Gene Symbol: CHRNA4
Description: cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 4 subunit
Alias: BFNC, EBN, EBN1, NACHR, NACHRA4, NACRA4, neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic alpha 4, cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (neuronal), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 4, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-4 subunit
Species: human
Products:     CHRNA4

Top Publications

  1. Markett S, Montag C, Reuter M. The association between dopamine DRD2 polymorphisms and working memory capacity is modulated by a functional polymorphism on the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA4. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010;22:1944-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed with regard to their implication for working memory theories and their clinical relevance for treatment of substance abuse and schizophrenia. ..
  2. Greenwood P, Sundararajan R, Lin M, Kumar R, Fryxell K, Parasuraman R. Both a nicotinic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a noradrenergic SNP modulate working memory performance when attention is manipulated. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:2139-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our previous report that the CHRNA4 rs#1044396 C/T nicotinic receptor SNP affected visuospatial attention, but not working memory, and the DBH rs#..
  3. Gierke P, Zhao C, Bernstein H, Noack C, Anand R, Heinemann U, et al. Implication of neuronal Ca2+ -sensor protein VILIP-1 in the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;32:162-75 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of neuronal Ca(2+)-sensor VILIP-1 (visinin-like protein) and enhanced co-localization with alpha4beta2 nAChR in interneurons...
  4. Hutchison K, Allen D, Filbey F, Jepson C, Lerman C, Benowitz N, et al. CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:1078-86 pubmed
    ..of the alpha4 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the gene that codes for this subunit (CHRNA4) represents an excellent starting point for a genetic investigation of smoking behavior...
  5. Feng Y, Niu T, Xing H, Xu X, Chen C, Peng S, et al. A common haplotype of the nicotine acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene is associated with vulnerability to nicotine addiction in men. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;75:112-21 pubmed
    ..We studied six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA4 gene and four SNPs in the CHRNB2 gene with respect to nicotine dependence in a collection of 901 subjects (815 ..
  6. Ehringer M, Clegg H, Collins A, Corley R, Crowley T, Hewitt J, et al. Association of the neuronal nicotinic receptor beta2 subunit gene (CHRNB2) with subjective responses to alcohol and nicotine. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:596-604 pubmed
    ..We have examined two neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit genes (CHRNA4 and CHRNB2) for possible associations with nicotine and alcohol phenotypes, including measures of frequency of use ..
  7. Reinvang I, Lundervold A, Rootwelt H, Wehling E, Espeseth T. Individual variation in a cholinergic receptor gene modulates attention. Neurosci Lett. 2009;453:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Several behavioral and electrophysiological studies have shown that a common polymorphism in the CHRNA4 gene (rs1044396) affects aspects of visual and auditory attentional processing...
  8. Li M, Beuten J, Ma J, Payne T, Lou X, Garcia V, et al. Ethnic- and gender-specific association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) with nicotine dependence. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:1211-9 pubmed
    We tested six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) and four SNPs in the beta2 subunit gene (CHRNB2) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) for association with nicotine dependence (ND), which ..
  9. Winterer G, Musso F, Konrad A, Vucurevic G, Stoeter P, Sander T, et al. Association of attentional network function with exon 5 variations of the CHRNA4 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2165-74 pubmed genetic variations within exon 5 of the alpha4 subunit of the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA4. The potential relevance of exon 5 is further emphasized by two recent family-based association studies of ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Landgren S, ENGEL J, Andersson M, Gonzalez Quintela A, Campos J, Nilsson S, et al. Association of nAChR gene haplotypes with heavy alcohol use and body mass. Brain Res. 2009;1305 Suppl:S72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..004) for the CCCC haplotype compared to non-carriers of these haplotypes. Moreover, one haplotype of the CHRNA4 (GGTG) was associated with increased body weight as compared to non-carriers of this haplotype, especially in the ..
  2. Espeseth T, Sneve M, Rootwelt H, Laeng B. Nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA4 interacts with processing load in attention. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14407 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we tested whether individual variation in CHRNA4, a gene coding for a subcomponent in ?4?2 nicotinic receptors in the human brain, interacted with processing load ..
