Gene Symbol: CHRM2
Description: cholinergic receptor muscarinic 2
Alias: HM2, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, 7TM receptor, acetylcholine receptor, muscarinic 2, cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, muscarinic M2 receptor
Species: human
Products:     CHRM2

Top Publications

  1. Comings D, Wu S, Rostamkhani M, McGue M, Iacono W, MacMurray J. Association of the muscarinic cholinergic 2 receptor (CHRM2) gene with major depression in women. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:527-9 pubmed
    ..We examined a common A-> T 1890 polymorphism in the 3' UTR of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor 2 (CHRM2) gene. There was a significant increase in the frequency of 11 homozygotes in 126 women with major depression (43...
  2. Jones K, Porjesz B, Almasy L, Bierut L, Goate A, Wang J, et al. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium of evoked EEG oscillations with CHRM2 receptor gene polymorphisms: implications for human brain dynamics and cognition. Int J Psychophysiol. 2004;53:75-90 pubmed
    ..brain oscillations and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) from the cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene (CHRM2) on chromosome 7...
  3. Krejci A, Bruce A, Dolezal V, Tucek S, Buckley N. Multiple promoters drive tissue-specific expression of the human M muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene. J Neurochem. 2004;91:88-98 pubmed
    ..We show that GATA-4 transcription factor binds to two sites within the regulatory regions of the M2 gene using reporter gene assays, electromobility shift assays and mutational analysis. ..
  4. Cannon D, Carson R, Nugent A, Eckelman W, Kiesewetter D, Williams J, et al. Reduced muscarinic type 2 receptor binding in subjects with bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:741-7 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, these data provide the first direct evidence that altered M2 receptor function contributes to mood dysregulation in bipolar disorder. ..
  5. Jones K, Porjesz B, Almasy L, Bierut L, Dick D, Goate A, et al. A cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) affects event-related oscillations. Behav Genet. 2006;36:627-39 pubmed
    We report genetic linkage and association findings which implicate the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) in the modulation of a scalp-recorded electrophysiological phenotype...
  6. Gosso M, van Belzen M, de Geus E, Polderman J, Heutink P, Boomsma D, et al. Association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence in a sample of 304 Dutch families. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:577-84 pubmed
    The CHRM2 gene is thought to be involved in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of acetylcholine release and has previously been implicated in higher cognitive processing...
  7. Dick D, Aliev F, Kramer J, Wang J, Hinrichs A, Bertelsen S, et al. Association of CHRM2 with IQ: converging evidence for a gene influencing intelligence. Behav Genet. 2007;37:265-72 pubmed
    ..COGA) sample, we have previously reported linkage and association to the cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor gene (CHRM2) on chromosome 7 with evoked EEG oscillations (Jones et al...
  8. Jäger D, Schmalenbach C, Prilla S, Schrobang J, Kebig A, Sennwitz M, et al. Allosteric small molecules unveil a role of an extracellular E2/transmembrane helix 7 junction for G protein-coupled receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34968-76 pubmed
    ..This study provides first evidence for a role of an allosteric E2/transmembrane helix 7 contact region for muscarinic receptor activation by orthosteric agonists. ..
  9. Gosso F, de Geus E, Polderman T, Boomsma D, Posthuma D, Heutink P. Exploring the functional role of the CHRM2 gene in human cognition: results from a dense genotyping and brain expression study. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:66 pubmed
    The CHRM2 gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q31-35), is involved in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of acetylcholine release, and has been implicated in higher cognitive processing...

More Information

Publications144 found, 100 shown here

  1. Dick D, Aliev F, Wang J, Grucza R, Schuckit M, Kuperman S, et al. Using dimensional models of externalizing psychopathology to aid in gene identification. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65:310-8 pubmed
    ..were conducted on 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped across a candidate gene, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 gene (CHRM2). Six centers across the United States...
  2. Cohen Woods S, Gaysina D, Craddock N, Farmer A, Gray J, Gunasinghe C, et al. Depression Case Control (DeCC) Study fails to support involvement of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene in recurrent major depressive disorder. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..on chromosome 7 with major depressive disorder (MDD) in or close to a region containing the muscarinic receptor CHRM2 gene...
  3. Bock A, Merten N, Schrage R, Dallanoce C, Bätz J, Klöckner J, et al. The allosteric vestibule of a seven transmembrane helical receptor controls G-protein coupling. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1044 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a new concept assigning a biological role to the allosteric vestibule for controlling fidelity of 7TMR signalling. ..
