ciliary neurotrophic factor


Gene Symbol: ciliary neurotrophic factor
Description: ciliary neurotrophic factor
Alias: HCNTF, ciliary neurotrophic factor
Species: human
Products:     ciliary neurotrophic factor

Top Publications

  1. Wen R, Song Y, Kjellstrom S, Tanikawa A, Liu Y, Li Y, et al. Regulation of rod phototransduction machinery by ciliary neurotrophic factor. J Neurosci. 2006;26:13523-30 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes photoreceptor survival but also suppresses electroretinogram (ERG) responses...
  2. Dutt K, Cao Y, Ezeonu I. Ciliary neurotrophic factor: a survival and differentiation inducer in human retinal progenitors. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2010;46:635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the neurotrophins with promise is the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
  3. Winter C, Saotome Y, Levison S, Hirsh D. A role for ciliary neurotrophic factor as an inducer of reactive gliosis, the glial response to central nervous system injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:5865-9 pubmed
    Within the central nervous system (CNS) ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is expressed by astrocytes where it remains stored as an intracellular protein; its release and function as an extracellular ligand are thought to occur in the ..
  4. Takahashi R, Yokoji H, Misawa H, Hayashi M, Hu J, Deguchi T. A null mutation in the human CNTF gene is not causally related to neurological diseases. Nat Genet. 1994;7:79-84 pubmed
    We report a null mutation in the human ciliary neurotrophic factor gene (CNTF). The mutated allele shows a G to A transition producing a new splice acceptor site and the resulting mRNA species codes for an aberrant protein...
  5. Stankowska D, Mueller B, Oku H, Ikeda T, Dibas A. Neuroprotective effects of inhibitors of Acid-Sensing ion channels (ASICs) in optic nerve crush model in rodents. Curr Eye Res. 2018;43:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..bicinchoninic acid (BCA); brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); central nervous system (CNS); ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF); dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); endoplasmic reticulum (ER); ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-..
  6. Agresta A, Fasciani R, Padua L, Petroni S, La Torraca I, Dickmann A, et al. Corneal alterations in Crisponi/CISS1 syndrome: A slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo confocal microscopy corneal report. Ophthalmic Genet. 2017;38:83-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine receptor, involved in the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) pathway...
  7. Cui Y, Xu N, Xu W, Xu G. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and enhance neuroprotective effects in retinal ganglion cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2017;53:328-335 pubmed publisher
    ..were conducted for analysis of the expression changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), respectively...
  8. Diaz Lucena D, Gutierrez Mecinas M, Moreno B, Martínez Sánchez J, Pifarre P, Garcia A. Mechanisms Involved in the Remyelinating Effect of Sildenafil. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2018;13:6-23 pubmed publisher
    ..that sildenafil treatment enhances OL maturation and induces expression of the promyelinating factor ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in spinal cord of EAE mice and in cerebellar slice cultures...
  9. Wrobel M, Sundararaghavan H. Biomaterial Cues to Direct a Pro-regenerative Phenotype in Macrophages and Schwann Cells. Neuroscience. 2018;376:172-187 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF), interleukin (IL)-10, monocyte colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) from the macrophages, Agrin, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-1 from SCs, and IL-2 from both cell types...

More Information


  1. Meireles M, Marques C, Norberto S, Fernandes I, Mateus N, Rendeiro C, et al. The impact of chronic blackberry intake on the neuroinflammatory status of rats fed a standard or high-fat diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:1166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of at least 4-fold, in expression of the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant CINC-3, the ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF, the platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-AA, IL-10, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-..
  2. Tanaka T, Murakami K, Bando Y, Nomura T, Isonishi A, Morita Takemura S, et al. Microglia support ATF3-positive neurons following hypoglossal nerve axotomy. Neurochem Int. 2017;108:332-342 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, perineuronal microglia-derived ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) increased, indicating that perineuronal microglia in the hypoglossal nucleus protect axotomized ..