  3. Han S, Yang B, Kranzler H, Oslin D, Anton R, Gelernter J. Association of CHRNA4 polymorphisms with smoking behavior in two populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:421-9 pubmed publisher
    b>CHRNA4, the gene that encodes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?(4) subunit, is a potential candidate gene for nicotine dependence (ND)...
  4. Markett S, Montag C, Reuter M. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA4 is associated with negative emotionality. Emotion. 2011;11:450-5 pubmed publisher
    Knock-out studies in mice suggest a role of the CHRNA4 gene in anxiety. In the present study we extend this finding to humans by means of a genetic association study...
  5. Greenwood P, Parasuraman R, Espeseth T. A cognitive phenotype for a polymorphism in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA4. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:1331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..electrophysiological, and imaging evidence, we advance an hypothesis for a cognitive phenotype of a SNP in the CHRNA4 gene encoding the ?(4) subunit of ?(4)?(2) nicotinic receptors...
  6. Rucktooa P, Haseler C, van Elk R, Smit A, Gallagher T, Sixma T. Structural characterization of binding mode of smoking cessation drugs to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors through study of ligand complexes with acetylcholine-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..One way to aid smoking cessation is by the use of nicotine replacement therapies or partial nAChR agonists like cytisine or varenicline...
  7. Kamens H, Corley R, McQueen M, Stallings M, Hopfer C, Crowley T, et al. Nominal association with CHRNA4 variants and nicotine dependence. Genes Brain Behav. 2013;12:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the genetic association between variation in the genes that code for the ?4 (CHRNA4) and ?2 (CHRNB2) subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and a quantitative measure of lifetime DSM-IV ND ..
  8. Todd R, Lobos E, Sun L, Neuman R. Mutational analysis of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence for association of an intronic polymorphism with attention problems. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:103-8 pubmed the coding regions and intron/exon junctions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene (CHRNA4). Common polymorphisms were used for transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analyses...
  9. Kim S, Kim J, Song J, Park S, Lee H, Chung J. Association of polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene (CHRNA4), mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), and ethanol-metabolizing enzyme genes with alcoholism in Korean patients. Alcohol. 2004;34:115-20 pubmed
    ..and support the possibility that a polymorphism of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) modulates enhancement of nicotinic receptor function by ethanol...
  10. Espeseth T, Endestad T, Rootwelt H, Reinvang I. Nicotine receptor gene CHRNA4 modulates early event-related potentials in auditory and visual oddball target detection tasks. Neuroscience. 2007;147:974-85 pubmed
    ..of early latency modality-specific event-related potential (ERP) components in vision and audition may indicate that the CHRNA4 polymorphism affects factors that are common to top-down modulation of sensory processing across modalities.
  11. Voineskos S, De Luca V, Mensah A, Vincent J, Potapova N, Kennedy J. Association of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor and heavy smoking in schizophrenia. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32:412-6 pubmed
    ..Current smoking status was assessed by the medical history. We investigated 4 markers located in the CHRNA4 gene and 3 markers located in the CHRNB2 gene...
  12. Breitling L, Dahmen N, Mittelstrass K, Rujescu D, Gallinat J, Fehr C, et al. Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 polymorphisms with nicotine dependence in 5500 Germans. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009;9:219-24 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the CHRNA4 gene coding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 have recently been suggested to play a role in the determination of smoking-related phenotypes...
  13. Tsai S, Yeh H, Hong C, Liou Y, Yang A, Liu M, et al. Association of CHRNA4 polymorphism with depression and loneliness in elderly males. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:230-4 pubmed publisher
    The cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (CHRNA4) gene encodes the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-4 subunit...
  14. Markett S, Reuter M, Montag C, Weber B. The dopamine D2 receptor gene DRD2 and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA4 interact on striatal gray matter volume: evidence from a genetic imaging study. Neuroimage. 2013;64:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular genetic level: DRD2 rs6277, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the dopamine D2 receptor gene and CHRNA4 rs1044396, a SNP on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene interact on visuo-spatial and phonological working ..
  15. Wu J, Liu Q, Yu K, Hu J, Kuo Y, Segerberg M, et al. Roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta subunits in function of human alpha4-containing nicotinic receptors. J Physiol. 2006;576:103-18 pubmed
    Naturally expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing alpha4 subunits (alpha4*-nAChR) in combination with beta2 subunits (alpha4beta2-nAChR) are among the most abundant, high-affinity nicotine binding sites in the ..