  4. Miao Y, Nichols S, Gasper P, Metzger V, McCammon J. Activation and dynamic network of the M2 muscarinic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10982-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the finding that residue motions in the ligand-binding and G-protein-coupling sites of the apo receptor are correlated, this result highlights a dynamic network for allosteric regulation of the M2 receptor activation. ..
  5. Bonner T, Buckley N, Young A, Brann M. Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes. Science. 1987;237:527-32 pubmed
    ..This gene family provides a new basis for evaluating the diversity of muscarinic mechanisms in the nervous system. ..
  6. Fenech A, Billington C, Swan C, Richards S, Hunter T, Ebejer M, et al. Novel polymorphisms influencing transcription of the human CHRM2 gene in airway smooth muscle. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:678-86 pubmed
    ..rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends and reporter gene assays, we characterized the 5' untranslated region of the CHRM2 gene as expressed in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells...
  7. Luo X, Kranzler H, Zuo L, Wang S, Blumberg H, Gelernter J. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2421-34 pubmed
    ..M., Rice, J. et al. (2004) Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet...
  8. Luo X, Kranzler H, Zuo L, Zhang H, Wang S, Gelernter J. CHRM2 variation predisposes to personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1557-68 pubmed
    ..Association between the M2 cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) and SD has recently been reported and replicated (Wang et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004);13:1903-1911; Luo et al...
  9. Gregory K, Hall N, Tobin A, Sexton P, Christopoulos A. Identification of orthosteric and allosteric site mutations in M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors that contribute to ligand-selective signaling bias. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7459-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular modeling of 77-LH-28-1 and N-desmethylclozapine yielded novel binding poses consistent with the possibility that the functional selectivity of such agents may arise from a bitopic mechanism. ..
  10. Haga K, Kruse A, Asada H, Yurugi Kobayashi T, Shiroishi M, Zhang C, et al. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist. Nature. 2012;482:547-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation. ..
  11. Offermanns S, Simon M. G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 couple a wide variety of receptors to phospholipase C. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:15175-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, the promiscuous behavior of G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 toward receptors may be helpful in finding ligands corresponding to orphan receptors whose signaling properties are unknown. ..
  12. Arfelt K, Fares S, Rosenkilde M. EBV, the human host, and the 7TM receptors: defense or offense?. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;129:395-427 pubmed publisher
    ..The 7TM receptor encoded by EBV-BILF1, is known to downregulate cell surface MHC class I expression as part of the immune ..
  13. Huang X, Xin K, Li X, Wang X, Ren L, Li X, et al. [Landscape pattern change of Dongzhai Harbour mangrove, South China analyzed with a patch-based method and its driving forces]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2015;26:1510-8 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the areas of mangrove forest in 1988, 1998 and 2009 were 1809.4, 1738.7 and 1608.2 hm2 respectively, which presented a trend of decrease with enhanced degree of landscape fragmentation...
  14. Wright S, Canizal M, Benkel T, Simon K, Le Gouill C, Matricon P, et al. FZD5 is a Gαq-coupled receptor that exhibits the functional hallmarks of prototypical GPCRs. Sci Signal. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that FZD5 is a 7TM receptor with a bona fide GPCR activation profile and suggest novel targets for drug discovery in WNT-FZD signaling.
  15. Li J, Ren M, Wang J, Sun S, Ma W. [Research on Breeding of the New Rehmannia glutinosa Variety]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2016;39:1452-6 pubmed
    ..was extremely significant difference between Huaidi 81 and other varieties,the yield of Huaidi 81( 82 353 kg / hm2) was29. 7% higher than that 5 main varieties...
  16. Zink N, Bensmann W, Arning L, Stock A, Beste C. CHRM2 Genotype Affects Inhibitory Control Mechanisms During Cognitive Flexibility. Mol Neurobiol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence suggests that the cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) plays an important role in the processing of cueing/prior information that help to increase the efficacy of lower-..
  17. Jin Y, Zhao H, Lu H, Kuemmel C, Zhang J, Wang D. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of novel 1-(Diethoxy-phosphoryl)-3-(4-one-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-propan-2-yl carboxylic esters. Molecules. 2015;20:1088-103 pubmed publisher
    ..reported, both compounds 5-A3 and 5-B4, which can inhibit the growth of barnyard grass at the concentration of 250g/hm2, efficiently gave rise to a nearly 4-fold increase of the herbicidal potency...