  3. Sun H, Bénardais K, Stanslowsky N, Thau Habermann N, Hensel N, Huang D, et al. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells and MSC conditioned medium in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)--in vitro evidence from primary motor neuron cultures, NSC-34 cells, astrocytes and microglia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72926 pubmed publisher astrocytes and NSC-34 cells, we found that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene expression in astrocytes were significantly enhanced by MSC CM, with differential responses ..
  4. Bray A, Cevallos R, Gazarian K, Lamas M. Human dental pulp stem cells respond to cues from the rat retina and differentiate to express the retinal neuronal marker rhodopsin. Neuroscience. 2014;280:142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the relative expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in DPSC co-cultured with retinal organotypic ..
  5. Yungher B, Luo X, Salgueiro Y, Blackmore M, Park K. Viral vector-based improvement of optic nerve regeneration: characterization of individual axons' growth patterns and synaptogenesis in a visual target. Gene Ther. 2015;22:811-21 pubmed publisher
    ..comparison, an extensive enhancement in regeneration is seen when AAV-shPTEN is coupled to AAV encoding ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and to a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analog, allowing axons to travel long distances ..
  6. Chen C, Cheng F, Su H, Sheu M, Lu Z, Chiang C, et al. Improved neurological outcome by intramuscular injection of human amniotic fluid derived stem cells in a muscle denervation model. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0124624 pubmed publisher
    ..NT-3 (Neurotrophin 3), BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor), CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factor), and GDNF (Glia cell line derived neurotrophic factor) were highly expressed in AFS cells and ..
  7. Zhang Y, Yan G, Sun C, Nan L, Wang X, Xu W, et al. Compound GDC, an Isocoumarin Glycoside, Protects against LPS-Induced Inflammation and Potential Mechanisms In Vitro. Inflammation. 2019;42:506-515 pubmed publisher
    ..synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as activin A, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), fractalkine, IFN-γ, IL-4, and TIMP-1...
  8. Kazim S, Iqbal K. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics mediated neuroregeneration and synaptic repair: emerging therapeutic modality for Alzheimer's disease. Mol Neurodegener. 2016;11:50 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we summarize the preclinical studies with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021)...
  9. Sims N. Cell-specific paracrine actions of IL-6 family cytokines from bone, marrow and muscle that control bone formation and resorption. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;79:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is released as a myokine from skeletal muscle and suppresses osteoblast differentiation and bone ..
  10. Hellstrom M, Harvey A. Retinal ganglion cell gene therapy and visual system repair. Curr Gene Ther. 2011;11:116-31 pubmed
    ..rAAV encoding a secretable form of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has proved to be particularly effective in promoting RGC survival and axon regeneration after ..
  11. Kimura A, Namekata K, Guo X, Harada C, Harada T. Neuroprotection, Growth Factors and BDNF-TrkB Signalling in Retinal Degeneration. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..neuroprotective effects of neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), suggest that ..
  12. Cui G, Shao S, Yang J, Liu J, Guo H. Designer Self-Assemble Peptides Maximize the Therapeutic Benefits of Neural Stem Cell Transplantation for Alzheimer's Disease via Enhancing Neuron Differentiation and Paracrine Action. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:1108-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and neurotrophic factors were increased, such as IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), while the expression of pro-inflammatory factors were ..
  13. Saigo Y, Abe T, Hojo M, Tomita H, Sugano E, Tamai M. Transplantation of transduced retinal pigment epithelium in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:1996-2004 pubmed
    ..RPE cells were transduced with plasmids carrying the cDNAs of Axokine (ciliary neurotrophic factor [CNTF]; Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd...
  14. Jalvy S, Veschambre P, Fedou S, Rezvani H, Theze N, Thiebaud P. Leukemia inhibitory factor signaling in Xenopus embryo: Insights from gain of function analysis and dominant negative mutant of the receptor. Dev Biol. 2019;447:200-213 pubmed publisher
    ..OSM) and IL27, can be identified in the genome including the orthologs of LIF, cardiotrophin 1 (CTF1), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin like cytokine factor 1 (CLCF1), LIFR, IL6ST, IL6R, IL11RA and CNTFR...