  16. Etter J, Hoda J, Perroud N, Munafo M, Buresi C, Duret C, et al. Association of genes coding for the alpha-4, alpha-5, beta-2 and beta-3 subunits of nicotinic receptors with cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2009;34:772-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Cotinine levels were higher in carriers of the CC genotype of CHRNA4 rs1044396 (371 ng/ml) than in those with the CT or TT genotypes (275 ng/ml, p=0.049), a difference of 0...
  17. Roe B, Tilley M, Gu H, Beversdorf D, Sadee W, Haab T, et al. Financial and psychological risk attitudes associated with two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nicotine receptor (CHRNA4) gene. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6704 pubmed publisher identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666) that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn ..
  18. Al Wadei H, Al Wadei M, Masi T, Schuller H. Chronic exposure to estrogen and the tobacco carcinogen NNK cooperatively modulates nicotinic receptors in small airway epithelial cells. Lung Cancer. 2010;69:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This selective imbalance in stimulatory and inhibitory signaling may contribute to the development and progression of small airway-derived adenocarcinoma in women who smoke. ..
  19. Harder A. The Biochemistry of Haemonchus contortus and Other Parasitic Nematodes. Adv Parasitol. 2016;93:69-94 pubmed publisher
    ..the function of the neuromuscular system, acetylcholine, a ligand of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in H. contortus...
  20. Puligheddu M, Melis M, Pillolla G, Milioli G, Parrino L, Terzano G, et al. Rationale for an adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate in pharmacoresistant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2017;58:1762-1770 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR?) that is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which negatively modulates the function of ?2-containing nAChR. To test clinical efficacy of adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate in pharmacoresistant ADNFLE\NFLE patients, we ..
  21. Beard E, Shahab L, Cummings D, Michie S, West R. New Pharmacological Agents to Aid Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Harm Reduction: What Has Been Investigated, and What Is in the Pipeline?. CNS Drugs. 2016;30:951-83 pubmed publisher
    ..venlafaxine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), opioid antagonists, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists, glucose tablets, selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists, nicotine vaccines, drugs that ..
  22. Yida Z, Imam M, Ismail M, Hou Z, Abdullah M, Ideris A, et al. Edible Bird's Nest attenuates high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and inflammation via regulation of hepatic antioxidant and inflammatory genes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:310 pubmed publisher
    Edible Bird's nest (EBN) is an antioxidant-rich supplement that is popular in many parts of Asia. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been reported using in vitro system...
  23. Conti V, Aracri P, Chiti L, Brusco S, Mari F, Marini C, et al. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy with paroxysmal arousals due to CHRNA2 loss of function. Neurology. 2015;84:1520-8 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the mutation frequency in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits CHRNA4, CHRNB2, and CHRNA2 in a cohort including autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) and sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe ..
  24. Harwani S, Ratcliff J, Sutterwala F, Ballas Z, Meyerholz D, Chapleau M, et al. Nicotine Mediates CD161a+ Renal Macrophage Infiltration and Premature Hypertension in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat. Circ Res. 2016;119:1101-1115 pubmed
    ..Moreover, expression of the anti-inflammatory α7-nAChR (α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) was similar in young SHR and WKY rats...
  25. Lasky Su J, Anney R, Neale B, Franke B, Zhou K, Maller J, et al. Genome-wide association scan of the time to onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1355-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genes had nominal associations including SLC9A9, DRD1, ADRB2, SLC6A3, NFIL3, ADRB1, SYT1, HTR2A, ARRB2, and CHRNA4. Of these findings SLC9A9 stood out as a promising candidate, with nominally significant SNPs in six distinct ..
  26. Wood A, Saling M, Fedi M, Berkovic S, Scheffer I, Benjamin C, et al. Neuropsychological function in patients with a single gene mutation associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;17:531-5 pubmed publisher
    ..nonlesional condition associated with mutation of the gene coding for the alpha4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The nAChR modulates aspects of memory and attention...
