz M, Spath L, Lux C, Paprotka K, Torzewski M, Dersch K, et al. Potential protective role of apoprotein J (clusterin) in atherogenesis: binding to enzymatically modified low-density lipoprotein reduces fatty acid-mediated cytotoxicity. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoprotein J (ApoJ) alias clusterin is a multifunctional glycoprotein with cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties...
  28. Rizzi F, Bettuzzi S. The clusterin paradigm in prostate and breast carcinogenesis. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010;17:R1-17 pubmed publisher
    The biological functions of clusterin (CLU, also known as ApoJ, SGP2, TRPM-2, CLI) have been puzzling the researchers since its first discovery in the early 80's...
  29. Bhutia S, Das S, Kegelman T, Azab B, Dash R, Su Z, et al. mda-7/IL-24 differentially regulates soluble and nuclear clusterin in prostate cancer. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1805-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify clusterin (CLU) as a MDA-7/IL-24 interacting protein in DU-145 cells and investigate the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in regulating ..
  30. Ghiso J, Matsubara E, Koudinov A, Choi Miura N, Tomita M, Wisniewski T, et al. The cerebrospinal-fluid soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta is complexed to SP-40,40 (apolipoprotein J), an inhibitor of the complement membrane-attack complex. Biochem J. 1993;293 ( Pt 1):27-30 pubmed
    ..The protein was unmistakably identified as SP-40,40 or ApoJ, a cytolytic inhibitor and lipid carrier, by means of amino acid sequence and immunoreactivity with specific ..
  31. Leskov K, Klokov D, Li J, Kinsella T, Boothman D. Synthesis and functional analyses of nuclear clusterin, a cell death protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11590-600 pubmed
    Nuclear clusterin (nCLU) is an ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible protein that binds Ku70, and triggers apoptosis when overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. We demonstrate that endogenous nCLU synthesis is a product of alternative splicing...
  32. Poulakou M, Paraskevas K, Wilson M, Iliopoulos D, Tsigris C, Mikhailidis D, et al. Apolipoprotein J and leptin levels in patients with coronary heart disease. In Vivo. 2008;22:537-42 pubmed
    Preliminary data suggest that apolipoprotein J (ApoJ) may play a role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Leptin, an adipose tissue hormone, exerts important cardiovascular effects...
  33. Li N, Zoubeidi A, Beraldi E, Gleave M. GRP78 regulates clusterin stability, retrotranslocation and mitochondrial localization under ER stress in prostate cancer. Oncogene. 2013;32:1933-42 pubmed publisher
    Expression of clusterin (CLU) closely correlates with the regulation of apoptosis in cancer...
  34. Kapron J, Hilliard G, Lakins J, Tenniswood M, West K, Carr S, et al. Identification and characterization of glycosylation sites in human serum clusterin. Protein Sci. 1997;6:2120-33 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a ubiquitous, heterodimeric glycoprotein with multiple possible functions that are likely influenced by glycosylation...
  35. Nuutinen T, Suuronen T, Kauppinen A, Salminen A. Clusterin: a forgotten player in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Rev. 2009;61:89-104 pubmed publisher
    Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J, is a versatile chaperone molecule which contains several amphipathic and coiled-coil alpha-helices, typical characteristics of small heat shock proteins...
  36. Wang C, Jiang K, Kang X, Gao D, Sun C, Li Y, et al. Tumor-derived secretory clusterin induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:2308-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty tumor-derived proteins were identified through human specific peptides. Secretory clusterin (sCLU), which was significantly upregulated during cancer progression and metastasis, was chosen for further ..
  37. Trougakos I, Lourda M, Agiostratidou G, Kletsas D, Gonos E. Differential effects of clusterin/apolipoprotein J on cellular growth and survival. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:436-49 pubmed
    The secreted clusterin/apolipoprotein J (CLU) protein form is a ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric glycoprotein which is differentially regulated in many severe physiological disturbance states including cell death, ageing, cancer ..
  38. Wyatt A, Yerbury J, Wilson M. Structural characterization of clusterin-chaperone client protein complexes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21920-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is a potent extracellular chaperone that inhibits protein aggregation and precipitation otherwise caused by physical or chemical stresses (e.g. heat, reduction)...
  39. Panico F, Rizzi F, Fabbri L, Bettuzzi S, Luppi F. Clusterin (CLU) and lung cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;105:63-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Several in vitro studies have examined the role of Clusterin (CLU) in carcinogenesis, lung cancer progression, and response to chemo- and radiotherapy...
