choline acetyltransferase


Gene Symbol: choline acetyltransferase
Description: choline O-acetyltransferase
Alias: CHOACTASE, CMS1A, CMS1A2, CMS6, choline O-acetyltransferase, acetyl CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, choline acetylase
Species: human
Products:     choline acetyltransferase

Top Publications

  1. Volgin D, Rukhadze I, Kubin L. Hypoglossal premotor neurons of the intermediate medullary reticular region express cholinergic markers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:1576-84 pubmed publisher
    ..both muscarinic (M) and nicotinic cholinergic inputs and that the IRt region contains cells that express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a marker of cholinergic neurons, we investigated whether some IRt XII premotor neurons are ..
  2. Grunblatt E, Zehetmayer S, Bartl J, Löffler C, Wichart I, Rainer M, et al. Genetic risk factors and markers for Alzheimer's disease and/or depression in the VITA study. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43:298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations between AD and/or depression to gene polymorphisms APO E (epsilon4), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) 4G to A, serotonin-transporter gene promoter-length, dopamine-D4-receptor, ciliary-neurotrophic-..
  3. Scacchi R, Gambina G, Moretto G, Corbo R. Variability of AChE, BChE, and ChAT genes in the late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease and relationships with response to treatment with Donepezil and Rivastigmine. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the genes of three enzymes of the cholinergic system: acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and choline acetyltransferase. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) examined were: AChE rs2571598, BChE rs1355534, BChE ..
  4. Grunblatt E, Reif A, Jungwirth S, Galimberti D, Weber H, Scarpini E, et al. Genetic variation in the choline O-acetyltransferase gene in depression and Alzheimer's disease: the VITA and Milano studies. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:1250-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Lee J, Jo S, Park J, Lee S, Jo I, Kim D, et al. Choline acetyltransferase 2384G>a polymorphism and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012;26:81-7 pubmed publisher
    The potential association between choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) polymorphism and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been controversial...
  6. Watanabe T, Kiyomoto T, Tadokoro R, Takase Y, Takahashi Y. Newly raised anti-VAChT and anti-ChAT antibodies detect cholinergic cells in chicken embryos. Dev Growth Differ. 2017;59:677-687 pubmed publisher
    ..The antibodies obtained in this study are useful for visualization of cholinergic neurons including parasympathetic ganglia. ..
  7. Bishop D. Which neurodevelopmental disorders get researched and why?. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15112 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth in research is not explained by severity, and was exceptionally steep for autism and ADHD. ..
  8. Roy K, Chauhan G, Kumari P, Wadhwa M, Alam S, Ray K, et al. Phosphorylated delta sleep inducing peptide restores spatial memory and p-CREB expression by improving sleep architecture at high altitude. Life Sci. 2018;209:282-290 pubmed publisher
    ..TH) expression and increased monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression...
  9. Smith M, Souza F, Bruce K, Strang C, Morley B, Keyser K. Acetylcholine receptors in the retinas of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2014;20:1328-56 pubmed
    ..To determine any differences in the number and distribution of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) amacrine cells, we employed wholemount and vertical immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cell counting...

More Information

Publications147 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gong Y, Hu K, Yang L, Guo J, Gao Y, Song F, et al. Comparative effects of EtOH consumption and thiamine deficiency on cognitive impairment, oxidative damage, and β-amyloid peptide overproduction in the brain. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;108:163-173 pubmed publisher
    ..and reducing the thiamine level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities in both the hippocampus and cortex...
  2. Du C, Min A, Kim H, Shin S, Yu H, Sohn E, et al. Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. J Med Food. 2015;18:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was ..
  3. Zhang J, Yue X, Luo H, Jiang W, Mei Y, Ai L, et al. Illumination with 630-nm red light reduces oxidative stress and restores memory by photo-activating catalase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase in SAMP8 mice. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, excess FA, in turn, caused acetylcholine (Ach) deficiency by inhibiting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in vitro and in vivo...
