Gene Symbol: CHST11
Description: carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11
Alias: C4ST, C4ST-1, C4ST1, HSA269537, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11, C4S-1, IgH/CHST11 fusion, carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11, chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 1
Species: human
Products:     CHST11

Top Publications

  1. Cooney C, Jousheghany F, Yao Borengasser A, Phanavanh B, Gomes T, Kieber Emmons A, et al. Chondroitin sulfates play a major role in breast cancer metastasis: a role for CSPG4 and CHST11 gene expression in forming surface P-selectin ligands in aggressive breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R58 pubmed publisher
    ..the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with the siRNAs for carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase-11 (CHST11) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 ) was used to investigate the involvement of these genes in ..
  2. Hiraoka N, Nakagawa H, Ong E, Akama T, Fukuda M, Fukuda M. Molecular cloning and expression of two distinct human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferases that belong to the HNK-1 sulfotransferase gene family. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20188-96 pubmed
    ..and desulfated dermatan sulfate, thus we named these two enzymes, chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 and -2 (C4ST-1 and C4ST-2)...
  3. Mikami T, Mizumoto S, Kago N, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K. Specificities of three distinct human chondroitin/dermatan N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferases demonstrated using partially desulfated dermatan sulfate as an acceptor: implication of differential roles in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36115-27 pubmed
    ..including dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (D4ST-1) and chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferases-1 and -2 (C4ST-1 and -2) have been identified...
  4. Willis C, Wrana J, Kluppel M. Identification and characterization of TGFbeta-dependent and -independent cis-regulatory modules in the C4ST-1/CHST11 locus. Genet Mol Res. 2009;8:1331-43 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1(C4ST-1)/carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) is a Golgi-bound enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate...
  5. Li J, Zhou X, Liu X, Ren J, Wang J, Wang W, et al. Detection of Colorectal Cancer in Circulating Cell-Free DNA by Methylated CpG Tandem Amplification and Sequencing. Clin Chem. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..g., SEPT9 and IKZF1) and novel (e.g., EMBP1, KCNQ5, CHST11, APBB1IP, and TJP2) genes were identified for effectively detecting CRC in cfDNA...
  6. Kamato D, Burch M, Zhou Y, Mohamed R, Stow J, Osman N, et al. Individual Smad2 linker region phosphorylation sites determine the expression of proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesizing genes. Cell Signal. 2019;53:365-373 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of GAG initiation xylosyltransferase-1 (XT-1) and GAG elongation chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase-1 (C4ST-1) and chondroitin synthase-1 (CHSY-1) genes...
  7. Mohamed R, Dayati P, Mehr R, Kamato D, Seif F, Babaahmadi Rezaei H, et al. Transforming growth factor-β1 mediated CHST11 and CHSY1 mRNA expression is ROS dependent in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Commun Signal. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylation that regulate the mRNA expression of GAG synthesizing enzymes, chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 (CHST11) and chondroitin sulfate synthase 1 (CHSY1) which are the rate limiting enzymes involved in GAG chain elongation...
  8. Susarla B, Laing E, Yu P, Katagiri Y, Geller H, Symes A. Smad proteins differentially regulate transforming growth factor-β-mediated induction of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. J Neurochem. 2011;119:868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicate TGF-β Smad3-mediated induction of 4-sulfation as a critical determinant of the permissiveness of astrocyte secreted CSPGs for axonal growth. ..
  9. Lee M, Ratner N, Yutzey K. Genome-wide Twist1 occupancy in endocardial cushion cells, embryonic limb buds, and peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:821 pubmed publisher
    ..occupancy was detected for six binding regions in all tissue types, and Twist1-binding sequences associated with Chst11, Litaf, Ror2, and Spata5 also bound the potential Twist1 cofactor RREB1...

More Information


  1. Lee S, Singh I, Tisdale S, Abdel Wahab O, Leslie C, Mayr C. Widespread intronic polyadenylation inactivates tumour suppressor genes in leukaemia. Nature. 2018;561:127-131 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins (such as DICER and FOXN3), and several even acted in an oncogenic manner (such as CARD11, MGA and CHST11)...
  2. Zeggini E, Panoutsopoulou K, Southam L, Rayner N, Day Williams A, Lopes M, et al. Identification of new susceptibility loci for osteoarthritis (arcOGEN): a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2012;380:815-23 pubmed publisher
    ..between FILIP1 and SENP6, chromosome 12 close to KLHDC5 and PTHLH, and in another region of chromosome 12 close to CHST11. One of the signals close to genome-wide significance was within the FTO gene, which is involved in regulation of ..