  40. Criswell T, Beman M, Araki S, Leskov K, Cataldo E, Mayo L, et al. Delayed activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/Src/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling regulates clusterin expression, a pro-survival factor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14212-21 pubmed
    Secretory clusterin protein (sCLU) is a general genotoxic stress-induced, pro-survival gene product implicated in aging, obesity, heart disease, and cancer...
  41. Chou T, Chen W, Lee A, Hung S, Shih N, Chen M. Clusterin silencing in human lung adenocarcinoma cells induces a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition through modulating the ERK/Slug pathway. Cell Signal. 2009;21:704-11 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein Clusterin (CLU) is implicated in diverse cellular processes, yet its genuine molecular function remains undefined...
  42. Ijsselstijn L, Dekker L, Koudstaal P, Hofman A, Sillevis Smitt P, Breteler M, et al. Serum clusterin levels are not increased in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:2006-10 pubmed publisher
    Increased plasma levels of clusterin have recently been found to be associated with severity and progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  43. Jones S, Jomary C. Clusterin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:427-31 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is an enigmatic glycoprotein with a nearly ubiquitous tissue distribution and an apparent involvement in biological processes ranging from mammary gland involution to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease...
  44. Trougakos I, Poulakou M, Stathatos M, Chalikia A, Melidonis A, Gonos E. Serum levels of the senescence biomarker clusterin/apolipoprotein J increase significantly in diabetes type II and during development of coronary heart disease or at myocardial infarction. Exp Gerontol. 2002;37:1175-87 pubmed
    Clusterin/apolipoprotein J (hereafter ApoJ) is a conserved secreted glycoprotein expressed by a wide array of tissues and being implicated in several physiological processes...
  45. Barral S, Bird T, Goate A, Farlow M, Diaz Arrastia R, Bennett D, et al. Genotype patterns at PICALM, CR1, BIN1, CLU, and APOE genes are associated with episodic memory. Neurology. 2012;78:1464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Family Study, we conducted a family-based association study in which we tabulated MLGPs for SNPs at CR1, BIN1, CLU, PICALM, and APOE...
  46. Carnevali S, Luppi F, D Arca D, Caporali A, Ruggieri M, Vettori M, et al. Clusterin decreases oxidative stress in lung fibroblasts exposed to cigarette smoke. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:393-9 pubmed
    ..b>Clusterin is a widely distributed protein with many functions, including cellular protection in response to oxidative ..
  47. Wei L, Xue T, Wang J, Chen B, Lei Y, Huang Y, et al. Roles of clusterin in progression, chemoresistance and metastasis of human ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:791-806 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is a multivalent glycoprotein with ubiquitous tissue distribution...
  48. He L, Liu M, Li B, Rao H, Liao Y, Zhang L, et al. Clusterin as a predictor for chemoradiotherapy sensitivity and patient survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:2354-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is frequently overexpressed and correlates closely with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance and poor prognosis in many human cancers...
  49. Daimon M, Oizumi T, Karasawa S, Kaino W, Takase K, Tada K, et al. Association of the clusterin gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2011;60:815-22 pubmed publisher
    The association of the clusterin (CLU) gene polymorphism (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] 1-4: rs1532278, rs1532277, rs2279590, and rs2279591, respectively) with type 2 diabetes mellitus was examined using a population of the ..
  50. Schrijvers E, Koudstaal P, Hofman A, Breteler M. Plasma clusterin and the risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2011;305:1322-6 pubmed publisher
    Variants in the clusterin gene are associated with the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and clusterin levels have been found to be increased in brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD...
  51. Lee D, Ha J, Kim Y, Bae K, Park J, Choi W, et al. Interaction of a putative BH3 domain of clusterin with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as revealed by NMR spectroscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:541-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate and breast cancers...
  52. Shiota M, Zoubeidi A, Kumano M, Beraldi E, Naito S, Nelson C, et al. Clusterin is a critical downstream mediator of stress-induced YB-1 transactivation in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:1755-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin is a stress-activated, cytoprotective chaperone that confers broad-spectrum treatment resistance in cancer...
  53. Humphreys D, Carver J, Easterbrook Smith S, Wilson M. Clusterin has chaperone-like activity similar to that of small heat shock proteins. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6875-81 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a highly conserved protein which is expressed at increased levels by many cell types in response to a broad variety of stress conditions. A genuine physiological function for clusterin has not yet been established...