  4. Reeta K, Singh D, Gupta Y. Chronic treatment with taurine after intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection improves cognitive dysfunction in rats by modulating oxidative stress, cholinergic functions and neuroinflammation. Neurochem Int. 2017;108:146-156 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1β, expression of rho kinase-II (ROCK-II), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were studied in cortex and hippocampus...
  5. Gargouri B, Bhatia H, Bouchard M, Fiebich B, Fetoui H. Inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms potentiate bifenthrin-induced neurological alterations and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Toxicol Lett. 2018;294:73-86 pubmed publisher
    ..acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as gene expression of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAchR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the frontal cortex and striatum...
  6. Zhang X, Li S, Wang C, Tian H, Wang W, Ru S. Effects of monocrotophos pesticide on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems during early development in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;328:46-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that this disruption is one of the main mechanisms of MCP-related developmental neurotoxicity, which would contribute better understanding insight into the mechanism of MCP pesticide's toxic effects. ..
  7. Pan Y, Xu J, Jin P, Yang Q, Zhu K, You M, et al. Royal Jelly Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits, Cholinergic System Deficiency, and Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits. Molecules. 2019;24: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, RJ also increased the activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, and enhanced heart rate variability (HRV) and ..
  8. Min A, Doo C, Son E, Sung N, Lee K, Sok D, et al. N-palmitoyl serotonin alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of BDNF and p-CREB in mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2015;242:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), level of oxidative stress markers, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ..
  9. Han Y, Qin X, Zhang T, Lei M, Sun F, Sun J, et al. Electroacupuncture prevents cognitive impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide via inhibition of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurosci Lett. 2018;683:190-195 pubmed publisher
    ..EA prevented LPS-induced decrease of α7nAChR protein, acetylcholine (ACh) content and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and prevented LPS-induced increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (P < ..
  10. Deng L, Ruan Y, Chen C, Frye C, Xiong W, Jin X, et al. Characterization of dendritic morphology and neurotransmitter phenotype of thoracic descending propriospinal neurons after complete spinal cord transection and GDNF treatment. Exp Neurol. 2016;277:103-114 pubmed publisher
    ..For the group receiving FG injections, immunohistochemistry for glutamate, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glycine, and GABA was performed in the T7-9 spinal cord...
  11. Torres da Silva K, Da Silva A, Barioni N, Tessarin G, De Oliveira J, Ervolino E, et al. Neurochemistry study of spinal cord in non-human primate (Sapajus spp.). Eur J Histochem. 2016;60:2623 pubmed publisher
    ..nNOS) immunoreactivity  in neuronal somata and in fibers of laminae I, II, III, VII, VIII, X and IML; choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in neuronal somata and in fibers of laminae VII, VIII and IX; calcitonin gene-related peptide (..
  12. Petersen A, Cheung S, Smith J, Bi W, Ward P, Peacock S, et al. Positive predictive value estimates for cell-free noninvasive prenatal screening from data of a large referral genetic diagnostic laboratory. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:691.e1-691.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, our data provide valuable information that may aid result interpretation, patient counseling, and clinical decision making/management. ..
  13. Ma L, Xiao H, Wen J, Liu Z, He Y, Yuan F. Possible mechanism of Vitis vinifera L. flavones on neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission and related learning and memory in Alzheimer model rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:152 pubmed publisher
    ..The researchers detected the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) according to kit instructions...
  14. Chen W, Chen S, Li C, Wang J, Duanmu C, Chang X, et al. [Does the Nucleus Ambiguus-Vague Nerve Mediate Anti-myocardial Ischemic Effect of Electroacupuncture of "Neiguan" (PC 6)-"Jianshi" (PC 7) in Myocardial Ischemia Rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2016;41:189-96 pubmed
    ..The expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and c-fos proteins in the nucleus ambiguus ..
  15. Olivas A, Gardner R, Wang L, Ripplinger C, Woodward W, Habecker B. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130. J Neurosci. 2016;36:479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine ..