  18. Brann M, Ellis J, Jørgensen H, Hill Eubanks D, Jones S. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function. Prog Brain Res. 1993;98:121-7 pubmed
    ..The residues that contribute to ligand binding and G-protein coupling are described, as well as the implied structures of these functional domains. ..
  19. Hendrickson J, Hendrickson E, Gehrie E, Sidhu D, Wallukat G, Schimke I, et al. Complex regional pain syndrome and dysautonomia in a 14-year-old girl responsive to therapeutic plasma exchange. J Clin Apher. 2016;31:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient, who has serum anti β2-adrenergic and muscarinic M2 receptor autoantibodies in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ganglionic autoantibodies, underwent an ..
  20. Nagano H, Sobue Y, Matsuyama H, Saito S, Sakai H, Alom F, et al. Muscarinic M2 receptor promotes vasopressin synthesis in mice supraoptic nuclei. J Endocrinol. 2018;237:207-216 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that M2 receptors promote arginine-vasopressin synthesis in the supraoptic nuclei and play a role in the regulation and maintenance of body fluid. ..
  21. Lind P, Luciano M, Horan M, Marioni R, Wright M, Bates T, et al. No association between Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptor 2 (CHRM2) genetic variation and cognitive abilities in three independent samples. Behav Genet. 2009;39:513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..One gene that has been associated with general cognitive ability is the cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2)...
  22. Croy C, Schober D, Xiao H, Quets A, Christopoulos A, Felder C. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator, LY2119620, at the muscarinic M(2) and M(4) receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;86:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..2013), a structure that provides crucial insights into the mechanisms of orthosteric activation and allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptors. ..
  23. Daugvilaite V, Madsen C, Lückmann M, Echeverria C, Sailer A, Frimurer T, et al. Biased agonism and allosteric modulation of G protein-coupled receptor 183 - a 7TM receptor also known as Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174:2031-2042 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data point to N114 as a key residue for EBI2 signalling controlling the balance between G protein-dependent and -independent pathways and facilitating sodium binding. ..
  24. Sanni S, Kulahin N, Jorgensen R, Lyngsø C, Gammeltoft S, Hansen J. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET2) assay for monitoring seven transmembrane receptor and insulin receptor crosstalk. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2017;37:590-599 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the BRET2 technique can be used as a platform for studying molecular mechanisms of crosstalk between insulin receptor and 7TM receptors. ..
  25. Lin Y, Tan K, Liu J, Kong X, Huang Z, Xu X. Global profiling of Rbm24 bound RNAs uncovers a multi-tasking RNA binding protein. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018;94:10-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, Rbm24 is found to cause the destabilization of Chrm2 via binding to an element in the coding region...
  26. Badner J, Yoon S, Turner G, Bonner T, Detera Wadleigh S. Multipoint genetic linkage analysis of the m2 human muscarinic receptor gene. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:489-90 pubmed
  27. Jiménez Morales S, Jiménez Ruíz J, del Rio Navarro B, Navarro Olivos E, Escamilla Guerrero G, Savan R, et al. CHRM2 but not CHRM1 or CHRM3 polymorphisms are associated with asthma susceptibility in Mexican patients. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:2109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes in CHRM1, CHRM2, or CHRM3 are associated with asthma in Mexican pediatric population...
  28. Miao Y, Goldfeld D, Moo E, Sexton P, Christopoulos A, McCammon J, et al. Accelerated structure-based design of chemically diverse allosteric modulators of a muscarinic G protein-coupled receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E5675-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates an unprecedented successful structure-based approach to identify chemically diverse and selective GPCR allosteric modulators with outstanding potential for further structure-activity relationship studies. ..
  29. Park P, Wells J. Oligomeric potential of the M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor. J Neurochem. 2004;90:537-48 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that the oligomers coexist with a sizeable population of monomers. ..
  30. Bedini A. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to detect the interactions between kappa opioid receptor and non visual arrestins. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1230:115-28 pubmed publisher
    ..g., β2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic M2 receptor, dopaminergic D2 receptor) and non-visual arrestins...
  31. Ockenga W, Tikkanen R. Revisiting the endocytosis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Membranes (Basel). 2015;5:197-213 pubmed publisher
    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family...
