Gene Symbol: CLDN4
Description: claudin 4
Alias: CPE-R, CPER, CPETR, CPETR1, WBSCR8, hCPE-R, claudin-4, CPE-receptor, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptor 1, Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosomal region 8 protein
Species: human
Products:     CLDN4

Top Publications

  1. Tokes A, Kulka J, Paku S, Szik A, Páska C, Novák P, et al. Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R296-305 pubmed
    ..Altogether, 56 sections from 52 surgically resected breast specimens were analyzed for CLDN1, CLDN3 and CLDN4 expression by immunohistochemistry. mRNA was also analyzed using real-time PCR in 17 of the 52 cases...
  2. Ohtani S, Terashima M, Satoh J, Soeta N, Saze Z, Kashimura S, et al. Expression of tight-junction-associated proteins in human gastric cancer: downregulation of claudin-4 correlates with tumor aggressiveness and survival. Gastric Cancer. 2009;12:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Tight-junction-associated proteins, particularly claudin-4, may play important roles in determining invasiveness, metastatic potential, and survival in gastric cancer. ..
  3. Lameris A, Huybers S, Burke J, Monnens L, Bindels R, Hoenderop J. Involvement of claudin 3 and claudin 4 in idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia: a novel hypothesis?. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the genes, named CLDN3 and CLDN4, located within this region are members of the claudin family that has been shown to be involved in paracellular ..
  4. Oshima T, Miwa H, Joh T. Changes in the expression of claudins in active ulcerative colitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23 Suppl 2:S146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Down-regulation of claudin-4 and claudin-7, and up-regulation of claudin-2, might lead to altered TJ structure and be related to the impaired epithelial function in active UC. ..
  5. Li J, Chigurupati S, Agarwal R, Mughal M, Mattson M, Becker K, et al. Possible angiogenic roles for claudin-4 in ovarian cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:1806-14 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a novel function for claudin-4 in cancer and provide an additional rationale for its common overexpression in human tumors. ..
  6. Tsukita S, Furuse M. Claudin-based barrier in simple and stratified cellular sheets. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:531-6 pubmed
    ..Recent advances reveal that claudins - major cell adhesion molecules in tight junctions - are directly involved in this intercellular sealing, not only in simple but also in stratified cellular sheets in vertebrates. ..
  7. Lanigan F, McKiernan E, Brennan D, Hegarty S, Millikan R, McBryan J, et al. Increased claudin-4 expression is associated with poor prognosis and high tumour grade in breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2088-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that high levels of claudin-4 protein are associated with adverse outcome in breast cancer patients, including the subgroup of patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. ..
  8. Kuo W, Lee L, Wu C, Wang C, Yu J, Liang Y, et al. Differential expression of claudin-4 between intestinal and diffuse-type gastric cancer. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:729-34 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the expression of claudin-4 was lower in DGC. Possibly it played a role in determining the diffuse phenotype and loose cohesion of cells in DGC in a similar manner as E-cadherin. ..
  9. Shang X, Lin X, Alvarez E, Manorek G, Howell S. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 control tumor growth and metastases. Neoplasia. 2012;14:974-85 pubmed
    ..Claudins are required for the formation and maintenance of TJs. Claudin-3 (CLDN3) and claudin-4 (CLDN4) are highly expressed in the majority of ovarian cancers...

More Information


  1. Matsuda Y, Semba S, Ueda J, Fuku T, Hasuo T, Chiba H, et al. Gastric and intestinal claudin expression at the invasive front of gastric carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1014-9 pubmed
    ..Classification of gastric cancers using gastric and intestinal claudins is a good biomarker for assessing the risk of poor prognosis. ..
  2. Lee L, Wu C, Wang C, Yu J, Liang Y, Huang K, et al. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in gastric cancer and their relation to claudin-4 expression. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Possibly, claudin-4 played a role in determining MMP-9 activity which favored intestinal-type gastric cancer to distal metastasis. ..
  3. Sung C, Han S, Kim S. Low expression of claudin-4 is associated with poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that claudin-4 expression is deregulated in ESCC, implying its potential use as a prognostic biomarker in ESCC. ..
  4. Lee K, Lee N, Kim J, Kang M, Yoo H, Kim H, et al. Twist1 causes the transcriptional repression of claudin-4 with prognostic significance in esophageal cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our results indicate that Twist1 induces the repression of claudin-4 expression during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in esophageal carcinoma. ..