  3. Iida J, Dorchak J, Clancy R, Slavik J, Ellsworth R, Katagiri Y, et al. Role for chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in NEDD9-mediated breast cancer cell growth. Exp Cell Res. 2015;330:358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, enzymes generating chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS) such as CHST11, CHST15, and CSGALNACT1 were upregulated in HCC38(NEDD9) compared to HCC38(Vector)...
  4. Xiao J, Meng J, Gan Y, Zhou C, Ma X. Association of GDF5, SMAD3 and RUNX2 polymorphisms with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in female Han Chinese. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42:529-36 pubmed publisher investigate whether five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GDF5, SMAD3, RUNX2, TGFβ1 and CHST11, respectively, are associated with TMJOA in female Han Chinese patients...
  5. Habicher J, Haitina T, Eriksson I, Holmborn K, Dierker T, Ahlberg P, et al. Chondroitin / dermatan sulfate modification enzymes in zebrafish development. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121957 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse...
  6. Rostam M, Shajimoon A, Kamato D, Mitra P, Piva T, Getachew R, et al. Flavopiridol Inhibits TGF-β-Stimulated Biglycan Synthesis by Blocking Linker Region Phosphorylation and Nuclear Translocation of Smad2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018;365:156-164 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of mRNA for the GAG synthesizing enzymes, and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST-1), chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (ChSy-1) and TGF-β-mediated proteoglycans synthesis as well as GAG ..
  7. Liu C, Lefebvre V. The transcription factors SOX9 and SOX5/SOX6 cooperate genome-wide through super-enhancers to drive chondrogenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:8183-203 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chst11, Fgfr3, Runx2 and Runx3 are among many other newly identified SOX trio targets...
  8. Flanagan Steet H, Christian C, Lu P, Aarnio Peterson M, Sanman L, Archer Hartmann S, et al. TGF-ß Regulates Cathepsin Activation during Normal and Pathogenic Development. Cell Rep. 2018;22:2964-2977 pubmed publisher
    ..In MLII, elevated C4-S corresponds with TGF-ß-mediated increases in chst11 expression. Inhibiting chst11 impairs the proteolytic activation of Ctsk and alleviates the MLII phenotypes...
  9. Lin R, Rosahl T, Whiting P, Fawcett J, Kwok J. 6-Sulphated chondroitins have a positive influence on axonal regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21499 pubmed publisher
    ..After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT) showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs...
  10. Matsuda Y, Miura K, Yamane J, Shima H, Fujibuchi W, Ishida K, et al. SERPINI1 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in an orthotopic implantation model of colorectal cancer. Cancer Sci. 2016;107:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated these findings in combination with microarray analyses, and selected five genes: CHST11, SERPINI1, AGR2, FBP1, and FOXA1...
  11. Gronau T, Krüger K, Prein C, Aszodi A, Gronau I, Iozzo R, et al. Forced exercise-induced osteoarthritis is attenuated in mice lacking the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:442-449 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased TGF? signalling led to enhanced Chst11 sulfotransferase expression inducing an increased negative charge density of cartilage matrix...
  12. He W, Zhu Y, Shirke A, Sun X, Liu J, Gross R, et al. Expression of chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:6919-6928 pubmed publisher
    ..The major chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase, Homo sapiens C4ST-1, had been previously cloned and expressed from mammalian CHO, COS-7, and HEK 293 cells, and its activity was ..
  13. Yamauchi S, Mita S, Matsubara T, Fukuta M, Habuchi H, Kimata K, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8975-81 pubmed
    Chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST) catalyzes the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to position 4 of N-acetylgalactosamine residue of chondroitin...
  14. Zhou H, Li Y, Song X, Zhao Y, Cheng L, Zhao L, et al. CHST11/13 Regulate the Metastasis and Chemosensitivity of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61:1972-85 pubmed publisher
    Carbohydrate sulfotransferases 11-13 (CHST11-13), that catalyze the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of the GalNAc residue of chondroitin, have been implicated in various diseases.
  15. Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Tobacman J. Regulation of chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase (CHST11) expression by opposing effects of arylsulfatase B on BMP4 and Wnt9A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:342-52 pubmed publisher
    ..gene regulatory mechanism by which decline in arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) reduces CHST11 (chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase; C4ST) mRNA expression in human colonic epithelial cells and in colonic epithelium ..
  16. Klüppel M, Samavarchi Tehrani P, Liu K, Wrana J, Hinek A. C4ST-1/CHST11-controlled chondroitin sulfation interferes with oncogenic HRAS signaling in Costello syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20:870-7 pubmed publisher aimed to explore a functional involvement of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) biosynthesis gene Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11/Chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase-1 (CHST11/C4ST-1), as well as an impaired chondroitin sulfation ..