  15. Kin K, Yasuhara T, Kameda M, Tomita Y, Umakoshi M, Kuwahara K, et al. Cell encapsulation enhances antidepressant effect of the mesenchymal stem cells and counteracts depressive-like behavior of treatment-resistant depressed rats. Mol Psychiatry. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and the implantation of eMSCs into the lateral ventricle activated relevant pathways associated ..
  16. Modgil S, Bammidi S, Banik A, Sharma V, Anand A. Alpha lipoic acid attenuates the long-term effects of lead exposure in retinal ischemic injury mouse model. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The elevated levels of glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and reduced levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) upon ALA pre-treatment suggest that ..
  17. Spoletini M, Taurone S, Tombolini M, Minni A, Altissimi G, Wierzbicki V, et al. Trophic and neurotrophic factors in human pituitary adenomas (Review). Int J Oncol. 2017;51:1014-1024 pubmed publisher, in light of the available literature, data on the following neurotrophic factors are discussed: ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), transforming growth factors ? (TGF??), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), ..
  18. Cron L, Allen T, Febbraio M. The role of gp130 receptor cytokines in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. J Exp Biol. 2016;219:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..One gp130 receptor cytokine in particular, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a pluripotent neurocytokine, showed efficacy as a potential anti-obesogenic therapy...
  19. Kunda P, Cavicchia J, Acosta C. Lipopolysaccharides and trophic factors regulate the LPS receptor complex in nodose and trigeminal neurons. Neuroscience. 2014;280:60-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In nodose neurons the trophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) up-regulated MD1 and RP105 mRNA levels...
  20. Hunt L, White J. The Role of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Growth, Injury and Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;900:45-59 pubmed publisher
    ..of cytokines are leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin-M (OSM), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
  21. Zhang Q, Qi Y, Chen L, Shi X, Bai Y, Huang L, et al. The relationship between anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and fibrosis in proliferative retinopathy: clinical and laboratory evidence. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016;100:1443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..incubation significantly upregulated TGF?2 and CTGF in ARPE-19 cells and BV2 microglial cells, but ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression was upregulated only in BV2 microglial cells...
  22. Kroeze Y, Peeters D, Boulle F, Pawluski J, Van den Hove D, van Bokhoven H, et al. Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus. Transl Psychiatry. 2015;5:e642 pubmed publisher
    ..rats exposed to fluoxetine at early life and found two myelination-related genes (Transferrin (Tf) and Ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf)) that were downregulated by chronic fluoxetine exposure...
  23. Lee I, Koo K, Jung K, Kim M, Kim I, Hwang K, et al. Neurogenin-2-transduced human neural progenitor cells attenuate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Transl Res. 2017;183:121-136.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 (NTF3), fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and thrombospondins 1 and 2 (THBS 1/2), which promoted SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell survival and ..
  24. Ma D, Wang Y, Zhou G, Wang Y, Li X. Review: the Roles and Mechanisms of Glycoprotein 130 Cytokines in the Regulation of Adipocyte Biological Function. Inflammation. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..gp130 cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), have divergent effects on adipogenesis, lipolysis, and insulin ..
  25. Xu F, Zhang K, Lv P, Lu R, Zheng L, Zhao J. NECL1 coated PLGA as favorable conduits for repair of injured peripheral nerve. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017;70:1132-1140 pubmed publisher
    ..GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) and neurotrophic factors of axonal regeneration were highly expressed in PLGA/NECL1 group...
  26. Fan L, Xiong Y, Fu Z, Xu D, Wang L, Chen Y, et al. Polyaniline promotes peripheral nerve regeneration by enhancement of the brain?derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor expression and activation of the ERK1/2/MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:7534-7540 pubmed publisher
    ..2±0.27; 0.49±0.21 and 0.93±0.28 µl. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain?derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were highly expressed in the regenerated nerve in ..