  5. Kwon M, Kim S, Choi Y, Jung H, Balch C, Kim S, et al. Derepression of CLDN3 and CLDN4 during ovarian tumorigenesis is associated with loss of repressive histone modifications. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..During ovarian tumorigenesis, derepression of CLDN3 and CLDN4 expression correlates with loss of H3K27me3 in addition to trimethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me3), another ..
  6. Yoshida H, Sumi T, Zhi X, Yasui T, Honda K, Ishiko O. Claudin-4: a potential therapeutic target in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:1271-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that claudin-4 contributes to platinum resistance in ovarian cancer and may be a potential target in the treatment of platinum-resistant tumors. ..
  7. Gonzalez Mariscal L, Betanzos A, Nava P, Jaramillo B. Tight junction proteins. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2003;81:1-44 pubmed
  8. Itoh M, Furuse M, Morita K, Kubota K, Saitou M, Tsukita S. Direct binding of three tight junction-associated MAGUKs, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, with the COOH termini of claudins. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1351-63 pubmed
    ..In good agreement, PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 were also recruited to claudin-based TJs, when introduced into cultured epithelial cells. The possible molecular architecture of TJ plaque structures is discussed. ..
  9. Katahira J, Sugiyama H, Inoue N, Horiguchi Y, Matsuda M, Sugimoto N. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin utilizes two structurally related membrane proteins as functional receptors in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26652-8 pubmed
    ..1997) J. Cell Biol. 136, 1239-1247) were cloned. They were classified into two groups, the Vero cell CPE receptor homologues and rat androgen withdrawal apoptosis protein (RVP1; accession no...
  10. Shang X, Lin X, Manorek G, Howell S. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 regulate sensitivity to cisplatin by controlling expression of the copper and cisplatin influx transporter CTR1. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:85-94 pubmed publisher
    Claudin-3 (CLDN3) and claudin-4 (CLDN4) are the major structural molecules that form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells...
  11. Webb P, Spillman M, Baumgartner H. Claudins play a role in normal and tumor cell motility. BMC Cell Biol. 2013;14:19 pubmed publisher
    ..The second extracellular loop of claudins is able to interact with the extracellular environment to promote normal and tumor cell motility when it is not associated with tight junction structures. ..
  12. Katoh M, Katoh M. CLDN23 gene, frequently down-regulated in intestinal-type gastric cancer, is a novel member of CLAUDIN gene family. Int J Mol Med. 2003;11:683-9 pubmed genes within the human genome, CLDN1 and CLDN16 genes were clustered on human chromosome 3q28, CLDN3 and CLDN4 on 7q11, CLDN6 and CLDN9 on 16p13.3, CLDN8 and CLDN17 on 21q22.11, CLDN21 and CLDN22 on 4q35.1...
  13. Santin A, Bellone S, Siegel E, McKenney J, Thomas M, Roman J, et al. Overexpression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in uterine carcinosarcomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:3339-46 pubmed
    ..These proteins may offer promising targets for the use of CPE as a novel type-specific therapy against this biologically aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. ..
  14. Zhu Y, Brannstrom M, Janson P, Sundfeldt K. Differences in expression patterns of the tight junction proteins,claudin 1, 3, 4 and 5, in human ovarian surface epithelium as compared to epithelia in inclusion cysts and epithelial ovarian tumours. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1884-91 pubmed
    ..We found that a weak or absence of expression of claudin 3 and claudin 4 in surface OSE changed to typical cell-border localisation in OSE of inclusion cysts in the normal ovarian ..
  15. Michl P, Barth C, Buchholz M, Lerch M, Rolke M, Holzmann K, et al. Claudin-4 expression decreases invasiveness and metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:6265-71 pubmed
  16. Tsukita S, Furuse M, Itoh M. Multifunctional strands in tight junctions. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001;2:285-93 pubmed
    ..New insights into the molecular architecture of tight junctions allow us to now discuss the structure and functions of this unique cell-cell adhesion apparatus in molecular terms. ..
  17. Santin A, Bellone S, Marizzoni M, Palmieri M, Siegel E, McKenney J, et al. Overexpression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 receptors in uterine serous papillary carcinoma: novel targets for a type-specific therapy using Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). Cancer. 2007;109:1312-22 pubmed
    ..The potential for targeting this pathway in the treatment of USPC was explored...
  18. Morita K, Furuse M, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S. Claudin multigene family encoding four-transmembrane domain protein components of tight junction strands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:511-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicated that multiple claudin family members are involved in the formation of TJ strands in various tissues. ..