  32. Zhao R, He Y. Network pharmacology analysis of the anti-cancer pharmacological mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum extract with experimental support using Hepa1-6-bearing C57 BL/6 mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;210:287-295 pubmed publisher and Predicted-Compound-Target network, 6 hub targets were screened, including AR, CHRM2, ESR1, NR3C1, NR3C2 and PGR, which was considered as potential markers and might play important roles in the ..
  33. Lee K, Ptasienski J, Bunemann M, Hosey M. Acidic amino acids flanking phosphorylation sites in the M2 muscarinic receptor regulate receptor phosphorylation, internalization, and interaction with arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35767-77 pubmed
    ..We propose that the amino acids at sites A1 and A2 play important roles in agonist-dependent phosphorylation at sites P2 and P1, respectively, and also play an important role in arrestin interactions with the M(2) mAChR. ..
  34. Cohen R, Podruchny T, Bokde A, Carson R, Herscovitch P, Kiesewetter D, et al. Higher in vivo muscarinic-2 receptor distribution volumes in aging subjects with an apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 allele. Synapse. 2003;49:150-6 pubmed
    ..65, P < 0.06). A lower concentration of acetylcholine in the synapse of APOE-epsilon4+ older individuals is a likely explanation for the greater [(18)F]FP-TZTP distribution volumes. ..
  35. Zhou X, Wulfsen I, Lutz S, Utku E, Sausbier U, Ruth P, et al. M2 muscarinic receptors induce airway smooth muscle activation via a dual, Gbetagamma-mediated inhibition of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21036-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that airway M(2)Rs inhibit BK channels by a dual, Gbetagamma-mediated mechanism, a direct membrane-delimited interaction, and the activation of the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway. ..
  36. Han M, Gurevich V, Vishnivetskiy S, Sigler P, Schubert C. Crystal structure of beta-arrestin at 1.9 A: possible mechanism of receptor binding and membrane Translocation. Structure. 2001;9:869-80 pubmed
    ..Like the interaction between beta-arrestin's polar core and the phosphorylated receptor, such a general activation mechanism would contribute to beta-arrestin's versatility as a regulator of many receptors. ..
  37. Delaney K, Murph M, Brown L, Radhakrishna H. Transfer of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors to clathrin-derived early endosomes following clathrin-independent endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33439-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that M(2) mAChRs initially internalize via an Arf6-associated, clathrin-independent pathway but then quickly merge with the clathrin endocytic pathway at the level of early endosomes. ..
  38. Hill S, Jones B, Holmes B, Steinhauer S, Zezza N, Stiffler S. Cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) variation and familial loading for alcohol dependence predict childhood developmental trajectories of P300. Psychiatry Res. 2013;209:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in the cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene (CHRM2) has previously been associated with P300 amplitude and AD...
  39. Méndez Luna D, Martínez Archundia M, Maroun R, Ceballos Reyes G, Fragoso Vázquez M, González Juárez D, et al. Deciphering the GPER/GPR30-agonist and antagonists interactions using molecular modeling studies, molecular dynamics, and docking simulations. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2015;33:2161-72 pubmed publisher
  40. McCauley J, Zuvich R, Bradford Y, Kenealy S, Schnetz Boutaud N, Gregory S, et al. Follow-up examination of linkage and association to chromosome 1q43 in multiple sclerosis. Genes Immun. 2009;10:624-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We found preliminary evidence to suggest that common variation within the RGS7 locus may be involved in disease susceptibility. ..
  41. Warren N, Piggott M, Lees A, Perry E, Burn D. Intact coupling of M1 receptors and preserved M2 and M4 receptors in the cortex in progressive supranuclear palsy: contrast with other dementias. J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;35:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude from this first systematic study of cortical muscarinic receptors in PSP that functioning cortical muscarinic receptors are preserved. A further, larger trial of cholinergic therapy, such as an M1 agonist, may be warranted. ..
  42. Zhang C, Hu X, Luo J, Wu Z, Wang L, Li B, et al. Degradation dynamics of glyphosate in different types of citrus orchard soils in China. Molecules. 2015;20:1161-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Glyphosate soluble powder and aqueous solution were applied at 3000 and 5040 g active ingredient/hm2, respectively, in citrus orchard soils, and periodically drawn soil samples were analyzed by high performance ..
  43. Shim J, Lee S, Gim H, Kim H, Han T, Kim J, et al. Regulation of the pacemaker activities in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal by Citrus unshiu peel extracts. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14:3908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of the muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist, methoctramine, CPE induced membrane pacemaker depolarization, whereas treatment with the ..