  16. Tan S, Geng X, Liu J, Pan W, Wang L, Liu H, et al. Xue-fu-Zhu-Yu decoction protects rats against retinal ischemia by downregulation of HIF-1? and VEGF via inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:365 pubmed publisher
    ..ERG b-wave ratios, less numerous retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), reduced inner retinal thickness, fewer choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) labeled amacrine cell bodies, increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity ..
  17. Zhu Y, Liu W, Qi S, Wang H, Wang Y, Deng G, et al. Stereoselective glucuronidation metabolism, pharmacokinetics, anti-amnesic pharmacodynamics, and toxic properties of vasicine enantiomers in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018;123:459-474 pubmed publisher
    ..increased more than that of l-VAS in mice cortex, through inhibiting cholinesterase (ChE) and increasing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). In addition, the LD50 value of d-VAS (282...
  18. Liu Y, Zhang L, Ma T, Song S, Liu H, Wang X, et al. Feishu Acupuncture Inhibits Acetylcholine Synthesis and Restores Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M2 Expression in the Lung When Treating Allergic Asthma. Inflammation. 2018;41:741-750 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirmed the therapeutic effects of Feishu acupuncture on allergic asthma, suggesting that the mechanisms may involve suppression of the Ach signal both from its synthesis and during its release. ..
  19. Farmakidis C, Pasnoor M, Barohn R, Dimachkie M. Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes: a Clinical and Treatment Approach. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2018;20:36 pubmed publisher
    ..congenital myasthenia syndrome due to glycosylation defects, fast channel syndrome, AChR deficiency, and choline acetyltransferase deficiency (ChaT) and therefore may be particularly important in the treatment of syndromes due to ..
  20. Bianco F, Eisenman S, Colmenares Aguilar M, Bonora E, Clavenzani P, Linden D, et al. Expression of RAD21 immunoreactivity in myenteric neurons of the human and mouse small intestine. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018;30:e13429 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showing cytoplasmic RAD21 expression in enteric neurons provide a basis toward understanding how mutations of this gene may contribute to altered neuronal function/survival thus leading to gut-motor abnormalities. ..
  21. Nourinezhad J, Podlasz P, Wasowicz K. Immunohistochemical characteristics of neurons in the ganglia of the greater splanchnic nerve of the pig. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2017;55:221-229 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine b-hydroxylase (DBH), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL),..
  22. Kim M, Lee D, Lee J, Kim H, Sung S, Han J, et al. Terminalia chebula extract prevents scopolamine-induced amnesia via cholinergic modulation and anti-oxidative effects in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Hippocampal levels of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were measured ex vivo...
  23. Kuhrt H, Bringmann A, Härtig W, Wibbelt G, Peichl L, Reichenbach A. The Retina of Asian and African Elephants: Comparison of Newborn and Adult. Brain Behav Evol. 2017;89:84-103 pubmed publisher
    ..expressing S-opsin or M/L-opsin), protein kinase Cα-expressing bipolar cells, tyrosine hydroxylase-, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, calbindin-, and calretinin-expressing amacrine cells, and calbindin-expressing horizontal cells...
  24. Brasileiro A, Garcia L, de Carvalho da Silva S, Rocha L, Pedrosa A, Vieira A, et al. Effects of diabetes mellitus on myenteric neuronal density and sodium channel expression in the rat ileum. Brain Res. 2019;1708:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..control: 41 ± 2%); however, western-blot analysis did not indicate a reduction in the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the DM group. The Nav1.6 isoform was detected in different myenteric neurons of the ileum...
  25. Hu W, Feng Z, Xu J, Jiang Z, Feng M. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells-derived cholinergic-like neurons improve spatial learning and memory ability in Alzheimer's disease rats. Brain Res. 2019;1710:61-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that BDNF modified hUC-MSCs-derived cholinergic-like neurons might be a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. ..
  26. Li Z, Chen X, Lu W, Zhang S, Guan X, Li Z, et al. Anti-Oxidative Stress Activity Is Essential for Amanita caesarea Mediated Neuroprotection on Glutamate-Induced Apoptotic HT22 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..improved the central cholinergic system function, as indicated by an increase acetylcholine (Ach) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentrations and a reduction in acetylcholine esterase (AchE) levels...
