citrate synthase


Gene Symbol: citrate synthase
Description: citrate synthase
Alias: citrate synthase, mitochondrial, citrate (Si)-synthase
Species: human
Products:     citrate synthase

Top Publications

  1. Beeckmans S, Kanarek L. Demonstration of physical interactions between consecutive enzymes of the citric acid cycle and of the aspartate-malate shuttle. A study involving fumarase, malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthesis and aspartate aminotransferase. Eur J Biochem. 1981;117:527-35 pubmed
    ..different enzymes of the citric acid cycle (fumarase with malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase with citrate synthase and fumarase with citrate synthase) and between the enzymes of both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic halves of ..
  2. Goldenthal M, Marin Garcia J, Ananthakrishnan R. Cloning and molecular analysis of the human citrate synthase gene. Genome. 1998;41:733-8 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence encoding the citrate synthase (CS) gene was determined from the sequencing of the CS cDNA isolated from a human heart cDNA library...
  3. Haggie P, Verkman A. Diffusion of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix in vivo. Evidence for restricted mobility of a multienzyme complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40782-8 pubmed
    ..protein (GFP) fused to the C terminus of four tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes: malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and succinyl-CoA synthetase...
  4. Schlichtholz B, Turyn J, Goyke E, Biernacki M, Jaskiewicz K, Sledzinski Z, et al. Enhanced citrate synthase activity in human pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 2005;30:99-104 pubmed strictly connected with lipid synthesis in neoplastic cells, one can hypothesize that the activity of citrate synthase, which plays an important role in glucose to lipid conversion, is enhanced in pancreatic cancer...
  5. Pecorella S, Potter J, Cherry A, Peacher D, Welty Wolf K, Moon R, et al. The HO-1/CO system regulates mitochondrial-capillary density relationships in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L857-71 pubmed publisher
    ..96 ± 0.51 pre-CO, 1.87 ± 0.50 post-CO l/min; P = not significant) but did increase muscle citrate synthase, mitochondrial density (139.0 ± 34.9 pre-CO, 219.0 ± 36.2 post-CO; no...
  6. Morgunov I, Srere P. Interaction between citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase. Substrate channeling of oxaloacetate. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29540-4 pubmed
    The interactions between pig heart citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or cytosolic malate dehydrogenase were studied using the frontal analysis method of gel filtration and by precipitation in polyethylene glycol...
  7. Severinsen K, Dalgas U, Overgaard K, Pedersen A, Ørtenblad N, Lund C, et al. Skeletal muscle fiber characteristics and oxidative capacity in hemiparetic stroke survivors. Muscle Nerve. 2016;53:748-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzymatic concentrations of citrate synthase (CS) and 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzymeA-dehydrogenase (HAD) were determined using freeze-dried muscle tissue...
  8. Bonache S, Martínez J, Fernández M, Bassas L, Larriba S. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in succinate dehydrogenase subunits and citrate synthase genes: association results for impaired spermatogenesis. Int J Androl. 2007;30:144-52 pubmed
    ..enzyme activities (the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase/complex II of the respiratory chain and citrate synthase)...
  9. Herbschleb Voogt E, Monteba van Heuvel M, Wijnen L, Westerveld A, Pearson P, Meera Khan P. Chromosomal assignment and regional localization of CS, ENO2, GAPDH, LDHB, PEPB, and TPI in man-rodent cell hybrids. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1978;22:482-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Cui X, Li X, Dong S, Guo Y, Liu T, Wu Y. SIRT3 deacetylated and increased citrate synthase activity in PD model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;484:767-773 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused on the changes and relationship between SIRT3 and the key mitochondrial enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2). We found MPP+ decreased SIRT3 expression...
  2. Rajaraman K, Raman B, Ramakrishna T, Rao C. Interaction of human recombinant alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins with early and late unfolding intermediates of citrate synthase on its thermal denaturation. FEBS Lett. 2001;497:118-23 pubmed
    ..role of recombinant human alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in the heat-induced inactivation and aggregation of citrate synthase. Homo-multimers of both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins confer protection against heat-induced inactivation in ..
  3. Molina A, Bharadwaj M, Van Horn C, Nicklas B, Lyles M, Eggebeen J, et al. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Content, Oxidative Capacity, and Mfn2 Expression Are Reduced in Older Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction and Are Related to Exercise Intolerance. JACC Heart Fail. 2016;4:636-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Both vastus lateralis skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity and the expression of porin and regulators of mitochondrial fusion were examined in older patients ..
  4. Ghosh J, Estrada M, Clark J. Interactive domains for chaperone activity in the small heat shock protein, human alphaB crystallin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14854-69 pubmed