  44. Mougey E, Chen C, Tantisira K, Blake K, Peters S, Wise R, et al. Pharmacogenetics of asthma controller treatment. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013;13:242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, 16 SNPs in seven genes were significantly associated with outcomes. For FP/Salm, three SNPs in CHRM2 associated with ACQ slope (P=2.8 × 10⁻⁵), and rs1461496 in HSPA8 associated with ΔFEV1%pred...
  45. Barbosa J, Reis S, Nunes M, Ferreira Y, Leite K, Nahas W, et al. The Obstructed Bladder: Expression of Collagen, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Muscarinic Receptors, and Angiogenic and Neurotrophic Factors in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Urology. 2017;106:167-172 pubmed publisher
    ..metalloproteinases (TIMPs) TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK); CHRM2 and CHRM3; VEGF and CD105; and NGF and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFr)...
  46. Liu Y, Zhang L, Ma T, Song S, Liu H, Wang X, et al. Feishu Acupuncture Inhibits Acetylcholine Synthesis and Restores Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M2 Expression in the Lung When Treating Allergic Asthma. Inflammation. 2018;41:741-750 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirmed the therapeutic effects of Feishu acupuncture on allergic asthma, suggesting that the mechanisms may involve suppression of the Ach signal both from its synthesis and during its release. ..
  47. Sterin Borda L, Goin J, Bilder C, Iantorno G, Hernando A, Borda E. Interaction of human chagasic IgG with human colon muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: molecular and functional evidence. Gut. 2001;49:699-705 pubmed
    ..In chagasic patients with megacolon there are antibodies that can recognise and activate M2 mAChR. The implications of these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of chagasic megacolon is discussed. ..
  48. Gregory K, Sexton P, Tobin A, Christopoulos A. Stimulus bias provides evidence for conformational constraints in the structure of a G protein-coupled receptor. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37066-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that downstream signaling pathways previously considered to be related to each other (i.e. receptor phosphorylation, internalization, and activation of ERK1/2) can act independently. ..
  49. Jöhren K, Höltje H. A model of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2002;16:795-801 pubmed
    ..Subsequent molecular dynamics simulations yielded different binding energies based on diverse electrostatic and lipophilic interactions. The calculated affinities are in good agreement to experimentally determined affinities...
  50. Hou D, Chen Y, Liu J, Xu L, Zhang Z, Zhang J, et al. Proteomics screen to reveal molecular changes mediated by C722G missense mutation in CHRM2 gene. J Proteomics. 2013;89:39-50 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported a missense mutation (C722G) in the M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM2) gene associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy...
  51. Ichiyama S, Nemoto R, Tanabe H, Haga T. Interaction of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M? subtype with G protein G?(i/o) isotypes and G?? subunits as studied with the maltose-binding protein-M?-G?(i/o) fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 2014;156:259-72 pubmed publisher
    We expressed the fusion proteins of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype (M2 receptor) with a maltose-binding protein (MBP) and various G protein ? subunits (G?(i1-i3/o)) at its N- and C-terminals, respectively (MBP-M2-G?(i/o))..
  52. Patten G, Kerr C, Dunne R, Shaw J, Bird A, Regina A, et al. Resistant starch alters colonic contractility and expression of related genes in rats fed a Western diet. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60:1624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The colonic expression of genes, including cholinergic receptors (Chrm2, Chrm3), serotonin receptors (Htr5a, Htr7), a protease-activated receptor (F2r), a prokineticin receptor (Prokr1), ..
  53. Robichaux W, Oner S, Lanier S, Blumer J. Direct Coupling of a Seven-Transmembrane-Span Receptor to a Gαi G-Protein Regulatory Motif Complex. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88:231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hypothesized that a 7TM receptor directly couples to the GαGPR complex in a manner analogous to receptor coupling to the Gαβγ ..
  54. Lee S, Misseri R, Akbal C, Jung C, Rink R, Kaefer M. Muscarinic receptor expression increases following exposure to intravesical pressures of < or =40 cm-H2O: a possible mechanism for pressure-induced cell proliferation. World J Urol. 2008;26:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetylcholine has a more profound proliferative effect when cells are simultaneously exposed to increased levels of hydrostatic pressure. ..
  55. Zhao Q, Yue J, Zhang C, Gu X, Chen H, Xu L. Inactivation of M2 AChR/NF-κB signaling axis reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppresses migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Oncotarget. 2015;6:29335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that M2R/ERK/Akt/NF-κB axis could be a potential target for NSCLC treatment. ..