  54. Caccamo A, Desenzani S, Belloni L, Borghetti A, Bettuzzi S. Nuclear clusterin accumulation during heat shock response: implications for cell survival and thermo-tolerance induction in immortalized and prostate cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:208-19 pubmed
    b>Clusterin (CLU), whose role is still debated, is differentially regulated in several patho-physiological processes and invariably induced during apoptosis...
  55. Rizzi F, Coletta M, Bettuzzi S. Chapter 2: Clusterin (CLU): From one gene and two transcripts to many proteins. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;104:9-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin (CLU) has kept many researchers engaged for a long time since its first discovery and characterization in the attempt to unravel its biological role in mammals...
  56. Wyatt A, Yerbury J, Poon S, Dabbs R, Wilson M. Chapter 6: The chaperone action of Clusterin and its putative role in quality control of extracellular protein folding. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;104:89-114 pubmed publisher
    The function(s) of clusterin may depend upon its topological location. A variety of intracellular "isoforms" of clusterin have been reported but further work is required to better define their identity...
  57. Mazzarelli P, Pucci S, Spagnoli L. CLU and colon cancer. The dual face of CLU: from normal to malignant phenotype. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;105:45-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clusterin (CLU) is a pleiotropic protein with a broad range of functions...
  58. Sabatte J, Faigle W, Ceballos A, Morelle W, Rodríguez Rodrígues C, Remes Lenicov F, et al. Semen clusterin is a novel DC-SIGN ligand. J Immunol. 2011;187:5299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified semen clusterin as a novel DC-SIGN ligand...
  59. Boggs L, Fuson K, Baez M, Churgay L, McClure D, Becker G, et al. Clusterin (Apo J) protects against in vitro amyloid-beta (1-40) neurotoxicity. J Neurochem. 1996;67:1324-7 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is markedly induced in many disease states and after tissue injury...
  60. Kirszbaum L, Sharpe J, Murphy B, d Apice A, Classon B, Hudson P, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the novel, human complement-associated protein, SP-40,40: a link between the complement and reproductive systems. EMBO J. 1989;8:711-8 pubmed
    ..The precise role of SP-40,40 is not known in either blood or semen but the present findings document an intriguing link between the immune and the reproductive systems. ..
  61. Park D, Yeo S, Wilson M, Yerbury J, Kwong J, Welch W, et al. Clusterin interacts with Paclitaxel and confer Paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer. Neoplasia. 2008;10:964-72 pubmed
    ..from five long-term (>8 years) and five short-term (<2 years) ovarian cancer survivors and identified clusterin as one of the genes that were significantly up-regulated in short-term survivors...
  62. Goetz E, Shankar B, Zou Y, Morales J, Luo X, Araki S, et al. ATM-dependent IGF-1 induction regulates secretory clusterin expression after DNA damage and in genetic instability. Oncogene. 2011;30:3745-54 pubmed publisher
    Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is a stress-induced, pro-survival glycoprotein elevated in early-stage cancers, in particular in APC/Min-defective colon cancers...
  63. Jenne D, Tschopp J. Molecular structure and functional characterization of a human complement cytolysis inhibitor found in blood and seminal plasma: identity to sulfated glycoprotein 2, a constituent of rat testis fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7123-7 pubmed
    ..The protein, which we have designated complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI), has a molecular mass of 70 kDa and consists of two nonidentical, disulfide-linked subunits of ..
  64. Miwa Y, Takiuchi S, Kamide K, Yoshii M, Horio T, Tanaka C, et al. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in clusterin gene influences serum lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness in hypertensive Japanese females. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:1587-93 pubmed
    b>Clusterin has been implicated in lipid metabolism and atherogenesis, however, the influence of genetic variation has not been examined in Japanese...
  65. Zhang H, Kim J, Edwards C, Xu Z, Taichman R, Wang C. Clusterin inhibits apoptosis by interacting with activated Bax. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:909-15 pubmed
    b>Clusterin is an enigmatic glycoprotein that is overexpressed in several human cancers such as prostate and breast cancers, and squamous cell carcinoma...
  66. Strocchi P, Smith M, Perry G, Tamagno E, Danni O, Pession A, et al. Clusterin up-regulation following sub-lethal oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in human neuroblastoma cells. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:1588-94 pubmed
    Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is a multifunctional protein up-regulated during various pathophysiological states...
