Gene Symbol: CHRNA9
Description: cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 9 subunit
Alias: HSA243342, NACHRA9, neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9, NACHR alpha 9, acetylcholine receptor, neuronal nicotinic, alpha-9 subunit, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic alpha 9, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 9 (neuronal), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 9, neuronal acetylcholine receptor protein, alpha-9 subunit, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 9
Species: human
Products:     CHRNA9

Top Publications

  1. Tu S, Ku C, Ho C, Chen C, Huang C, Lee C, et al. Tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits nicotine- and estrogen-induced ?9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor upregulation in human breast cancer cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:455-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals the novel antitumor mechanisms of EGCG, and these results may have significant applications for chemopreventive purposes in human breast cancer. ..
  2. Lee C, Huang C, Chen C, Tu S, Wang Y, Chang Y, et al. Overexpression and activation of the alpha9-nicotinic receptor during tumorigenesis in human breast epithelial cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:1322-35 pubmed publisher
    ..6 vs 898.6 mm(3), difference = 397 mm(3), 95% CI = 241.3 to 552.6 mm(3), P = .009). The alpha9-nAChR is important for nicotine-induced transformation of normal human breast epithelial cells. ..
  3. Nguyen V, Ndoye A, Grando S. Novel human alpha9 acetylcholine receptor regulating keratinocyte adhesion is targeted by Pemphigus vulgaris autoimmunity. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:1377-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that alpha9 is coupled to physiological regulation of keratinocyte adhesion, and its interaction with PV IgG may lead to blister development. ..
  4. Velez Irizarry D, Casiró S, Daza K, Bates R, Raney N, Steibel J, et al. Genetic control of longissimus dorsi muscle gene expression variation and joint analysis with phenotypic quantitative trait loci in pigs. BMC Genomics. 2019;20:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological processes identified for co-localized eQTL genes include calcium signaling (FERM, MRLN, PKP2 and CHRNA9), energy metabolism (SUCLG2 and PFKFB3) and redox hemostasis (NQO1 and CEP128), and results support an important ..
  5. Liu Q, Chen J, Gao X, Ding J, Tang Z, Zhang C, et al. Identification of stage-specific markers during differentiation of hair cells from mouse inner ear stem cells or progenitor cells in vitro. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015;60:99-111 pubmed publisher
    ..We further examined the expression of these genes in vivo and determined that Gdf10+Ccdc121, Tmprss9+Orm1, and Chrna9+Espnl are marker genes specific for inner ear stem cells, inner ear progenitor cells, and differentiating hair ..
  6. Boero L, Castagna V, Di Guilmi M, Goutman J, Elgoyhen A, Gómez Casati M. Enhancement of the Medial Olivocochlear System Prevents Hidden Hearing Loss. J Neurosci. 2018;38:7440-7451 pubmed publisher
    ..HHL by comparing the performance of two different mouse models: an ?9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (KO; Chrna9 KO), which lacks cholinergic transmission between efferent neurons and hair cells; and a gain-of-function ..
  7. Hübner P, Khan S, Migliaccio A. The mammalian efferent vestibular system plays a crucial role in vestibulo-ocular reflex compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy. J Neurophysiol. 2017;117:1553-1568 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice have deletion of most of the gene (chrna9) encoding the nAChR and thereby lack α9-nAChRs...
  8. Kimbrel N, Garrett M, Dennis M, Liu Y, Patanam I, Workgroup V, et al. Effect of genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor genes on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015;229:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..between genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor gene family (CHRNA2, CHRNA3, CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA6, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, CHRNB2, CHRNB3, CHRNB4) and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  9. Spina R, Voss D, Asnaghi L, Sloan A, Bar E. Atracurium Besylate and other neuromuscular blocking agents promote astroglial differentiation and deplete glioblastoma stem cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:459-72 pubmed publisher gliomas, we examined clinical outcomes and found that glioma patients with tumors overexpressing CHRNA1 or CHRNA9 (encoding for the AChR-α1 or AChR-α9) exhibit significant shorter overall survival...

