Gene Symbol: CHST4
Description: carbohydrate sulfotransferase 4
Alias: GST3, GlcNAc6ST2, HECGLCNAC6ST, LSST, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 4, GST-3, HEC-GlcNAc6ST, L-selectin ligand sulfotransferase, N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase 2, carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 4, galactose/N-acetylglucosamine/N-acetylgalactosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase 3, galactose/N-acetylglucosamine/N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase 3, glcNAc6ST-2, gn6st-2, high endothelial cells N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase
Species: human
Products:     CHST4

Top Publications

  1. Shilatifard A, Merkle R, Helland D, Welles J, Haseltine W, Cummings R. Complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides of gp120 from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 contain sulfated N-acetylglucosamine. J Virol. 1993;67:943-52 pubmed
    ..Charge analysis of the [3H]galactose- and [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycopeptides from gp120 and gp160 indicates that approximately 14% of the complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides are sulfated. ..
  2. Yeh J, Hiraoka N, Petryniak B, Nakayama J, Ellies L, Rabuka D, et al. Novel sulfated lymphocyte homing receptors and their control by a Core1 extension beta 1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Cell. 2001;105:957-69 pubmed
    ..These results identify Core1-beta 3GlcNAcT and its cognate extended core1 O-glycans as essential participants in the expression of the MECA-79-positive, HEV-specific L-selectin ligands required for lymphocyte homing. ..
  3. Bistrup A, Bhakta S, Lee J, Belov Y, Gunn M, Zuo F, et al. Sulfotransferases of two specificities function in the reconstitution of high endothelial cell ligands for L-selectin. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:899-910 pubmed
    ..When coexpressed, the two sulfotransferases synergize to produce strongly enhanced chimera binding. ..
  4. Veerman K, Tardiveau C, Martins F, Coudert J, Girard J. Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Heterogeneity of High Endothelial Venules and Different Regulation of Genes Controlling Lymphocyte Entry to Lymph Nodes. Cell Rep. 2019;26:3116-3131.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, we uncover differences in the regulation of genes controlling lymphocyte trafficking, Glycam1, Fut7, Gcnt1, Chst4, B3gnt3, and Ccl21a, that have implications for HEV function and regulation in health and disease.
  5. Low S, Hirakawa J, Hoshino H, Uchimura K, Kawashima H, Kobayashi M. Role of MAdCAM-1-Expressing High Endothelial Venule-Like Vessels in Colitis Induced in Mice Lacking Sulfotransferases Catalyzing L-Selectin Ligand Biosynthesis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2018;66:415-425 pubmed publisher
  6. Yu S, Hsiao C, Izawa M, Yusa A, Ishida H, Nakamura S, et al. Distinct substrate specificities of human GlcNAc-6-sulfotransferases revealed by mass spectrometry-based sulfoglycomic analysis. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:15163-15177 pubmed publisher synthesizing GlcNAc-6-O-sulfated glycans in human colon cancer tissues indicated that GlcNAc6ST-2 (CHST4) is preferentially expressed in cancer cells compared with nonmalignant epithelial cells among the three known ..
  7. Sethi K, Noohu M. Scapular muscles strengthening on pain, functional outcome and muscle activity in chronic lateral epicondylalgia. J Orthop Sci. 2018;23:777-782 pubmed publisher
    ..pain (VAS), pain free grip strength, functional outcome (PRTEE), scapular muscle strength, scapular positioning (LSST) and EMG activity before and after the intervention...
  8. Yoon D, Kang D, Kim H, Kim J, Song H, Song W. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017;17:765-772 pubmed publisher
    ..0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1...
  9. Ozünlü Pekyavaş N, Kunduracılar Z, Ersin A, Ergüneş C, Tonga E, Karataş M. [The relationship between scapular dyskinesia, pain, range of motion, and flexibility in patients with neck and shoulder problems]. Agri. 2014;26:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST) and Scapular Retraction Test (SRT) vs Skapular Assisstance Test (SAT) were used for evaluation of scapular ..