  67. Harold D, Abraham R, Hollingworth P, Sims R, Gerrish A, Hamshere M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1088-93 pubmed publisher
    ..significant association with SNPs at two loci not previously associated with the disease: at the CLU (also known as APOJ) gene (rs11136000, P = 1.4 x 10(-9)) and 5' to the PICALM gene (rs3851179, P = 1.9 x 10(-8))...
  68. Thambisetty M, Simmons A, Velayudhan L, Hye A, Campbell J, Zhang Y, et al. Association of plasma clusterin concentration with severity, pathology, and progression in Alzheimer disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:739-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Clusterin/apolipoprotein J was associated with atrophy of the entorhinal cortex, baseline disease severity, and rapid clinical ..
  69. Wijsman E, Pankratz N, Choi Y, Rothstein J, Faber K, Cheng R, et al. Genome-wide association of familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease replicates BIN1 and CLU and nominates CUGBP2 in interaction with APOE. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001308 pubmed publisher
    ..009 with, and p?=?0.03 without, APOE adjustment) and CLU (rs11136000, p?=?0.023 with, and p?=?0.008 without, APOE adjustment), with weaker support for CR1...
  70. Narayan P, Meehan S, Carver J, Wilson M, Dobson C, Klenerman D. Amyloid-β oligomers are sequestered by both intracellular and extracellular chaperones. Biochemistry. 2012;51:9270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the chaperones, αB-crystallin, is primarily found inside cells, while the other, clusterin, is predominantly located in the extracellular environment...
  71. Baig S, Palmer L, Owen M, Williams J, Kehoe P, Love S. Clusterin mRNA and protein in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;28:337-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin, a multifunctional lipoprotein is expressed in a number of tissues but expression is particularly high in the brain, where it binds to amyloid-? (A?), possibly facilitating A? transport into the bloodstream...
  72. Devauchelle V, Essabbani A, De Pinieux G, Germain S, Tourneur L, Mistou S, et al. Characterization and functional consequences of underexpression of clusterin in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2006;177:6471-9 pubmed
    ..Among the set of genes identified as a molecular signature of RA, clusterin (clu) was one of the most differentially expressed...
  73. Xue J, Lv D, Jiao S, Zhao W, Li X, Sun H, et al. pVHL mediates K63-linked ubiquitination of nCLU. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35848 pubmed publisher
    ..In this manuscript, we report that the nuclear clusterin (nCLU) is a target of pVHL. We found that pVHL had a direct interaction with nCLU...
  74. Erk S, Meyer Lindenberg A, Opitz von Boberfeld C, Esslinger C, Schnell K, Kirsch P, et al. Hippocampal function in healthy carriers of the CLU Alzheimer's disease risk variant. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18180-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a genetic variant associated with the disease was discovered at CLU (rs11136000) with genome-wide support...
  75. Cochrane D, Wang Z, Muramaki M, Gleave M, Nelson C. Differential regulation of clusterin and its isoforms by androgens in prostate cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2278-87 pubmed
    b>Clusterin mRNA levels were shown to increase dramatically in rat ventral prostate following castration, and clusterin was therefore originally thought to be repressed by androgens...
  76. Yang C, Yeh S, Leskov K, Odegaard E, Hsu H, Chang C, et al. Isolation of Ku70-binding proteins (KUBs). Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:2165-74 pubmed
    ..Sequence analyses revealed KUB1 to be apolipoprotein J (apoJ), also known as X-ray-inducible transcript 8 (XIP8), testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2) ..
  77. Wilson M, Easterbrook Smith S. Clusterin is a secreted mammalian chaperone. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000;25:95-8 pubmed
  78. Jurkunas U, Bitar M, Rawe I, Harris D, Colby K, Joyce N. Increased clusterin expression in Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2946-55 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the differential expression of the glycoprotein clusterin/apoJ (CLU) in normal and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FED) corneal endothelium and to compare the expression of various forms of CLU in normal and FED tissue.
  79. Rauhala H, Porkka K, Saramäki O, Tammela T, Visakorpi T. Clusterin is epigenetically regulated in prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies revealed that clusterin is methylated in the TRAMP-C2 cell line, as well as in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP...