More Information


  1. Chu X, Pan C, Zhao S, Liang J, Gao G, Zhang X, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies two new risk loci for Graves' disease. Nat Genet. 2011;43:897-901 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly associated SNPs were correlated with the expression levels of RNASET2 at 6q27, of CHRNA9 and of a previously uncharacterized gene at 4p14, respectively...
  2. Romero H, Christensen S, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Gajewiak J, Ramachandra R, Elmslie K, et al. Inhibition of α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E1825-E1832 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish blockade of α9-containing nAChRs as the basis for the efficacy of RgIA4, and that α9-containing nAChRs are a critical target for prevention of chronic cancer chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. ..
  3. Zouridakis M, Giastas P, Zarkadas E, Chroni Tzartou D, Bregestovski P, Tzartos S. Crystal structures of free and antagonist-bound states of human α9 nicotinic receptor extracellular domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:976-80 pubmed publisher
  4. Hsieh Y, Lee C, Tu S, Wu C, Hung C, Hsieh M, et al. CHRNA9 polymorphisms and smoking exposure synergize to increase the risk of breast cancer in Taiwan. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:2520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no studies have explored the joint effect of α9-nAChRs (CHRNA9) genes and cigarette smoking exposure on breast cancer risk...
  5. Lee C, Chang Y, Chen C, Tu S, Wang Y, Chen L, et al. Crosstalk between nicotine and estrogen-induced estrogen receptor activation induces ?9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;129:331-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data indicate that the ER plays a central role in mediating ?9-nAChR gene up-regulation in response to either nicotine or E2 stimulation. ..
  6. Lustig L, Peng H. Chromosome location and characterization of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha (alpha) 9 (CHRNA9) gene. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2002;98:154-9 pubmed
    The human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit alpha9 gene (CHRNA9) codes for a component of the AChR in hair cells of the inner ear...
  7. Peng H, Ferris R, Matthews T, Hiel H, Lopez Albaitero A, Lustig L. Characterization of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha (alpha) 9 (CHRNA9) and alpha (alpha) 10 (CHRNA10) in lymphocytes. Life Sci. 2004;76:263-80 pubmed
    ..However, a lack of demonstrated response to applied acetylcholine using standard single-cell recording techniques suggests a physiology different than that seen in hair cells of the inner ear. ..
  8. Chikova A, Grando S. Naturally occurring variants of human ?9 nicotinic receptor differentially affect bronchial cell proliferation and transformation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27978 pubmed publisher
    ..immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for ?9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)...
  9. Chikova A, Bernard H, Shchepotin I, Grando S. New associations of the genetic polymorphisms in nicotinic receptor genes with the risk of lung cancer. Life Sci. 2012;91:1103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic variations in other lung nAChRs remained unknown. In this study, we perform case-control analysis of CHRNA9 and CHRNA3 genes using 340 non-small cell lung cancer cases and 435 controls...
  10. Wang Y, Zhang Y, Gu C, Bao W, Bao Y. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9 (CHRNA9) polymorphisms are associated with NSCLC risk in a Chinese population. Med Oncol. 2014;31:932 pubmed publisher
    Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9 (CHRNA9) encodes a plasma membrane protein of divalent cation channels and is expressed in keratinocytes...
  11. Osman A, Schrader A, Hawkes A, Akil O, Bergeron A, Lustig L, et al. Muscle-like nicotinic receptor accessory molecules in sensory hair cells of the inner ear. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:153-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that RIC-3 facilitates receptor function, while rapsyn enhances receptor clustering at the cell surface. ..
  12. Saccone N, Saccone S, Hinrichs A, Stitzel J, Duan W, Pergadia M, et al. Multiple distinct risk loci for nicotine dependence identified by dense coverage of the complete family of nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:453-66 pubmed publisher
  13. Zouridakis M, Zisimopoulou P, Eliopoulos E, Poulas K, Tzartos S. Design and expression of human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor extracellular domain mutants with enhanced solubility and ligand-binding properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:355-66 pubmed publisher
  14. Azam L, McIntosh J. Molecular basis for the differential sensitivity of rat and human ?9?10 nAChRs to ?-conotoxin RgIA. J Neurochem. 2012;122:1137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, although the ?9 nAChR subunit has previously been reported to provide the principal (+) binding face for binding of RgIA, Thr56 is located in the (-) complementary binding face. ..