  27. Baazaoui N, Iqbal K. Prevention of dendritic and synaptic deficits and cognitive impairment with a neurotrophic compound. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017;9:45 pubmed publisher
    ..P021) is a neurotrophic/neurogenic tetra-peptide that was derived from the most active region of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) by epitope mapping...
  28. House S, Li C, Yue C, Gainer H. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor and leukemia inhibiting factor on oxytocin and vasopressin magnocellular neuron survival in rat and mouse hypothalamic organotypic cultures. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;178:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we describe the use of the neurotrophic factors, leukemia inhibiting factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) to rescue rat vasopressin (Avp)- and oxytocin (Oxt)-MCNs from axotomy-induced, programmed cell ..
  29. Schaller S, Buttigieg D, Alory A, Jacquier A, Barad M, Merchant M, et al. Novel combinatorial screening identifies neurotrophic factors for selective classes of motor neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E2486-E2493 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate potent, strictly additive, survival effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and Artemin through specific activation of their receptor complexes in distinct subsets of ..
  30. Bei F, Lee H, Liu X, Gunner G, Jin H, Ma L, et al. Restoration of Visual Function by Enhancing Conduction in Regenerated Axons. Cell. 2016;164:219-232 pubmed publisher
    ..and SOCS3 co-deletion, or co-overexpression of osteopontin (OPN)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), induces regrowth of retinal axons and formation of functional synapses in the superior ..
  31. Sarthy V, Sawkar H, Dudley V. Endothelin2 Induces Expression of Genes Associated with Reactive Gliosis in Retinal Müller Cells. Curr Eye Res. 2015;40:1181-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) treatment similarly led to induction of Gfap, Serpina3n and EdnrB transcripts, whereas glutamate ..
  32. Nitz R, Lokau J, Aparicio Siegmund S, Scheller J, Garbers C. Modular organization of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-11 α-receptors. Biochimie. 2015;119:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and IL-27p28/IL-30 have been described as additional ligands for the IL-6R, underlining a ..
  33. Lee J, Son M, Woolard K, Donin N, Li A, Cheng C, et al. Epigenetic-mediated dysfunction of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway inhibits differentiation of glioblastoma-initiating cells. Cancer Cell. 2008;13:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We now demonstrate that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-mediated Jak/STAT-dependent astroglial differentiation is impaired due to EZH2-dependent ..
  34. Jones S, Jenkins B. Recent insights into targeting the IL-6 cytokine family in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018;18:773-789 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokines consists of IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, IL-31, oncostatin M (OSM), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 (CLCF1)...
  35. DeWitt J, Pappas A, Nishi R. Ciliary neurotrophic factor reduces the proliferation and promotes the differentiation of TH- MYCN transformed sympathoadrenal progenitors. Dev Neurosci. 2014;36:422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor is abundantly expressed in tumor cells from these mice...
  36. Jin D, Liu Y, Sun F, Wang X, Liu X, He Z. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8074 pubmed publisher
    ..A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons...
  37. Larousserie F, Bsiri L, Dumaine V, Dietrich C, Audebourg A, Radenen Bussière B, et al. Frontline Science: Human bone cells as a source of IL-27 under inflammatory conditions: role of TLRs and cytokines. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;101:1289-1300 pubmed publisher
    ..This autocrine production of IL-27 by TLR- or cytokine-activated bone cells might constitute a negative-feedback mechanism to limit bone erosion and to dampen T cell-mediated immune pathology during bone inflammation. ..
  38. Abe T, Yoshioka Y, Tomita H, Saigo Y, Udono T, Shibahara S, et al. Transgenic rd mice harboring axokine gene by Rpe65 gene promoter does not rescue photoreceptor degeneration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;533:403-6 pubmed
  39. Jacob A, Zmuda J, Cauley J, Metter E, Hurley B, Ferrell R, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genotype and body composition. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004;12:372-6 pubmed
    Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration causes significant weight loss in both humans and animal models, but the effects of endogenous CNTF and the CNTF null allele on body composition are not fully understood...