  27. Sansoni V, Nobili L, Proserpio P, Ferini Strambi L, Combi R. A de novo mutation in an Italian sporadic patient affected by nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. J Sleep Res. 2012;21:352-3 pubmed publisher
  28. Stoiljkovic M, Leventhal L, Chen A, Chen T, Driscoll R, FLOOD D, et al. Concentration-response relationship of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist FRM-17874 across multiple in vitro and in vivo assays. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015;97:576-589 pubmed publisher
    ..assays indicate a bell-shaped effective concentration range and this report represents the first attempt to explain the concentration-response function of α7 nAChR-mediated pro-cognitive effects in terms of receptor pharmacology.
  29. Shi X, Zhou Z, Wang L, Wang M, Shi S, Wang Z, et al. The immunomodulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;47:611-22 pubmed publisher
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the best-studied ionotropic neuron receptor protein, is a key player in neuronal communication, and it has been reported to play an important role in immunomodulation of vertebrates...
  30. Pang X, Liu L, Ngolab J, Zhao Shea R, McIntosh J, Gardner P, et al. Habenula cholinergic neurons regulate anxiety during nicotine withdrawal via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2016;107:294-304 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that nAChR signaling in MHb cholinergic neurons could modulate anxiety, we expressed novel "gain of function" nAChR subunits ..
  31. Randall P, Cannady R, Besheer J. The nicotine + alcohol interoceptive drug state: contribution of the components and effects of varenicline in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016;233:3061-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The N + A compound cue is a unique cue that is modulated, in part, by activity at the α4β2 nAChR. These findings advance understanding of the interoceptive effects of nicotine and alcohol in combination and may ..
  32. Patkar O, Belmer A, Tarren J, Holgate J, Bartlett S. The effect of varenicline on binge-like ethanol consumption in mice is ?4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-independent. Neurosci Lett. 2016;633:235-239 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, varenicline reduces binge-like ethanol consumption both after short- and long-term exposure in the DID and this effect is independent of ?4 nAChR subunit.
  33. Patel H, McIntire J, Ryan S, DUNAH A, LORING R. Anti-inflammatory effects of astroglial ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are mediated by inhibition of the NF-?B pathway and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14:192 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we evaluated the role of astroglial ?7 nAChR activation in neuroinflammation...
  34. Betthauser T, Hillmer A, Lao P, Ehlerding E, Mukherjee J, Stone C, et al. Human biodistribution and dosimetry of [18F]nifene, an α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PET tracer. Nucl Med Biol. 2017;55:7-11 pubmed publisher
    The α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system is implicated in many neuropsychiatric pathologies...
  35. Albillos A, McIntosh J. Human nicotinic receptors in chromaffin cells: characterization and pharmacology. Pflugers Arch. 2018;470:21-27 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype may contribute to an increased expression of α7 nAChRs in these cells, allowing for recording of α7 nAChR currents, something that had previously not been achieved in non-human species...
  36. Allen P, Luebke A. Reflex Modification Audiometry Reveals Dual Roles for Olivocochlear Neurotransmission. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:361 pubmed publisher
    ..with their littermate controls) either lacking the MOC receptor subunit ?9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor [?9 nAChR (-/-)] or expressing an overactive receptor [Ld'T mutation in ?9 nAChR KI], or lacking an LOC efferent ..
  37. Fan W, Li X, Huang L, He S, Xie Z, Fu Y, et al. S-oxiracetam ameliorates ischemic stroke induced neuronal apoptosis through up-regulating α7 nAChR and PI3K / Akt / GSK3β signal pathway in rats. Neurochem Int. 2018;115:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, S-ORC inhibited neuronal apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway via α7 nAChR, which was evidenced by α7 nAChR siRNA...
  38. Stitzel J. Naturally occurring genetic variability in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 and alpha7 subunit genes and phenotypic diversity in humans and mice. Front Biosci. 2008;13:477-91 pubmed
    ..Through the use of pharmacological and molecular strategies, the identities of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that modulate different behaviors and physiological measures are being revealed...