    ..beta(H) crystallin and gammaD crystallin, and in vitro chaperone target proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. The N-terminal domain contained two interactive sequences, (9)WIRRPFFPFHSP(20) and (43)SLSPFYLRPPSFLRAP(58)...
  5. Małecki J, Jakobsson M, Ho A, Moen A, Rustan A, Falnes P. Uncovering human METTL12 as a mitochondrial methyltransferase that modulates citrate synthase activity through metabolite-sensitive lysine methylation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17950-17962 pubmed publisher
    ..methyltransferase and found it to methylate a single protein in mitochondrial extracts, identified as citrate synthase (CS)...
  6. Cai Q, Zhao M, Liu X, Wang X, Nie Y, Li P, et al. Reduced expression of citrate synthase leads to excessive superoxide formation and cell apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;485:388-394 pubmed publisher
    A/J mice are a mouse model of age-related hearing loss. It has been demonstrated that a mutation in gene of citrate synthase (CS) contributes to the early onset of hearing loss occurring at about one month of age...
  7. Zeng Y, Lv Y, Tao L, Ma J, Zhang H, Xu H, et al. G6PC3, ALDOA and CS induction accompanies mir-122 down-regulation in the mechanical asphyxia and can serve as hypoxia biomarkers. Oncotarget. 2016;7:74526-74536 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that mir-122 and its targets G6PC3, ALDOA and CS play roles in the hypoxia responses that regulate glucose and energy metabolism and can serve as hypoxia biomarkers. ..
  8. Cheng T, Liao C, Tsai W, Lin C, Yeh C, Teng C, et al. Identification and characterization of the mitochondrial targeting sequence and mechanism in human citrate synthase. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:1002-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Citrate synthase (CS), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays a decisive role in regulating energy generation of mitochondrial respiration...
  9. Liu Q, Yu L, Han X, Fu Q, Zhang J, Tang H, et al. [Cloning and tissue expression pattern analysis of the human citrate synthase cDNA]. Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2000;33:207-14 pubmed
    ..It catalyses the catabolism of sugar as well as protein and fat. Citrate synthase plays a key role in regulating TCA cycle and is responsible for catalysing the synthesis of citrate from ..
  10. Marin Garcia J, Ananthakrishnan R, Goldenthal M. Human mitochondrial function during cardiac growth and development. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998;179:21-6 pubmed
    ..V specific activity, mtDNA copy number and COX subunit II content remained unchanged in contrast to increased citrate synthase (CS) activity and content...
  11. Lin C, Cheng T, Tsai W, Tsai H, Hu K, Chang H, et al. Loss of the respiratory enzyme citrate synthase directly links the Warburg effect to tumor malignancy. Sci Rep. 2012;2:785 pubmed publisher
    ..altered energy metabolism induces the Warburg effect and results in tumor malignancy, the respiratory enzyme citrate synthase (CS) was examined, silenced, and the effects analyzed...
  12. Hao Y, Liu X, Lu X, Yang X, Wang L, Chen S, et al. Genome-wide association study in Han Chinese identifies three novel loci for human height. Hum Genet. 2013;132:681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..80 × 10(-10)). In addition, we provided evidence supporting 35 SNPs identified by previous GWAS (P < 0.05). Our study provides new insights into the genetic determination of biological regulation of human height. ..
  13. Siu P, Donley D, Bryner R, Alway S. Citrate synthase expression and enzyme activity after endurance training in cardiac and skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:555-60 pubmed
    The present study was designed to examine the acute and chronic effects of endurance treadmill training on citrate synthase (CS) gene expression and enzymatic activity in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles...
  14. Rogalla T, Ehrnsperger M, Preville X, Kotlyarov A, Lutsch G, Ducasse C, et al. Regulation of Hsp27 oligomerization, chaperone function, and protective activity against oxidative stress/tumor necrosis factor alpha by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:18947-56 pubmed
    ..abilities to act as molecular chaperones suppressing thermal denaturation and facilitating refolding of citrate synthase in vitro...
  15. Rhein V, Carroll J, Ding S, Fearnley I, Walker J. Human METTL12 is a mitochondrial methyltransferase that modifies citrate synthase. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:1641-1652 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe that lysine-368 of human citrate synthase is methylated and that the modifying enzyme, localized in the mitochondrial matrix, is methyltransferase-like ..
  16. Crumbley C, Wang Y, Banerjee S, Burris T. Regulation of expression of citrate synthase by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33804 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Citrate synthase (CS) is a key enzyme of the citric acid cycle that provides energy for cellular function...
  17. Petrohai A, Nagy G, Bosze S, Hudecz F, Zsiros E, Paragh G, et al. Detection of citrate synthase-reacting autoantibodies after heart transplantation: an epitope mapping study. Transpl Int. 2005;17:834-40 pubmed
    ..b>Citrate synthase (CS) enzyme is a conserved molecule, and, as an important mitochondrial autoantigen, it is protected by the &..
  18. Zhang J, Baddoo M, Han C, Strong M, Cvitanovic J, Moroz K, et al. Gene network analysis reveals a novel 22-gene signature of carbon metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:49232-49245 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study also reveals a unique 22-carbon-metabolism-gene-expression-signature in HCC. Strategies targeting these genes may represent new therapeutic approaches for HCC treatment. ..