  40. Li R, Wen R, Banzon T, Maminishkis A, Miller S. CNTF mediates neurotrophic factor secretion and fluid absorption in human retinal pigment epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23148 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects photoreceptors and regulates their phototransduction machinery, but little is known about CNTF's effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) physiology...
  41. Nishiyama J, Tochigi M, Itoh S, Otowa T, Kato C, Umekage T, et al. No association between the CNTF null mutation and schizophrenia or personality. Psychiatr Genet. 2006;16:217-9 pubmed
    The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic cytokine that plays a critical role in neurodevelopment. On the basis of neurodevelopmental hypothesis, the CNTF gene has been a candidate locus for schizophrenia...
  42. Lin P, Tsai G. Meta-analyses of the association between genetic polymorphisms of neurotrophic factors and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2004;71:353-60 pubmed
    ..method to study the association of schizophrenia with the polymorphisms in two candidate genes, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3). In our study, two meta-analyses were performed...
  43. Qin S, Zou Y, Zhang C. Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2633 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS. ..
  44. Wang X, Ju S, Chen S, Gao W, Ding J, Wang G, et al. Effect of Electro-Acupuncture on Neuroplasticity of Spinal Cord-Transected Rats. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:4241-4251 pubmed
    ..CONCLUSIONS EA may promote the recovery of neuroplasticity in rats subjected to SCT. This could be attributed to the systematic regulation of NTFs and their receptors after EA...
  45. Saggio I, Paonessa G, Gloaguen I, Graziani R, De Serio A, Laufer R. Nonradioactive receptor binding assay for ciliary neurotrophic factor. Anal Biochem. 1994;221:387-91 pubmed
    A nonradioactive receptor binding assay for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is described...
  46. Lichter P, Tang C, Call K, Hermanson G, Evans G, Housman D, et al. High-resolution mapping of human chromosome 11 by in situ hybridization with cosmid clones. Science. 1990;247:64-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly producing high-resolution maps of human chromosomes by in situ hybridization. ..
  47. Wagener E, Aurich M, Aparicio Siegmund S, Floss D, Garbers C, Breusing K, et al. The amino acid exchange R28E in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) abrogates interleukin-6 receptor-dependent but retains CNTF receptor-dependent signaling via glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18442-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans...
  48. Yokoji H, Ariyama T, Takahashi R, Inazawa J, Misawa H, Deguchi T. cDNA cloning and chromosomal localization of the human ciliary neurotrophic factor gene. Neurosci Lett. 1995;185:175-8 pubmed
    Full-length cDNA for human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was isolated from a human sciatic nerve cDNA library...
  49. Bhattacharya S, Das A, Mallya K, Ahmad I. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling regulates neuronal versus glial differentiation of retinal stem cells/progenitors by concentration-dependent recruitment of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activat. Stem Cells. 2008;26:2611-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using the neurosphere assay, we demonstrate that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), acting in a concentration-dependent manner, influences the simultaneous differentiation of ..
  50. Modi K, Sendtner M, Pahan K. Up-regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes by aspirin: implications for remyelination in multiple sclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18533-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood...
  51. Arking D, Fallin D, Fried L, Li T, Beamer B, Xue Q, et al. Variation in the ciliary neurotrophic factor gene and muscle strength in older Caucasian women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:823-6 pubmed
    To determine whether genetic variants in the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene are associated with muscle strength in older women...
  52. Lavedan C, Volpi S, Polymeropoulos M, Wolfgang C. Effect of a ciliary neurotrophic factor polymorphism on schizophrenia symptom improvement in an iloperidone clinical trial. Pharmacogenomics. 2008;9:289-301 pubmed publisher
    Presence of the null FS63TER allele of the rs1800169 polymorphism in the gene encoding the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) may increase the risk of schizophrenia...