  19. Ouban A, Ahmed A. Claudins in human cancer: a review. Histol Histopathol. 2010;25:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it seems that attempts to identify expression claudins in cancers are becoming increasingly useful in histologic diagnosis of tumors as well as means to assess patient's prognosis. ..
  20. Moldvay J, Jackel M, Páska C, Soltesz I, Schaff Z, Kiss A. Distinct claudin expression profile in histologic subtypes of lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2007;57:159-67 pubmed
  21. Konecny G, Agarwal R, Keeney G, Winterhoff B, Jones M, Mariani A, et al. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression in serous papillary, clear-cell, and endometrioid endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109:263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to determine the expression pattern and prognostic relevance of claudin-3 and claudin-4 in a large cohort of endometrial cancer patients of diverse histological type and stage...
  22. Lee S, Moon J, Park S, Song S, Chung J, Kang J. Loss of the tight junction protein claudin 4 correlates with histological growth-pattern and differentiation in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2005;13:193-9 pubmed
    ..function is related to tumor differentiation, but little is known about the roles of major proteins, such as claudin 4 and ZO-1, in gastric cancer...
  23. Katahira J, Inoue N, Horiguchi Y, Matsuda M, Sugimoto N. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1239-47 pubmed
    ..From these results, it is proposed that the enterotoxin receptor is required for both target cell recognition and pore formation in the cell membrane. ..
  24. Honda H, Pazin M, Ji H, Wernyj R, Morin P. Crucial roles of Sp1 and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the CLDN4 promoter in ovarian cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21433-44 pubmed
    ..In particular, CLDN4 (encoding claudin-4) is overexpressed in ovarian cancer...
  25. Ersoz S, Mungan S, Cobanoglu U, Turgutalp H, Ozoran Y. Prognostic importance of Claudin-1 and Claudin-4 expression in colon carcinomas. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Claudin-1 decreases significantly in the presence of lymph node metastasis and diminishes in mucinous carcinoma cases, indicating a negative correlation between Claudin-1 expression and neoplastic progression. ..
  26. Mohamed F, Vincent N, Cottier M, Peoc h M, Merrouche Y, Patouillard B, et al. Improvement of malignant serous effusions diagnosis by quantitative analysis of molecular claudin 4 expression. Biomarkers. 2010;15:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Claudin 4 was the most significantly upregulated (68%) marker in patients with malignant effusions...
  27. Suren D, Yildirim M, Kaya V, Alikanoglu A, Bulbuller N, Yildiz M, et al. Loss of tight junction proteins (Claudin 1, 4, and 7) correlates with aggressive behavior in colorectal carcinoma. Med Sci Monit. 2014;20:1255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, severity of loss in Claudin 4 expression was found to have a relation with distant metastasis...
  28. Bouchagier K, Assimakopoulos S, Karavias D, Maroulis I, Tzelepi V, Kalofonos H, et al. Expression of claudins-1, -4, -5, -7 and occludin in hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation with classic clinicopathological features and patients' survival. In Vivo. 2014;28:315-26 pubmed
    ..Moreover, an increase in claudin-4 expression may serve as an independent positive prognostic factor for low recurrence rate after hepatectomy. ..
  29. Jia D, Rahbar R, Fish E. Interferon-inducible Stat2 activation of JUND and CLDN4: mediators of IFN responses. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007;27:559-65 pubmed
    ..Among these, two candidate genes identified were Jun-D (JUND) and claudin-4 (CLDN4)...
  30. Horng S, Therattil A, Moyon S, Gordon A, Kim K, Argaw A, et al. Astrocytic tight junctions control inflammatory CNS lesion pathogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3136-3151 pubmed publisher
    ..we report that in inflammatory lesions, a second barrier composed of reactive astrocyte TJs of claudin 1 (CLDN1), CLDN4, and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) subunits is induced at the GL...
  31. Kitayama Y, Fukui H, Hara K, Eda H, Kodani M, Yang M, et al. Role of regenerating gene I in claudin expression and barrier function in the small intestine. Transl Res. 2016;173:92-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Reg I may play a role in the maintenance of mucosal barrier function by inducing tight junction proteins such as claudins 3 and 4. ..
  32. Gabig T, Waltzer W, Whyard T, Romanov V. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin as a potential drug for intravesical treatment of bladder cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:887-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This binding is followed by rapid cell death. Claudin 4 is present in several epithelial tissue including bladder urothelium and its expression is elevated in some ..