  56. Retondaro F, Dos Santos Costa P, Pedrosa R, Kurtenbach E. Presence of antibodies against the third intracellular loop of the m2 muscarinic receptor in the sera of chronic chagasic patients. FASEB J. 1999;13:2015-20 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the prevalence and distribution of these antibodies shows a strong association between seropositive patients and moderate (group II) to severe (group III) heart dysfunction. ..
  57. Michal P, Rudajev V, El Fakahany E, Dolezal V. Membrane cholesterol content influences binding properties of muscarinic M2 receptors and differentially impacts activation of second messenger pathways. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;606:50-60 pubmed publisher
  58. Yamamoto T, Yamashita N, Kuwabara M, Nakano J, Sugimoto H, Akiyama K, et al. Mutation screening of the muscarinic m2 and m3 receptor genes in asthmatics, outgrow subjects, and normal controls. Ann Genet. 2002;45:109-13 pubmed
    ..A mutation characterized by a single base substitution (A1050G, Ser350Ser) was identified in the muscarinic m2 receptor gene. This polymorphism was common and was represented in all three groups studied...
  59. Dean B, Scarr E. Possible involvement of muscarinic receptors in psychiatric disorders: a focus on schizophrenia and mood disorders. Curr Mol Med. 2015;15:253-64 pubmed
    ..CHRM1 and CHRM4 implicate these receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia whereas data suggest a role for CHRM2 in mood disorders...
  60. Grinstein J, Kruse E, Collins K, Sayer G, Fedson S, Kim G, et al. Screening for Outflow Cannula Malfunction of Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) With the Use of Doppler Echocardiography: New LVAD-Specific Reference Values for Contemporary Devices. J Card Fail. 2016;22:808-14 pubmed publisher
    ..with the use of Doppler transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 57 patients with LVADs (44 with Heartmate II (HM2), 13 with Heartware (HW))...
  61. Wu J, Yang Z, Weng F, Liu X, Chen C, Lin W, et al. [Comparison of soil respiration in natural Castanopsis carlesii forest and plantation forest]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2014;35:2426-32 pubmed
    ..86 and 2.01, and the annual CO2 fluxes were 14.34 t x (hm2 x a)(-1) and 11.18 t x (hm2 x a)(-1), respectively. The soil respiration declined by 22...
  62. Pontari M, Braverman A, Ruggieri M. The M2 muscarinic receptor mediates in vitro bladder contractions from patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R874-80 pubmed
  63. Azuma Y, Samezawa N, Nishiyama K, Nakajima H, Takeuchi T. Differences in time to peak carbachol-induced contractions between circular and longitudinal smooth muscles of mouse ileum. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:63-72 pubmed
    ..1 min) than the longitudinal muscle (1.4 min). Furthermore, a muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist and gap junction inhibitor significantly delayed the time to peak contraction of the large ..
  64. Gibbons A, Jeon W, Scarr E, Dean B. Changes in Muscarinic M2 Receptor Levels in the Cortex of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder and in Rats after Treatment with Mood Stabilisers and Antidepressants. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we used Western blots to measure levels of CHRM2 protein and oxotremorine-M stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding as a measure of CHRM 2 / 4 signaling...
  65. Chauhan P, Misra U, Kalita J, Chandravanshi L, Khanna V. Memory and learning seems to be related to cholinergic dysfunction in the JE rat model. Physiol Behav. 2016;156:148-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Muscarinic cholinergic receptor was assayed by Quinuclidinyl benzylate (H3-QNB) binding, CHRM2 gene expression by real time PCR and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by Western blot...
  66. Singh A, Kashyap M, Tripathi V, Singh S, Garg G, Rizvi S. Neuroprotection Through Rapamycin-Induced Activation of Autophagy and PI3K/Akt1/mTOR/CREB Signaling Against Amyloid-?-Induced Oxidative Stress, Synaptic/Neurotransmission Dysfunction, and Neurodegeneration in Adult Rats. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:5815-5828 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of synapsin-I, synaptophysin, and PSD95; and neurotransmission dysfunction by increasing the levels of CHRM2, DAD2 receptor, NMDA receptor, and AMPA receptor; and ultimately improved cognitive ability in rats...