  39. Zhu G, Okada M, Yoshida S, Ueno S, Mori F, Takahara T, et al. Rats harboring S284L Chrna4 mutation show attenuation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAergic transmission and exhibit the nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy phenotype. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12465-76 pubmed publisher
    Mutations of genes encoding alpha4, beta2, or alpha2 subunits (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, or CHRNA2, respectively) of nAChR [neuronal nicotinic ACh (acetylcholine) receptor] cause nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in human...
  40. Salaga M, Blomster L, Piechota Polańczyk A, Zielińska M, Jacenik D, Cygankiewicz A, et al. Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonist, Reduces Immune Cell Infiltration in the Colon and Improves Experimental Colitis in Mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;356:157-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of the novel α7 nAChR partial agonist encenicline and to determine the mechanism underlying its activity...
  41. Shen J, Wu J. Nicotinic Cholinergic Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2015;124:275-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that a nAChR subtype, α7 receptor (α7-nAChR), plays an important role in modulations of excitatory neurotransmitter ..
  42. Horenstein N, Papke R, Kulkarni A, Chaturbhuj G, Stokes C, Manther K, et al. Critical Molecular Determinants of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Allosteric Activation: SEPARATION OF DIRECT ALLOSTERIC ACTIVATION AND POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATION. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:5049-67 pubmed publisher
    ..the characterization of specific GAT107 analogs will allow us to define critical structural elements that can be mapped onto the receptor surface for an improved understanding of this novel way to target α7 nAChR therapeutically.
  43. Qu Y, Chen J, Li C, Wang Q, Guo W, Han Z, et al. The subunit gene Ldα1 of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors plays important roles in the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam against Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2016;127:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding four new nAChR subunits (named Ldα3, Ldα6, Ldα10, and Ldβ1) were cloned from L. decemlineata...
  44. Gu S, MATTA J, Lord B, Harrington A, Sutton S, Davini W, et al. Brain α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Assembly Requires NACHO. Neuron. 2016;89:948-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancing α7-type nAChR signaling improves symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia...
  45. St Pierre S, Jiang W, Roy P, Champigny C, Leblanc E, Morley B, et al. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Bone Marrow-Derived Pro-Inflammatory Monocyte Production and Survival. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150230 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we first found that murine bone marrow cells express multiple nAChR subunits, and that the α7 and α9 nAChRs most predominant subtypes found in immune cells and their precursors...
  46. Moerke M, de Moura F, Koek W, McMahon L. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;786:169-178 pubmed publisher
    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo...
  47. Silva W, Berger M, Bass C, Williamson M, Moura D, Ribeiro L, et al. Mutation (G275E) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?6 subunit is associated with high levels of resistance to spinosyns in Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2016;131:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cross-resistance to spinetoram, but not to other insecticides that target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)...
  48. Thomsen M, Arvaniti M, Jensen M, Shulepko M, Dolgikh D, Pinborg L, et al. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;46:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology...
  49. Wen L, Han H, Liu Q, Su K, Yang Z, Cui W, et al. Significant association of the CHRNB3-CHRNA6 gene cluster with nicotine dependence in the Chinese Han population. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9745 pubmed publisher
    ..numerous studies have revealed significant associations between variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subunits and nicotine dependence (ND), only few studies were performed in Chinese subjects...
  50. Poppi L, Tabatabaee H, Drury H, Jobling P, Callister R, Migliaccio A, et al. ACh-induced hyperpolarization and decreased resistance in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells. J Neurophysiol. 2017;:jn.00030.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with activation of ?9*nAChRs and SK channels, these ACh-sensitive currents were antagonized by the ?9*nAChR blocker strychnine and SK blockers apamin and tamapin...
  51. Baig A, Rana Z, Tariq S, Lalani S, Ahmad H. Traced on the Timeline: Discovery of Acetylcholine and the Components of the Human Cholinergic System in a Primitive Unicellular Eukaryote Acanthamoeba spp. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..of cholinergic signal transduction that affects the target cells via muscarinic (mAChR) and nicotinic (nAChR) cholinergic receptors embedded in the cell membrane...
  52. Jorratt P, Delano P, Delgado C, Dagnino Subiabre A, Terreros G. Difference in Perseverative Errors during a Visual Attention Task with Auditory Distractors in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Wild Type and Knock-Out Mice. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:357 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the physiological functions of the ?9 nicotinic receptor subunit (?9-nAChR) is the suppression of auditory distractors during selective attention to visual stimuli...