  33. Ordonez N. Value of PAX8, PAX2, napsin A, carbonic anhydrase IX, and claudin-4 immunostaining in distinguishing pleural epithelioid mesothelioma from metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:1132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though PAX2 and napsin A are highly specific, because of their low sensitivity, they have only a limited value. Carbonic anhydrase IX is not useful. ..
  34. Tsujiwaki M, Murata M, Takasawa A, Hiratsuka Y, Fukuda R, Sugimoto K, et al. Aberrant expression of claudin-4 and -7 in hepatocytes in the cirrhotic human liver. Med Mol Morphol. 2015;48:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that claudin-4- and -7-positive hepatocytes may exist during the process of differentiation from progenitor cells into mature hepatocytes. ..
  35. Capaldo C, Farkas A, Hilgarth R, Krug S, Wolf M, Benedik J, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced tight junction remodeling through dynamic self-assembly of claudins. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:2710-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanisms involved in TJ remodeling are incompletely understood. Using acGFP-claudin 4 as a biosensor of TJ remodeling, we observed increased claudin 4 fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (..
  36. Lejeune M, Moreau F, Chadee K. Prostaglandin E2 produced by Entamoeba histolytica signals via EP4 receptor and alters claudin-4 to increase ion permeability of tight junctions. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:807-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the gradient of NaCl created across epithelia could serve as a trigger for osmotic water flow that leads to diarrhea. Our results highlight a pathological role for E. histolytica-derived PGE(2) in the onset of diarrhea. ..
  37. Arena M, Govers C, Lotti C, Ricciardi L, Wichers H, Mes J. The Effect of Tomatine on Gene Expression and Cell Monolayer Integrity in Caco-2. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
  38. Yagn W, Cai F, Cheng C, Cao G, Qin Z. [Expression of prostate stem cell antigen and Claudin-4 in human pancreatic carcinoma]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2008;30:728-31 pubmed
    ..The expressions of PSCA and Claudin-4 are related to the pancreatic carcinomas. PSCA and Claudin-4 play a role in the development of pancreatic cancer, but PSCA and Claudin-4 are not correlated with the clinical pathology of tumor. ..
  39. Serafini P, Silva I, Smith G, Motta E, Rocha A, Baracat E. Endometrial claudin-4 and leukemia inhibitory factor are associated with assisted reproduction outcome. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:30 pubmed publisher
    Claudin-4 (CLDN4) is one of several proteins that act as molecular mediators of embryo implantation...
  40. D Souza T, Indig F, Morin P. Phosphorylation of claudin-4 by PKCepsilon regulates tight junction barrier function in ovarian cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3364-75 pubmed
    ..The modulation of claudin-4 activity by PKCepsilon may not only provide a mechanism for disrupting TJ function in ovarian cancer, but may also be important in the regulation of TJ function in normal epithelial cells. ..
  41. Camilleri M, Carlson P, Valentin N, Acosta A, O Neill J, Eckert D, et al. Pilot study of small bowel mucosal gene expression in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the 14 nominally upregulated genes, there was clustering of barrier and PDZ domains (TJP1, TJP2, TJP3, CLDN4, INADL, and MAGI1) and clustering of downregulated genes (CCL20, TLR1, IL1B, and TLR8)...
  42. Veshnyakova A, Piontek J, Protze J, Waziri N, Heise I, Krause G. Mechanism of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin interaction with claudin-3/-4 protein suggests structural modifications of the toxin to target specific claudins. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1698-708 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained mutants and mechanistic insights will advance the design of cCPE-based modulators to target specific claudin subtypes related either to paracellular barriers that impede drug delivery or to tumors. ..
  43. Wang H, Yang X. The expression patterns of tight junction protein claudin-1, -3, and -4 in human gastric neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:881-7 pubmed
    ..Our present study reveals that claudin-1, -3, and -4 protein expression altered between human gastric cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. ..
  44. Liu Y, Chang K, Fu K, Dong X, Chen X, Liu J, et al. DNA demethylation of claudin-4 suppresses migration and invasion in laryngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Hum Pathol. 2018;75:71-80 pubmed publisher
    Claudin-4 (CLDN4) is a member of the claudin transmembrane protein family, which consists of integral membrane proteins that are components of the epithelial cell tight junctions; these tight junctions regulate movement of solutes and ..
  45. Jung J, Jung C, Choi H, Jun K, Yoo J, Kang S, et al. Diagnostic utility of expression of claudins in non-small cell lung cancer: different expression profiles in squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Pathol Res Pract. 2009;205:409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical evaluation of the different expression patterns of claudins in NSCLC suggests that claudin-4, in addition to 1 and 5, might be a useful differential diagnostic marker in Korean people. ..