  67. Sakata K, Overacre A. Promoter IV-BDNF deficiency disturbs cholinergic gene expression of CHRNA5, CHRM2, and CHRM5: effects of drug and environmental treatments. J Neurochem. 2017;143:49-64 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (CHRM5) in the hippocampus, but significant increases in M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM2) in the frontal cortex of KIV mice compared to wild-type mice...
  68. Ashkenazi A, Ramachandran J, Capon D. Acetylcholine analogue stimulates DNA synthesis in brain-derived cells via specific muscarinic receptor subtypes. Nature. 1989;340:146-50 pubmed
  69. Wang H, Han H, Zhang L, Shi H, Schram G, Nattel S, et al. Expression of multiple subtypes of muscarinic receptors and cellular distribution in the human heart. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:1029-36 pubmed
  70. Lai M, Lai O, Keene J, Esiri M, Francis P, Hope T, et al. Psychosis of Alzheimer's disease is associated with elevated muscarinic M2 binding in the cortex. Neurology. 2001;57:805-11 pubmed
    ..This study suggests a role for M(2) receptors in the psychosis of AD and may provide the rationale for treatment of behaviorally perturbed patients with AD with cholinomimetics and M(2) antagonists. ..
  71. Defant A, Mancini I, Matucci R, Bellucci C, Dosi F, Malferrari D, et al. Muscarine-like compounds derived from a pyrolysis product of cellulose. Org Biomol Chem. 2015;13:6291-8 pubmed publisher in the series with values comparable to natural (+)-muscarine and a moderate selectivity in favor of the hM2 subtype receptor, also exhibited the highest stability during the interaction with the hM2 (3UON) subtype ..
  72. Anighoro A, Graziani D, Bettinelli I, Cilia A, De Toma C, Longhi M, et al. Insights into the interaction of negative allosteric modulators with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5: discovery and computational modeling of a new series of ligands with nanomolar affinity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015;23:3040-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A homology model of the 7TM receptor domain built on the crystal structure of the mGlu1 template was obtained, and the binding modes of known NAMs, ..
  73. Russell M, Winitz S, Johnson G. Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:2343-51 pubmed
    ..GTP. Taken together, the data indicate that G protein-coupled receptors can positively and negatively regulate the responsiveness of tyrosine kinase-stimulated mitogenic response pathways. ..
  74. Kohr D, Singh P, Tschernatsch M, Kaps M, Pouokam E, Diener M, et al. Autoimmunity against the ?2 adrenergic receptor and muscarinic-2 receptor in complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2011;152:2690-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings contribute to the further understanding of this disease, could help in the diagnosis in future, and encourage new treatment strategies focusing on the immune system...
  75. Miyauchi M, Kishida I, Suda A, Shiraishi Y, Hattori S, Fujibayashi M, et al. Association of the Cholinergic Muscarinic M2 Receptor with Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia on High-Dose Antipsychotics. Neuropsychobiology. 2016;74:60-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured as an index of ANS activity. SNPs in CHRM1 (rs542269 and rs2075748), CHRM2 (rs324640, rs8191992, rs1824024, and rs7810473), and CHRM3 (rs3738435, rs4620530, and rs6429157) were genotyped ..
  76. Zhong Q, Chen X, Zhao Y, Liu R, Yao S. Association of Polymorphisms in Pharmacogenetic Candidate Genes with Propofol Susceptibility. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3343 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, dominant mutations in GABAA1 rs2279020, GABAA2 rs11503014, and CHRM2 rs1824024 were putatively associated with cardiovascular susceptibility to propofol anesthesia...
  77. Braverman A, Lebed B, Linder M, Ruggieri M. M2 mediated contractions of human bladder from organ donors is associated with an increase in urothelial muscarinic receptors. Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26:63-70 pubmed
    ..In comparison between human and pig bladders, the distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the muscle and urothelium are quite different. ..
  78. Morishima H, Kajiwara K, Akiyama K, Yanagihara Y. Ligation of Toll-like receptor 3 differentially regulates M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor expression and function in human airway smooth muscle cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145:163-74 pubmed
  79. Muthuri S, Saunders F, Hardy R, Pavlova A, Martin K, Gregory J, et al. Associations between body mass index across adult life and hip shapes at age 60 to 64: Evidence from the 1946 British birth cohort. Bone. 2017;105:115-121 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher BMI at all ages (i.e. 15 to 60-64) and greater gains in BMI were associated with higher HM2 scores in both sexes (with positive HM2 values representing a shorter femoral neck and a wider and flatter femoral ..