  53. McLane K, Wu X, Conti Tronconi B. Identification of a brain acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit able to bind alpha-bungarotoxin. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:9816-24 pubmed
    ..alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT) binding region on the alpha subunit of the Torpedo nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) were synthesized for each identified nAChR alpha subunit of the rat nervous system (alpha 1, which is expressed ..
  54. Krishnamoorthy M, Gerwe B, Scharer C, Heimburg Molinaro J, Gregory F, Nash R, et al. Low ethanol concentration alters CHRNA5 RNA levels during early human development. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;30:489-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that alcohol exposure can alter early neurologic development, which may favor addiction and other developmental abnormalities in unborn children. ..
  55. Kimbrel N, Garrett M, Dennis M, Liu Y, Patanam I, Workgroup V, et al. Effect of genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor genes on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015;229:326-31 pubmed publisher examined the association between genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor gene family (CHRNA2, CHRNA3, CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA6, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, CHRNB2, CHRNB3, CHRNB4) and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress ..
  56. Navarro E, Buendia I, Parada E, León R, Jansen Duerr P, Pircher H, et al. Alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation protects against oxidative stress via heme-oxygenase I induction. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015;97:473-481 pubmed publisher
    ..7 nAChR activation ameliorated these alterations by a mechanism involving heme-oxygenase I induction.
  57. Shi S, Liang D, Bao M, Xie Y, Xu W, Wang L, et al. Gx-50 Inhibits Neuroinflammation via α7 nAChR Activation of the JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT Pathways. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;50:859-71 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have revealed that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a critical link between inflammation and neurodegeneration, which is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  58. Jackson A, Papke R, Damaj M. Pharmacological modulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a mouse model of mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018;235:1897-1905 pubmed publisher
    Recent preclinical data has implicated the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as a target in modulating nicotine reward. However, the role of the channel properties of the α7 nAChR in nicotine withdrawal is unknown...
  59. Kawamata J, Shimohama S. Association of novel and established polymorphisms in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2002;4:71-6 pubmed
    ..Allelic analysis showed association of specific silent or intronic polymorphisms of the CHRNA3 and CHRNA4 genes and AD...
  60. Shao X, Feldman J. Pharmacology of nicotinic receptors in preBötzinger complex that mediate modulation of respiratory pattern. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:1851-8 pubmed
    ..The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes mediating these effects are unknown...
  61. Reuter M, Markett S, Melchers M, Montag C. Interaction of the cholinergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a risk factor for depression: evidence from a genetic association study. Neuroreport. 2012;23:717-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the interaction of two polymorphisms, one on the cholinergic CHRNA4 receptor gene and one on the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), on depression was investigated...
  62. Morales Perez C, Noviello C, Hibbs R. X-ray structure of the human ?4?2 nicotinic receptor. Nature. 2016;538:411-415 pubmed publisher
    ..This structure provides insights into the architectural principles governing ligand recognition, heteromer assembly, ion permeation and desensitization in this prototypical receptor class. ..
  63. Zhang Y, Liu Y, Bao H, Sun H, Liu Z. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies. Neurosci Lett. 2017;638:151-155 pubmed publisher
    ..The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs...
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    ..The ability to activate or block a specific nAChR subtype, at a defined time and space within the brain, would greatly help obtaining a clearer picture of these ..
  65. Todd R, Neuman R. Gene-environment interactions in the development of combined type ADHD: evidence for a synapse-based model. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:971-5 pubmed
    ..and child genotype in the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), polymorphisms in the CHRNA4 gene were tested for interactions with prenatal smoking exposure on risk for ADHD subtypes using multiple logistic ..
  66. Saccone N, Saccone S, Hinrichs A, Stitzel J, Duan W, Pergadia M, et al. Multiple distinct risk loci for nicotine dependence identified by dense coverage of the complete family of nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:453-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Nominally significant single-SNP association was detected in CHRNA4 and CHRNB1...
  67. Hwang S, Makita Y, Kurahashi H, Cho Y, Hirose S. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a genotypic comparative study of Japanese and Korean families carrying the CHRNA4 Ser284Leu mutation. J Hum Genet. 2011;56:609-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically available molecular genetic testing reveals mutations in three genes, CHRNA4, CHRNB2 and CHRNA2...