  46. Kniesel U, Wolburg H. Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2000;20:57-76 pubmed
    ..4. Recent studies were able to elucidate crucial aspects of the molecular basis of tight junction regulation. An integration of new results into previous morphological work is the central intention of this review. ..
  47. Boivin F, Schmidt Ott K. Transcriptional mechanisms coordinating tight junction assembly during epithelial differentiation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017;1397:80-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus particularly on the Grainyhead-like transcription factors and ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptors, two central families of proteins in epithelialization. ..
  48. Jo V, Cibas E, Pinkus G. Claudin-4 immunohistochemistry is highly effective in distinguishing adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma in effusion cytology. Cancer Cytopathol. 2014;122:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Claudin-4 immunohistochemistry effectively distinguishes adenocarcinoma from malignant mesothelioma with high sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of malignant effusions. ..
  49. Ono Y, Hiratsuka Y, Murata M, Takasawa A, Fukuda R, Nojima M, et al. Claudins-4 and -7 might be valuable markers to distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma from cholangiocarcinoma. Virchows Arch. 2016;469:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..CoCC was positive for only CK-19. The results suggest that claudins-4 and -7 might be valuable markers for distinguishing HCC and CC and that CoCC might arise from hepatic ductal cells. ..
  50. Colegio O, Van Itallie C, Rahner C, Anderson J. Claudin extracellular domains determine paracellular charge selectivity and resistance but not tight junction fibril architecture. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;284:C1346-54 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which the claudins create paracellular channels and the first extracellular domain is sufficient to determine both paracellular charge selectivity and TER. ..
  51. Seckin Y, Arici S, Harputluoglu M, Yonem O, Yilmaz A, Ozer H, et al. Expression of claudin-4 and beta-catenin in gastric premalignant lesions. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2009;72:407-12 pubmed
    ..05), but a significant difference was detected in dysplasia and remnant gastric mucosa for beta-catenin (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that claudin-4 expression is upregulated in premalignant gastric alterations. ..
  52. Robertson S, Smedley J, McClane B. Identification of a claudin-4 residue important for mediating the host cell binding and action of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Infect Immun. 2010;78:505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This result opens the possibility of using receptor claudins as therapeutic decoys to ameliorate CPE-mediated intestinal disease...
  53. Neesse A, Griesmann H, Gress T, Michl P. Claudin-4 as therapeutic target in cancer. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;524:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Claudin-4 constitutes a promising molecular marker for prognosis, diagnosis and therapy of epithelial malignancies. ..
  54. Landers K, Samaratunga H, Teng L, Buck M, Burger M, Scells B, et al. Identification of claudin-4 as a marker highly overexpressed in both primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:491-501 pubmed publisher
  55. Kirschner N, Rosenthal R, Furuse M, Moll I, Fromm M, Brandner J. Contribution of tight junction proteins to ion, macromolecule, and water barrier in keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:1161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, knockdown of Cldn1, Cldn4, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 increased paracellular permeabilities for ions and larger molecules, ..
  56. Flores Maldonado C, González Robles A, Salazar Villatoro L, Omaña Molina M, Gallardo J, González Lázaro M, et al. Acanthamoeba (T4) trophozoites cross the MDCK epithelium without cell damage but increase paracellular permeability and transepithelial resistance by modifying tight junction composition. Exp Parasitol. 2017;183:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and Western blot assays were performed to locate and estimate expression of TJ protein claudins 2 (Cldn2) and 4 (Cldn4). The results show that Acanthamoeba sp...
  57. Tsutsumi K, Sato N, Cui L, Mizumoto K, Sadakari Y, Fujita H, et al. Expression of claudin-4 (CLDN4) mRNA in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Our findings suggest that claudin-4 expression is associated with neoplastic progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and, especially, with a distinct pathway to intestinal differentiation. ..
  58. Mikołajczyk M, Wirstlein P, Skrzypczak J. Aberrant claudin-4 transcript levels in eutopic endometrium of women with idiopathic infertility and minimal endometriosis. Ginekol Pol. 2013;84:90-4 pubmed
    ..A different expression of claudin 4 in the endometrium, depending on the menstrual cycle and with peak at the aim of the 'implantation window', has ..