  53. Xie Y, Song W, Zhao W, Gao Y, Shang J, Hao P, et al. Application of the sodium hyaluronate-CNTF scaffolds in repairing adult rat spinal cord injury and facilitating neural network formation. Sci China Life Sci. 2018;61:559-568 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to explore the potential of the sodium hyaluronate-CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) scaffold in activating endogenous neurogenesis and facilitating neural network re-formation after the adult rat spinal cord ..
  54. Grunblatt E, Zehetmayer S, Bartl J, Löffler C, Wichart I, Rainer M, et al. Genetic risk factors and markers for Alzheimer's disease and/or depression in the VITA study. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43:298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..We found in the VITA-study significant association between depression and AD and between ChAT polymorphism and depression. ..
  55. Rousseau F, Chevalier S, Guillet C, Ravon E, Diveu C, Froger J, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, and neuropoietin share a conserved binding site on the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha chain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30341-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, and neuropoietin are members of the four-helix bundle cytokine family...
  56. Hoffmann V, Pöhlau D, Przuntek H, Epplen J, Hardt C. A null mutation within the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-gene: implications for susceptibility and disease severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Genes Immun. 2002;3:53-5 pubmed
    ..As ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) takes part in myelogenesis, we examined the frequency of a CNTF-null mutation in 349 MS patients ..
  57. Suzumori N, Suzumori K. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of ciliary neurotrophic factor, a gp130 cytokine, in women with endometriosis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003;56:51-4 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a gp130 neuroregulatory cytokine belonging to the interleukin-6-type cytokine superfamily...
  58. Kong S, Kim W, Lee H, Kim H. The histone demethylase KDM5A is required for the repression of astrocytogenesis and regulated by the translational machinery in neural progenitor cells. FASEB J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of astrocytogenesis by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of KDM5A decreased KDM5A recruitment to the Gfap
  59. Gutman C, Strittmatter W, Weisgraber K, Matthew W. Apolipoprotein E binds to and potentiates the biological activity of ciliary neurotrophic factor. J Neurosci. 1997;17:6114-21 pubmed
    Expression of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a pleiotropic neuron survival factor, increases in the CNS in response to injury...
  60. O Dell S, Syddall H, Sayer A, Cooper C, Fall C, Dennison E, et al. Null mutation in human ciliary neurotrophic factor gene confers higher body mass index in males. Eur J Hum Genet. 2002;10:749-52 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration reduces weight in leptin-resistant mice via the signalling pathway normally activated by leptin. A G>A null mutation in the CNTF gene results in complete absence of protein...
  61. Denovan Wright E, Attis M, Rodriguez Lebron E, Mandel R. Sustained striatal ciliary neurotrophic factor expression negatively affects behavior and gene expression in normal and R6/1 mice. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1748-57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to protect neurons against chemically induced toxic insults in vitro and in vivo...
  62. Persi A, Maltese P, Bertelli M, Cecchin S, Ciaghi M, Guarnieri M, et al. Polymorphisms of alpha-actinin-3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor in national-level Italian athletes. Panminerva Med. 2013;55:217-24 pubmed
    The R577X polymorphism of the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene and the IVS1-6G>A polymorphism of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene have been associated with a favourable muscle phenotype (more muscle fibres with high glycolytic ..
  63. Hofer H, Tuan R. Secreted trophic factors of mesenchymal stem cells support neurovascular and musculoskeletal therapies. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;7:131 pubmed publisher
    ..Future rational and effective MSC-based musculoskeletal therapies will benefit from better mechanistic understanding of MSC trophic activities, for example using analytical "-omics" profiling approaches. ..
  64. Van Vught P, Van Wijk J, Bradley T, Plasmans D, Jakobs M, Veldink J, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor null alleles are not a risk factor for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromuscul Disord. 2007;17:964-7 pubmed
    Growth factors, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), have been implicated in neuronal survival and proliferation...