  68. Störmer V, Passow S, Biesenack J, Li S. Dopaminergic and cholinergic modulations of visual-spatial attention and working memory: insights from molecular genetic research and implications for adult cognitive development. Dev Psychol. 2012;48:875-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We report novel data showing an effect of dopamine COMT gene on spatial updating processes in older but not in younger adults, indicating potential magnification of genetic effects in old age. ..
  69. Kishi T, Fukuo Y, Okochi T, Kawashima K, Moriwaki M, Furukawa O, et al. Relationship between nicotine dependence and the endophenotype-related trait of cognitive function but not acoustic startle reponses in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013;28:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha4 and beta2 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (alpha4 subunit of the nAChR gene (CHRNA4)/beta2 subunit of the nAChR gene (CHRNB2)) were associated with nicotine dependence in patients (n?=?100) and ..
  70. Zhai Q, Wang C, Chen Q, Guo Y, Chen Z, Zhang Y, et al. [Clinical features and mutation analysis of CHRNA4 gene for families and sporadic cases affected with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2013;30:662-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate mutations of CHRNA4 gene in Chinese patients with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). Two hundred and fifty-seven patients (including 215 sporadic and 42 familial cases) were analyzed...
  71. King J, Kabbani N. Alpha 7 nicotinic receptor coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins modulates RhoA activation, cytoskeletal motility, and structural growth. J Neurochem. 2016;138:532-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Ligand stimulation of the ?7 nAChR has been shown to regulate the large heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein) signaling in various types of ..
  72. Yuan M, Malagon A, Yasuda D, Belluzzi J, Leslie F, Zaveri N. The ?3?4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in a rat model of relapse and induces minimal withdrawal in dependent rats. Behav Brain Res. 2017;333:251-257 pubmed publisher
    ..and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the ?3, ?4, and ?5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the ?3?4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal...
  73. Rauthan M, Gong J, Liu J, Li Z, Wescott S, Liu J, et al. MicroRNA Regulation of nAChR Expression and Nicotine-Dependent Behavior in C. elegans. Cell Rep. 2017;21:1434-1441 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify a key role for microRNA in regulating nicotine-dependent behavior by modulating nAChR expression in C. elegans...
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    ..Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine may therefore be mediated through ?4?2 receptors, the predominant high-affinity binding sites for nicotine in the central nervous system, in addition to the better-established ?7 receptors. ..
  75. Montag C, Kirsch P, Sauer C, Markett S, Reuter M. The role of the CHRNA4 gene in Internet addiction: a case-control study. J Addict Med. 2012;6:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the investigation of Internet addiction-the gene coding for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 (CHRNA4). A case-control study was carried out...
  76. Brody A, Mukhin A, Mamoun M, Luu T, Neary M, Liang L, et al. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability and response to smoking cessation treatment: a randomized trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71:797-805 pubmed publisher
    ..leads to upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the human brain, including the common ?4?2* nAChR subtype...
  77. Wang Z, Deba F, Mohamed T, Chiara D, Ramos K, Hamouda A. Unraveling amino acid residues critical for allosteric potentiation of (?4)3(?2)2-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor responses. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9988-10001 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, nAChR positive allosteric modulators such as NS9283 and CMPI have been shown to potentiate responses of (?4)3(?2)2 but ..
  78. Zhang Y, Jia Y, Li P, Li H, Xiao D, Wang Y, et al. Reciprocal activation of α5-nAChR and STAT3 in nicotine-induced human lung cancer cell proliferation. J Genet Genomics. 2017;44:355-362 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) show that CHRNA5 gene encoding α5-nAChR is especially relevant to lung cancer. However, the mechanism of this subunit in lung cancer is not clear...
  79. Trivedi S, Maurya P, Sammi S, Gupta M, Pandey R. 5-Desmethylnobiletin augments synaptic ACh levels and nicotinic ACh receptor activity: A potential candidate for alleviation of cholinergic dysfunction. Neurosci Lett. 2017;657:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..transmission mediated through increased levels of ACh and activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)...