  15. Sgard F, Charpantier E, Bertrand S, Walker N, Caput D, Graham D, et al. A novel human nicotinic receptor subunit, alpha10, that confers functionality to the alpha9-subunit. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;61:150-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that, in vivo, alpha9-containing receptors coassemble with alpha10-subunit. ..
  16. Chen C, Lee C, Hsieh C, Ho C, Pan M, Huang C, et al. Nicotine-induced human breast cancer cell proliferation attenuated by garcinol through down-regulation of the nicotinic receptor and cyclin D3 proteins. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:73-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The homeostatic regulation of cyclin D3 has the potential to be a molecular target for antitumor chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive purposes in clinical breast cancer patients. ..
  17. Valor L, Castillo M, Ortiz J, Criado M. Transcriptional regulation by activation and repression elements located at the 5'-noncoding region of the human alpha9 nicotinic receptor subunit gene. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37249-55 pubmed
    ..We propose that the Sox complex provides an initial scaffold that facilitates the recruiting of the transcriptional machinery responsible for alpha9 subunit expression. ..
  18. Yang J, Wang S, Yang Z, Hodgkinson C, Iarikova P, Ma J, et al. The contribution of rare and common variants in 30 genes to risk nicotine dependence. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:1467-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare variants in NRXN1, CHRNA9, CHRNA2, NTRK2, GABBR2, GRIN3A, DNM1, NRXN2, NRXN3 and ARRB2 were significantly associated with smoking status in ..
  19. Greenbaum L, Kanyas K, Karni O, Merbl Y, Olender T, Horowitz A, et al. Why do young women smoke? I. Direct and interactive effects of environment, psychological characteristics and nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:312-22, 223 pubmed
    ..007-0.05) in CHRNB2 and nominal (P<0.05) allelic or genotypic association of SNPs in CHRNA7 (rs1909884), CHRNA9 (rs4861065) and CHRNB3 (rs9298629) with nicotine dependence...
  20. Shi J, Hattori E, Zou H, Badner J, Christian S, Gershon E, et al. No evidence for association between 19 cholinergic genes and bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:715-23 pubmed
    ..We genotyped 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes (CHAT, CHRM1-5, CHRNA1-7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, and CHRNB1-4) in two series of samples: the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Genetics ..
  21. Rigbi A, Kanyas K, Yakir A, Greenbaum L, Pollak Y, Ben Asher E, et al. Why do young women smoke? V. Role of direct and interactive effects of nicotinic cholinergic receptor gene variation on neurocognitive function. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:164-72 pubmed
    ..inhibition (MFFT, Stroop, CPT Loading Phase, TOL) was associated with variants in CHRNA2, CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, CHRNB2 and CHRNB3. Selective attention (Stroop) was associated with CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA9 and CHRNB2...
  22. Vastrad B, Vastrad C, Godavarthi A, Chandrashekar R. Molecular mechanisms underlying gliomas and glioblastoma pathogenesis revealed by bioinformatics analysis of microarray data. Med Oncol. 2017;34:182 pubmed publisher
    ..PDGFA, SPP1 were selected as well as significant GO term (ear development) for up-regulated genes such as CELSR1, CHRNA9, DDR1, FGFR1, GLI2, LGR5, SOX2, TSHR were selected, while the significant enriched pathway (amebiasis) for down-..
  23. Mohammadi S, Burton T, Christie M. α9-nAChR knockout mice exhibit dysregulation of stress responses, affect and reward-related behaviour. Behav Brain Res. 2017;328:105-114 pubmed publisher
  24. Chernyavsky A, Arredondo J, Vetter D, Grando S. Central role of alpha9 acetylcholine receptor in coordinating keratinocyte adhesion and motility at the initiation of epithelialization. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3542-55 pubmed
    ..By activating alpha9 AChR, ACh can control the dynamics and strength of cell-cell cohesion, disabling of a trailing uropod and disassembly and reassembly of focal adhesions, thus facilitating crawling locomotion. ..