  65. Bucher F, Walz J, Bühler A, Aguilar E, Lange C, Diaz Aguilar S, et al. CNTF Attenuates Vasoproliferative Changes Through Upregulation of SOCS3 in a Mouse-Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:4017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent research has shown that neuronal and vascular damage are closely related in retinal disease. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a well-studied neurotrophic factor that is currently being tested in clinical trials for the ..
  66. Kelly J, Elias C, Lee C, Ahima R, Seeley R, Bjørbaek C, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and leptin induce distinct patterns of immediate early gene expression in the brain. Diabetes. 2004;53:911-20 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leptin decrease food intake and body weight. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent exogenous pyrogen and produces anorexia via cytokine production...
  67. Gratacos M, Escaramis G, Bustamante M, Saus E, Aguera Z, Bayés M, et al. Role of the neurotrophin network in eating disorders' subphenotypes: body mass index and age at onset of the disease. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44:834-40 pubmed publisher
  68. Benomar Y, Berthou F, Vacher C, Bailleux V, Gertler A, Djiane J, et al. Leptin but not ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces phosphotyrosine phosphatase-1B expression in human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y): putative explanation of CNTF efficacy in leptin-resistant state. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative treatment using ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been suggested because CNTF exerts a leptin-like effect, even in leptin-resistant states, ..
  69. Wang K, Zhou F, Zhu X, Zhang K, Huang B, Zhu L, et al. Neuroprotective properties of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retinoic acid (RA)-predifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Folia Neuropathol. 2014;52:121-7 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurocytokine, which could promote survival and/or differentiation in many cell types...
  70. Faivre M, Rattink A, Harlizius B, Crooijmans R, Groenen M. Porcine BAC derived microsatellites linked to ADRBK1, CNTF and GAL on SSC2. Anim Genet. 2002;33:72-3 pubmed
  71. Grunblatt E, Hupp E, Bambula M, Zehetmayer S, Jungwirth S, Tragl K, et al. Association study of BDNF and CNTF polymorphism to depression in non-demented subjects of the "VITA" study. J Affect Disord. 2006;96:111-6 pubmed
    ..Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) may act cooperatively in modulating the development and functioning of synapses...
  72. Vitale F, Vercosa D, Rodriguez A, Pamulapati S, Seibt F, Lewis E, et al. Fluidic microactuation of flexible electrodes for neural recording. Nano Lett. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the fluidic microdrive technology provides a robust new method to implant and actuate ultra-flexible neural electrodes...
  73. Heidema A, Wang P, van Rossum C, Feskens E, Boer J, Bouwman F, et al. Sex-specific effects of CNTF, IL6 and UCP2 polymorphisms on weight gain. Physiol Behav. 2010;99:1-7 pubmed publisher
    The human proteins ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and interleukin-6 (IL6) and their receptors share structural homology with leptin and its receptor...
  74. Robledo O, Auguste P, Coupey L, Praloran V, Chevalier S, Pouplard A, et al. Binding interactions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor with the different subunits of their high affinity receptors. J Neurochem. 1996;66:1391-9 pubmed
    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) share common components in their multimeric receptors...
  75. Sleeman M, Anderson K, Lambert P, Yancopoulos G, Wiegand S. The ciliary neurotrophic factor and its receptor, CNTFR alpha. Pharm Acta Helv. 2000;74:265-72 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is expressed in glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous systems...
  76. Giess R, Maurer M, Linker R, Gold R, Warmuth Metz M, Toyka K, et al. Association of a null mutation in the CNTF gene with early onset of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:407-9 pubmed
    ..b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes and may be relevant in reducing ..
  77. Giovannini M, Romo A, Evans G. Chromosomal localization of the human ciliary neurotrophic factor gene (CNTF) to 11q12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1993;63:62-3 pubmed
    The human gene for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was previously assigned to chromosome 11 by analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids...
  78. McDonald J, Ko C, Mismer D, Smith D, Collins F. Expression and characterization of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor from Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1090:70-80 pubmed
    The gene for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was cloned from a human genomic DNA library by screening with a DNA fragment amplified from human genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction...