  80. Yu N, Liu Y, Wang X, Li J, Bao H, Liu Z. Heterologous formation of neonicotinoid-sensitive nAChRs containing UNC-38 and UNC-29 subunits from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2017;143:168-172 pubmed publisher
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits are encoded by a large multigene family and generate a large number of pentameric receptors with various properties...
  81. Yu W, Nordberg A, Ravid R, Guan Z. Correlation of oxidative stress and the loss of the nicotinic receptor alpha 4 subunit in the temporal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2003;338:13-6 pubmed
    The correlation between oxidative stress and the loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha4 subunit has been investigated in the temporal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  82. Pimlott S, Piggott M, Ballard C, McKeith I, Perry R, Kometa S, et al. Thalamic nicotinic receptors implicated in disturbed consciousness in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;21:50-6 pubmed
    ..These findings, together with previous neocortical data, implicate nicotinic modulation of thalamo-cortical circuitry as a key component in the control of conscious awareness in DLB. ..
  83. Pillai S, Ge D, Zhu G, Kong X, Shianna K, Need A, et al. A genome-wide association study in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): identification of two major susceptibility loci. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000421 pubmed publisher
    ..1371/journal.pgen.1000429). The CHRNA 3/5 and the HHIP loci make a significant contribution to the risk of COPD. CHRNA3/5 is the same locus that has been implicated in the risk of lung cancer. ..
  84. Uteshev V. Allosteric Modulation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: The Concept and Therapeutic Trends. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22:1986-97 pubmed
    ..Although exogenous orthosteric nAChR ligands present valuable tools in treatment of age- and trauma-related neurological deficits, therapeutic ..
  85. Ben David Y, Mizrachi T, Kagan S, Krisher T, Cohen E, Brenner T, et al. RIC-3 expression and splicing regulate nAChR functional expression. Mol Brain. 2016;9:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, in immune cells such regulation via effects on ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, known to function in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, may have a role in neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  86. Wu S, Li Y, Shi Z, Lin Z, Rao Z, Tai S, et al. Alteration of Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway in Rat With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy-Modified Electrophysiological Function of Heart. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway elicited by vagal nerve via ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChR) can modulate local and systemic inflammatory responses...
  87. Wang C, Niu W, Chen H, Shi N, He D, Zhang M, et al. Nicotine suppresses apoptosis by regulating ?7nAChR/Prx1 axis in oral precancerous lesions. Oncotarget. 2017;8:75065-75075 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, we investigate the effects of nicotine in oral precancerous lesions focusing on apoptosis and nAChR/Prx1 signaling...
  88. Yang T, Xiao T, Sun Q, Wang K. The current agonists and positive allosteric modulators of ?7 nAChR for CNS indications in clinical trials. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2017;7:611-622 pubmed publisher
    The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7 nAChR), consisting of homomeric ?7 subunits, is a ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders...
  89. Newcombe J, Chatzidaki A, Sheppard T, Topf M, Millar N. Diversity of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators Revealed by Mutagenesis and a Revised Structural Model. Mol Pharmacol. 2018;93:128-140 pubmed publisher
    ..a series of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) acting on the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)...
  90. Martin Ruiz C, Lee M, Perry R, Baumann M, Court J, Perry E. Molecular analysis of nicotinic receptor expression in autism. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;123:81-90 pubmed
    ..The findings point to dendritic and/or synaptic nicotinic receptor abnormalities that may relate to disruptions in cerebral circuitry development. ..
  91. Vasto S, Candore G, Aquino A, Bulati M, Balistreri C, Grimaldi M, et al. The nACHR4 594C/T polymorphism in Alzheimer disease. Rejuvenation Res. 2006;9:107-10 pubmed
    ..quot; The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (neuronal nAChR) belongs to the superfamily of ionic channel activated by ligand...
  92. Wen L, Yang Z, Cui W, Li M. Crucial roles of the CHRNB3-CHRNA6 gene cluster on chromosome 8 in nicotine dependence: update and subjects for future research. Transl Psychiatry. 2016;6:e843 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the CHRNA4, CHRNB2 and CHRNA5/A3/B4 cluster on chromosome 15, which has been investigated intensively, recent evidence from ..