More Information


  1. Liu J, Jin C, Cherian R, Karlsson N, Holgersson J. O-glycan repertoires on a mucin-type reporter protein expressed in CHO cell pools transiently transfected with O-glycan core enzyme cDNAs. J Biotechnol. 2015;199:77-89 pubmed publisher
    ..They will become important tools for assessing the core chain-dependent binding activity of carbohydrate-binding proteins. ..
  2. Shadmehr A, Sarafraz H, Heidari Blooki M, Jalaie S, Morais N. Reliability, agreement, and diagnostic accuracy of the Modified Lateral Scapular Slide test. Man Ther. 2016;24:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is no evidence in the literature about the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of a modified LSST (arm elevation in the scapular plane with loading) in a symptomatic population...
  3. Gao F, Liang H, Lu H, Wang J, Xia M, Yuan Z, et al. Global analysis of DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma by a liquid hybridization capture-based bisulfite sequencing approach. Clin Epigenetics. 2015;7:86 pubmed publisher
    ..the Illumina MiSeq platform confirmed that 7 genes showed either promoter hyper-methylation (SMAD6, IFITM1, LRRC4, CHST4, and TBX15) or hypo-methylation (CCL20 and NQO1) in HCC...
  4. Lai T, Chang F, Lin J, Ling Q. Gene expression of human endometrial L-selectin ligand in relation to the phases of the natural menstrual cycle. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1443 pubmed publisher
    ..Endomucin differed significantly between the proliferative and early-secretory phases. CHST2 and CHST4 genes (which are involved in the generation of LSL epitopes) were expressed without significant differences among ..
  5. Pekyavas N, Ergun N. Comparison of virtual reality exergaming and home exercise programs in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome and scapular dyskinesis: Short term effect. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2017;51:238-242 pubmed publisher
    ..and Hawkins Tests, Scapular Retraction Test (SRT), Scapular Assistance Test (SAT), Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST) and shoulder disability (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI))...
  6. Taga M, Hoshino H, Low S, Imamura Y, Ito H, Yokoyama O, et al. A potential role for 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X in metastasis of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Urol Oncol. 2015;33:496.e1-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Cui Y, Chen W, Chi J, Wang L. Differential expression network analysis for diabetes mellitus type 2 based on expressed level of islet cells. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2016;77:22-9 pubmed publisher 11 T2DM signature genes including ARG2, GLP1R, PFKFB2, PTPRN, ACSL5, CCR7, IL2RA, IL7R, IL1R2, IL1RL1 and CHST4. Finally, DEN including 11 signature genes and 491 edges was obtained...
  8. Hemmerich S, Lee J, Bhakta S, Bistrup A, Ruddle N, Rosen S. Chromosomal localization and genomic organization for the galactose/ N-acetylgalactosamine/N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase gene family. Glycobiology. 2001;11:75-87 pubmed
    ..5'UTRs of the same enzyme expressed in different cell types are sometimes derived from different exons located upstream of the ORF. The genomic organization of the GSTs resembles that of certain glycosyltransferase gene families. ..
  9. Seko A, Kataoka F, Aoki D, Sakamoto M, Nakamura T, Hatae M, et al. N-Acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase-2 as a tumor marker for uterine cervical and corpus cancer. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:1065-73 pubmed publisher
    N-Acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase-2 (GlcNAc6ST2) is ectopically expressed in ovarian mucinous and clear cell adenocarcinoma [Kanoh et al., Glycoconj J 23:453-460, 2006]...
  10. Bernstein H, Compans R. Sulfation of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 1992;66:6953-9 pubmed
    ..Sulfation is a major determinant of negative charge and could play a role in biological functions and antigenic properties of HIV glycoproteins. ..
  11. Uchimura K, Rosen S. Sulfated L-selectin ligands as a therapeutic target in chronic inflammation. Trends Immunol. 2006;27:559-65 pubmed
    ..Experiments in a sheep model of asthma demonstrate that a chronic inflammatory disease can be ameliorated by targeting PNAd. ..
  12. de Graffenried C, Bertozzi C. Golgi localization of carbohydrate sulfotransferases is a determinant of L-selectin ligand biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40282-95 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Golgi enzyme localization and competition orchestrate the biosynthesis of L-selectin ligands. ..
  13. Seko A, Nagata K, Yonezawa S, Yamashita K. Ectopic expression of a GlcNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase, GlcNAc6ST-2, in colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Glycobiology. 2002;12:379-88 pubmed
    ..GlcNAc6ST-2 (HEC-GlcNAc6ST, LSST, or GST-3) can recognize GlcNAcbeta1-->3GalNAcalpha1-O-pNP as a good acceptor as well as other O-linked- and N-..
  14. Uchimura K, El Fasakhany F, Hori M, Hemmerich S, Blink S, Kansas G, et al. Specificities of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferases in relation to L-selectin ligand synthesis and tumor-associated enzyme expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3979-84 pubmed
    ..Sumiya, J., Yonezawa, S., Nagata, K., and Yamashita, K. (2000) Glycobiology 10, 919-929). ..
  15. Wu Z, Robey M, Tatge T, Lin C, Leymarie N, Zou Y, et al. Detecting O-GlcNAc using in vitro sulfation. Glycobiology. 2014;24:740-7 pubmed publisher
    ..with two N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-specific sulfotransferases, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 2 and carbohydrate sulfotransferase 4, and the radioisotope (35)S is described...
  16. Pablos J, Santiago B, Tsay D, Singer M, Palao G, Galindo M, et al. A HEV-restricted sulfotransferase is expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovium and is induced by lymphotoxin-alpha/beta and TNF-alpha in cultured endothelial cells. BMC Immunol. 2005;6:6 pubmed
    ..HEV expression of GlcNAc6ST-2 (also known as HEC-GlcNAc6ST, GST-3, LSST or CHST4), an HEV-restricted sulfotransferase, is essential for the elaboration of L-selectin functional ligands as well as ..
  17. de Graffenried C, Bertozzi C. The stem region of the sulfotransferase GlcNAc6ST-1 is a determinant of substrate specificity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40035-43 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that the stem region of GlcNAc6ST-1 influences substrate specificity, independent of its role in dimerization or Golgi retention. ..
  18. Akama T, Misra A, Hindsgaul O, Fukuda M. Enzymatic synthesis in vitro of the disulfated disaccharide unit of corneal keratan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42505-13 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for N-linked keratan sulfate on corneal proteoglycans. ..
  19. Timson G, Banavali S, Gutierrez M, Magrath I, Bhatia K, Goyns M. High level expression of N-acetylgluosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase is characteristic of a subgroup of paediatric precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Cancer Lett. 2006;242:239-44 pubmed
    ..We suggest that very high level expression of GN6ST is a useful diagnostic marker for a subgroup of previously unclassified ALL. ..
  20. Hoshino H, Ohta M, Ito M, Uchimura K, Sakai Y, Uehara T, et al. Apical membrane expression of distinct sulfated glycans represents a novel marker of cholangiolocellular carcinoma. Lab Invest. 2016;96:1246-1255 pubmed publisher
  21. Li X, Tu L, Murphy P, Kadono T, Steeber D, Tedder T. CHST1 and CHST2 sulfotransferase expression by vascular endothelial cells regulates shear-resistant leukocyte rolling via L-selectin. J Leukoc Biol. 2001;69:565-74 pubmed
    ..In this study, we assessed the contributions of CHST1, CHST2, CHST3, and CHST4 in producing functional L-selectin ligands...