  59. Ohta A, Yang S, Rai T, Chiga M, Sasaki S, Uchida S. Overexpression of human WNK1 increases paracellular chloride permeability and phosphorylation of claudin-4 in MDCKII cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:804-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, increased chloride shunt may be involved in the pathogenesis of PHAII caused by WNK1 mutations. ..
  60. Wray C, Mao Y, Pan J, Chandrasena A, Piasta F, Frank J. Claudin-4 augments alveolar epithelial barrier function and is induced in acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L219-27 pubmed publisher
  61. Rachakonda G, Vu T, Jin L, Samanta D, Datta P. Role of TGF-β-induced Claudin-4 expression through c-Jun signaling in non-small cell lung cancer. Cell Signal. 2016;28:1537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to show how TGF-β regulates the expression of Claudin-4 through c-Jun signaling and how this pathway contributes to the migratory and tumorigenic phenotype of lung tumor cells. ..
  62. Aono S, Hirai Y. Phosphorylation of claudin-4 is required for tight junction formation in a human keratinocyte cell line. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3326-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that aPKC regulates TJ formation through the phosphorylation of claudin-4. ..
  63. Ma X, Miao H, Jing B, Pan Q, Zhang H, Chen Y, et al. Claudin-4 controls the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and in vivo growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggested that claudin-4, which was regulated by methylation status, plays an important role in breast cancer growth and malignancy via the control of cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. ..
  64. Oleinikova N, Kharlova O, Mal kov P, Danilova N. [The expression of claudins in colonic neoplasms]. Arkh Patol. 2017;79:28-35 pubmed publisher
  65. Kimura J, Abe H, Kamitani S, Toshima H, Fukui A, Miyake M, et al. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin interacts with claudins via electrostatic attraction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that an electrostatic attraction between the basic claudin region and the acidic CPE cleft is involved in their interaction...
  66. Liu J, Wei Z, Chen J, Lu H, Hao L, Li W. Prognostic and clinical significance of claudin-4 in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol. 2015;13:207 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant publication bias was found among the studies (P > 0.05). This meta-analysis shows that over-expression of claudin-4 is associated with progress of gastric cancer and poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients. ..
  67. Suren D, Yildirim M, Kaya V, Elal R, Selçuk O, Osma U, et al. Expression patterns of claudins 1, 4, and 7 and their prognostic significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J BUON. 2015;20:212-7 pubmed
    ..2%), 9 (50%), and 10 (55.6%) cases respectively. Increased claudin 4 expression was related to advanced stage (p=0.014)...
  68. Bai L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Li X, Yu Q, Lin H, et al. HIV-1 Tat protein alter the tight junction integrity and function of retinal pigment epithelium: an in vitro study. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:77 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of HIV-1 Tat on barrier function of the RPE may be mediated by ERK MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, which may represent potential targets for novel therapeutic approaches for the retinopathy induced by HIV infection. ..
  69. Lapointe T, O Connor P, Jones N, Menard D, Buret A. Interleukin-1 receptor phosphorylation activates Rho kinase to disrupt human gastric tight junctional claudin-4 during Helicobacter pylori infection. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:692-703 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori disrupts gastric epithelial barrier structure via IL-1RI-dependent activation of ROCK, which in turn mediates tight junctional claudin-4 disruption. ..
  70. Kulka J, Szasz A, Nemeth Z, Madaras L, Schaff Z, Molnar I, et al. Expression of tight junction protein claudin-4 in basal-like breast carcinomas. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our previous studies, in breast tissue CLDN4 is also related to the level of cellular differentiation...
  71. Kaarteenaho R, Merikallio H, Lehtonen S, Harju T, Soini Y. Divergent expression of claudin -1, -3, -4, -5 and -7 in developing human lung. Respir Res. 2010;11:59 pubmed publisher
    ..All claudins studied are linked to the development of airways, whereas claudin-3, -4, -5 and -7, but not claudin-1, are involved in the development of acinus and the differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells. ..
  72. Pan X, Weng Z, Wang B. [Expression of claudin-4 in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:418-21 pubmed
    ..05). Down-regulated expression of claudin-4 might play a pathogenic role in the formation of endometriosis. ..
  73. Lódi C, Szabó E, Holczbauer A, Batmunkh E, Szijarto A, Kupcsulik P, et al. Claudin-4 differentiates biliary tract cancers from hepatocellular carcinomas. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:460-9 pubmed
    ..Claudin-4 expression seems to be a useful marker in differentiating biliary tract cancers from hepatocellular carcinomas and could well become a potential diagnostic tool. ..