  80. Ågren R, Sahlholm K, Nilsson J, Århem P. Point mutation of a conserved aspartate, D69, in the muscarinic M2 receptor does not modify voltage-sensitive agonist potency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:101-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our present observations corroborate the notion that D69 is not responsible for voltage sensitivity of the M2R. ..
  81. Malhotra S, Basu D, Ghosh A, Khullar M, Chugh N, Kakkar N. An exploratory study of candidate gene(s) for Delirium Tremens: Adding the new cholinergic dimension to the conundrum. Asian J Psychiatr. 2018;31:137-141 pubmed publisher
    ..T allele carrying status (GT and TT) [rs1824024] of muscarinic cholinergic receptor 2 (CHRM2) was found to be significantly associated with DT...
  82. Goyal R. Muscarinic receptor subtypes. Physiology and clinical implications. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:1022-9 pubmed
  83. Bjur D, Danielson P, Alfredson H, Forsgren S. Presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system and occurrence of up- and down-regulation in expression of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: new aspects of importance regarding Achilles tendon tendinosis (tendinopathy). Cell Tissue Res. 2008;331:385-400 pubmed
  84. Yalcin M, Gurses K, Kocyigit D, Kesikli S, Ates A, Evranos B, et al. Elevated M2-muscarinic and β1-adrenergic receptor autoantibody levels are associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Clin Res Cardiol. 2015;104:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..16 ng/mL. Our results demonstrated that higher serum anti-M2-R and anti-β1-R levels are associated with lone PAF. Autoantibodies related to autonomic system may play an important role in the development of lone AF. ..
  85. Kazui T, Zhang A, Greenberg J, Itoh A, Tran P, Keith A, et al. Left Ventricular Assist Device Inflow Angle and Pump Positional Change Over Time Adverse Impact on Left Ventricular Assist Device Function. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;102:1933-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..positional change over time, and the incidence of thrombotic pump dysfunction in a large cohort of HeartMate II (HM2) patients...
  86. Ozturk P, Ertugay S, Sahutoglu C, Engin C, Nalbantgil S, Yagdi T, et al. Short-term Results of Heartmate 3 Ventricular Assist Device Implantation for End-Stage Heart Failure. Transplant Proc. 2017;49:599-602 pubmed publisher
    ..who underwent HM3 implantation in our clinic from January to June 2016 (group 1) and 16 patients who underwent HM2 implantation during 2015 (group 2) were reviewed retrospectively...
  87. Toro Castillo C, Thapliyal A, Gonzalez Ochoa H, Adams B, Meza U. Muscarinic modulation of Cav2.3 (R-type) calcium channels is antagonized by RGS3 and RGS3T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C573-80 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the amino terminus of RGS3 may serve to confine it to the cytoplasmic compartment where it can interact with cell surface receptors, heterotrimeric G proteins, and other signaling proteins. ..
  88. Hendershot C, Bryan A, Ewing S, Claus E, Hutchison K. Preliminary evidence for associations of CHRM2 with substance use and disinhibition in adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2011;39:671-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The cholinergic muscarinic receptor 2 gene (CHRM2) is a promising candidate for studying genetic influences on broad-based risk for externalizing traits...
  89. Arrighi N, Bodei S, Zani D, Simeone C, Cunico S, Spano P, et al. [Acetylcholine induces human detrusor muscle cell proliferation: molecular and pharmacological characterization]. Urologia. 2012;79:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could help to better understand the role of antimuscarinic drugs, which are currently used for the treatment of many urological diseases...
  90. Hegde S, Hughes A, Chen Y, Steinfeld T, Jasper J, Lee T, et al. Pharmacologic characterization of GSK-961081 (TD-5959), a first-in-class inhaled bifunctional bronchodilator possessing muscarinic receptor antagonist and ?2-adrenoceptor agonist properties. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;351:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In competition radioligand binding studies at human recombinant receptors, GSK-961081 displayed high affinity for hM2 (Ki = 1.4 nM), hM3 muscarinic receptors (Ki = 1.3 nM) and h?2-adrenoceptors (Ki = 3.7 nM)...
  91. Jeon W, Dean B, Scarr E, Gibbons A. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Mood Disorders: A Potential Novel Treatment?. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2015;13:739-49 pubmed
    ..and genetic studies supporting the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (CHRMs), particularly CHRM2, in the pathophysiology of MDD and BPD...