  79. Ding J, He Z, Ruan J, Ma Z, Liu Y, Gong C, et al. Role of ciliary neurotrophic factor in the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;37:587-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been fully studied for its structure, receptor, and signaling pathways and its multiplex effects on neural system, skeletal muscle, and weight control...
  80. Negro A, Tolosano E, Skaper S, Martini I, Callegaro L, Silengo L, et al. Cloning and expression of human ciliary neurotrophic factor. Eur J Biochem. 1991;201:289-94 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a survival factor for avian ciliary ganglion neurons and a variety of other neuronal cell types in vitro...
  81. Lee N, Serbinski C, Braunlin M, Rasch M, Rydyznski C, MacLennan A. Muscle and motor neuron ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ? together maintain adult motor neuron axons in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;44:3023-3034 pubmed publisher
    ..Indirect evidence suggests that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptors may contribute to adult motor neuron axon maintenance...
  82. Skiniotis G, Lupardus P, Martick M, Walz T, Garcia K. Structural organization of a full-length gp130/LIF-R cytokine receptor transmembrane complex. Mol Cell. 2008;31:737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-Ralpha)...
  83. Fan K, Wang X, Zhang J, Ramos R, Zhang H, Li C, et al. Hypomethylation of CNTFRα is associated with proliferation and poor prognosis in lower grade gliomas. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7079 pubmed publisher
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α subunit (CNTFRα) and CNTF play important roles in neuron survival, glial differentiation and brain tumor growth...
  84. Vogels N, Mariman E, Bouwman F, Kester A, Diepvens K, Westerterp Plantenga M. Relation of weight maintenance and dietary restraint to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2, glucocorticoid receptor, and ciliary neurotrophic factor polymorphisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:740-6 pubmed
    ..the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), glucocorticoid receptor (GRL), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genes may play a role in the etiology of obesity...
  85. Joly S, Dalkara D, Pernet V. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Modulates CNTF-Induced Axonal Growth and Neuroprotection in the Mouse Visual System. Neural Plast. 2017;2017:6818970 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the classical CNS injury model of optic nerve crush in mice, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was found to stimulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal growth, but in an ..
  86. Zhang Q, Xu W, Sun J, Pan Z, Zhao J, Wang X, et al. Constructing Ultrahigh-Capacity Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Oxide@Ni(OH)2 Core-Shell Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Coaxial Fiber-Shaped Asymmetric Supercapacitors. Nano Lett. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this work paves the way to the construction of ultrahigh-capacity electrode materials for next-generation wearable energy-storage devices...
  87. Mercader J, Saus E, Aguera Z, Bayés M, Boni C, Carreras A, et al. Association of NTRK3 and its interaction with NGF suggest an altered cross-regulation of the neurotrophin signaling pathway in eating disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The reported data, in addition to the previous reported findings for BDNF and NTRK2, point neurotrophin signaling genes as key regulators of eating behavior and their altered cross-regulation as susceptibility factors for EDs. ..
  88. Nobbio L, Fiorese F, Vigo T, Cilli M, Gherardi G, Grandis M, et al. Impaired expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A neuropathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009;68:441-55 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the contribution of Schwann cell-derived ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) to the pathogenesis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and addressed the question as to whether it plays a role in the development of ..
  89. Pasquin S, Sharma M, Gauchat J. Cytokines of the LIF/CNTF family and metabolism. Cytokine. 2016;82:122-4 pubmed publisher
  90. Dozio E, Ruscica M, Galliera E, Corsi M, Magni P. Leptin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6: class-I cytokines involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive function. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2009;10:577-84 pubmed
    ..In this latter respect, here, we focus the attention on four of these molecules, specifically leptin, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
  91. Sendtner M, Carroll P, Holtmann B, Hughes R, Thoenen H. Ciliary neurotrophic factor. J Neurobiol. 1994;25:1436-53 pubmed
    b>Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was first identified and partially purified from embryonic chick eye tissues...