  80. Ståhl A, Kristoffersson A, Olin A, Olsson M, Roodhooft A, Proesmans W, et al. A novel mutation in the complement regulator clusterin in recurrent hemolytic uremic syndrome. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2236-43 pubmed publisher
    A novel heterozygous mutation in the clusterin gene, nucleotide position A1298C (glutamine>proline Q433P), was detected in exon 7 of a child with recurrent hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)...
  81. Redondo M, Tellez T, Roldan M. The role of clusterin (CLU) in malignant transformation and drug resistance in breast carcinomas. Adv Cancer Res. 2009;105:21-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is an extracellular chaperone that has been functionally implicated in DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation, ..
  82. Bi J, Guo A, Lai Y, Li B, Zhong J, Wu H, et al. Overexpression of clusterin correlates with tumor progression, metastasis in gastric cancer: a study on tissue microarrays. Neoplasma. 2010;57:191-7 pubmed
    b>Clusterin (CLU) is expressed in a wide variety of human tissues and fluids. Overexpression of cytoplasmic clusterin (sCLU) has been implicated in cancer development and progression...
  83. Arnold T, Brandlhofer S, Vrtikapa K, Stangl H, Hermann M, Zwiauer K, et al. Effect of obesity on plasma clusterin, [corrected] a proposed modulator of leptin action. Pediatr Res. 2011;69:237-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Clusterin, a protein constituent of HDL, was recently shown to bind plasma leptin in vitro and has been proposed to modulate leptin activity...
  84. Xing Y, Yu J, Cui W, Zhong X, Wu Z, Zhang Q, et al. Blood clusterin levels, rs9331888 polymorphism, and the risk of Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;29:515-9 pubmed publisher
    Variants in the clusterin gene have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) through replicated genome-wide studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
  85. Sasaki K, Doh ura K, Wakisaka Y, Iwaki T. Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is associated with cortical Lewy bodies: immunohistochemical study in cases with alpha-synucleinopathies. Acta Neuropathol. 2002;104:225-30 pubmed
    Clusterin/apolipoprotein J protein expression in cases with "alpha-synucleinopathies", such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), was investigated using an ..
  86. Caccamo A, Scaltriti M, Caporali A, D Arca D, Corti A, Corvetta D, et al. Ca2+ depletion induces nuclear clusterin, a novel effector of apoptosis in immortalized human prostate cells. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12:101-4 pubmed
  87. Rizzi F, Caccamo A, Belloni L, Bettuzzi S. Clusterin is a short half-life, poly-ubiquitinated protein, which controls the fate of prostate cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:314-23 pubmed publisher
    The Clusterin (CLU) gene produces different forms of protein products, which vary in their biological properties and distribution within the cell. Both the extra- and intracellular CLU forms regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis...
  88. He H, Song Z, Wang K, Teng L, Liu F, Mao Y, et al. Alterations in expression, proteolysis and intracellular localizations of clusterin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1387-91 pubmed
    To investigate biogenesis and intracellular localizations of clusterin to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis of esophageal mucosa...
  89. Trougakos I, Pawelec G, Tzavelas C, Ntouroupi T, Gonos E. Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J up-regulation after zinc exposure, replicative senescence or differentiation of human haematopoietic cells. Biogerontology. 2006;7:375-82 pubmed
    Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J (CLU) is a cellular senescence biomarker implicated in several physiological processes. In this work we have investigated CLU expression and function in human haematopoietic cells...
  90. Andersen C, Schepeler T, Thorsen K, Birkenkamp Demtroder K, Mansilla F, Aaltonen L, et al. Clusterin expression in normal mucosa and colorectal cancer. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1039-48 pubmed
    The gene Clusterin is a target for cancer therapy in clinical trials. The indication for intervention is up-regulated Clusterin expression...
  91. Leskov K, Araki S, Lavik J, Gomez J, Gama V, Gonos E, et al. CRM1 protein-mediated regulation of nuclear clusterin (nCLU), an ionizing radiation-stimulated, Bax-dependent pro-death factor. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40083-90 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the clusterin (CLU) gene results in the synthesis of a conventional secretory isoform set (pre- and mature secretory clusterin proteins, psCLU/sCLU), as well as another set of intracellular isoforms, appearing in the ..
  92. Jenne D, Tschopp J. Clusterin: the intriguing guises of a widely expressed glycoprotein. Trends Biochem Sci. 1992;17:154-9 pubmed
    The glycoprotein clusterin has recently entered the scientific arena in diverse guises...