  17. Okuda T, Mita S, Yamauchi S, Matsubara T, Yagi F, Yamamori D, et al. Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal mapping of human chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase, whose expression pattern in human tissues is different from that of chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase. J Biochem. 2000;128:763-70 pubmed
    Chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST) catalyzes the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to position 4 of the N-acetylgalactosamine residues of chondroitin...
  18. Valente B, Campos P, Do Rosario V, Silveira H. Natural frequency of polymorphisms linked to the chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase genes and its association with placental malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:687-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All these findings suggest that there is no genetic susceptibility or increased risk attributed to polymorphisms of the enzymes involved on the synthesis of CSA. ..
  19. Schmidt H, Dyomin V, Palanisamy N, Itoyama T, Nanjangud G, Pirc Danoewinata H, et al. Deregulation of the carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) gene in a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a t(12;14)(q23;q32). Oncogene. 2004;23:6991-6 pubmed
    ..affected a productively rearranged IGH allele and the carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) locus at 12q23, with a reciprocal break in intron 2 of the CHST11 gene...
  20. Oliveira Ferrer L, Heßling A, Trillsch F, Mahner S, Milde Langosch K. Prognostic impact of chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase CHST11 in ovarian cancer. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:9023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CHST11 and CHST15 were further chosen for Western blot analysis in a cohort of 216 OvCas...
  21. Agrawal A, Lynskey M, Hinrichs A, Grucza R, Saccone S, Krueger R, et al. A genome-wide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Addict Biol. 2011;16:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While replication is required, this study represents an important first step toward clarifying the biological underpinnings of cannabis dependence. ..
  22. Satoh J, Nanri Y, Yamamura T. Rapid identification of 14-3-3-binding proteins by protein microarray analysis. J Neurosci Methods. 2006;152:278-88 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that protein microarray is a powerful tool for rapid and comprehensive profiling of 14-3-3-binding proteins. ..
  23. Yusa A, Kitajima K, Habuchi O. N-linked oligosaccharides are required to produce and stabilize the active form of chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase-1. Biochem J. 2005;388:115-21 pubmed
    b>C4ST-1 (chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase-1) transfers sulphate to position 4 of N-acetylgalactosamine in chondroitin...
  24. Herman D, Leakey T, Behrens A, Yao Borengasser A, Cooney C, Jousheghany F, et al. CHST11 gene expression and DNA methylation in breast cancer. Int J Oncol. 2015;46:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..a particular sulfation pattern mediated by the expression of carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase-11 (CHST11) correlates with P-selectin binding and aggressiveness of human breast cancer cell lines...
  25. Reynard L, Ratnayake M, Santibanez Koref M, Loughlin J. Functional Characterization of the Osteoarthritis Susceptibility Mapping to CHST11-A Bioinformatics and Molecular Study. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159024 pubmed publisher
    ..OA) at the genome-wide significance level and is located within CHST11, which codes for carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11. This enzyme post-translationally modifies proteoglycan prior to its deposition in the cartilage ..
  26. Nadanaka S, Kinouchi H, Kitagawa H. Histone deacetylase-mediated regulation of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (Chst11) gene expression by Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;480:234-240 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfation patterns of cell-associated CS chains by suppressing expression of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotaransferase-1 (C4ST-1), a CS biosynthetic enzyme...
  27. Nadanaka S, Kinouchi H, Kitagawa H. Chondroitin sulfate-mediated N-cadherin/β-catenin signaling is associated with basal-like breast cancer cell invasion. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:444-465 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock-out of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C4ST-1), a key CS biosynthetic enzyme, suppressed activation of the N-cadherin/β-catenin pathway through N-cadherin ..
  28. Nadanaka S, Kinouchi H, Taniguchi Morita K, Tamura J, Kitagawa H. Down-regulation of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 by Wnt signaling triggers diffusion of Wnt-3a. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific chondroitin sulfate (CS) structure synthesized by chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C4ST-1) binds to Wnt-3a with high affinity (Nadanaka, S., Ishida, M., Ikegami, M., and Kitagawa, H. (2008) J. Biol. Chem...
  29. Yamada T, Ohtake S, Sato M, Habuchi O. Chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase-1 and chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 are affected differently by uronic acid residues neighbouring the acceptor GalNAc residues. Biochem J. 2004;384:567-75 pubmed
    b>C4ST-1 (chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase-1) and C6ST-1 (chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1) transfer sulphate from PAPS (adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate) to positions 4 and 6 respectively of the GalNAc residues of chondroitin...