  27. Ogundele O, Ebenezer P, Lee C, Francis J. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKII? expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy. Neuroscience. 2017;353:147-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we highlighted some of the possible links between IGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKII?, the expression of DAMP proteins, Microglia activation, and its implication on synaptic plasticity during stress and PET. ..
  28. Słoniecka M, Le Roux S, Boman P, Byström B, Zhou Q, Danielson P. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134157 pubmed publisher
    ..As it has been shown that neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, it is possible that they play a role in corneal wound healing. ..
  29. Lay J, Carbone S, DiCello J, Bunnett N, Canals M, Poole D. Distribution and trafficking of the ?-opioid receptor in enteric neurons of the guinea pig. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G252-66 pubmed publisher
    ..detected in nitrergic neurons of the colon (nitric oxide synthase positive, 87%), with some overlap with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). No expression of MOR by intrinsic sensory neurons was detected...
  30. Owen J, Curran M, Bantum E, Hanneman R. Characterizing Social Networks and Communication Channels in a Web-Based Peer Support Intervention. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2016;19:388-96 pubmed publisher
  31. Prado V, Janickova H, Al Onaizi M, Prado M. Cholinergic circuits in cognitive flexibility. Neuroscience. 2017;345:130-141 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter (VAChT) gene present within the intron between the first and second exons of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene...
  32. Mellott T, Huleatt O, Shade B, Pender S, Liu Y, Slack B, et al. Perinatal Choline Supplementation Reduces Amyloidosis and Increases Choline Acetyltransferase Expression in the Hippocampus of the APPswePS1dE9 Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170450 pubmed publisher
    ..A?40 and A?42 peptides; 2) reduced number and total area of amyloid plaques; 3) preserved levels of choline acetyltransferase protein (CHAT) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) and 4) absence of astrogliosis...
  33. Boesecke C, Singh G, Scholten S, Lutz T, Baumgarten A, Schneeweiss S, et al. Telaprevir-containing triple therapy in acute HCV coinfection: The CHAT Study. Antivir Ther. 2017;22:619-623 pubmed publisher
    ..No published randomized controlled data on the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in acute hepatitis C (AHC) coinfection exist. However, with the AHC epidemic ongoing among men who have sex with men (MSM) these are urgently needed...
  34. Wilson S, Rodda S, Lubman D, Manning V, Yap M. How online counselling can support partners of individuals with problem alcohol or other drug use. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017;78:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the majority of help-seekers wanted advice and assistance in problem-solving, coping and the process of seeking further help. Future studies need to examine the impact of online help-seeking by partners. ..
  35. Misawa H, Ishii K, Deguchi T. Gene expression of mouse choline acetyltransferase. Alternative splicing and identification of a highly active promoter region. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:20392-9 pubmed
    Seven types of mRNA for choline acetyltransferase that differ in the 5'-noncoding region were identified in the mouse spinal cord by cDNA cloning and polymerase chain reaction...
  36. Corazza O, Valeriani G, Bersani F, Corkery J, Martinotti G, Bersani G, et al. "Spice," "kryptonite," "black mamba": an overview of brand names and marketing strategies of novel psychoactive substances on the web. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2014;46:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Web monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPSs and for supporting innovative Web-based prevention programmes. ..
  37. Shelton G. Myasthenia gravis and congenital myasthenic syndromes in dogs and cats: A history and mini-review. Neuromuscul Disord. 2016;26:331-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations have been reported in CHRNE, COLQ and CHAT in canine CMS. A form of COLQ deficient CMS has recently been reported in cats. ..
  38. Majkutewicz I, Kurowska E, Podlacha M, Myślińska D, Grembecka B, Ruciński J, et al. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced spatial memory impairment and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2016;308:24-37 pubmed publisher
    ..containing Fluoro-Jade B (neurodegeneration marker), IL-6, IL-10 were quantified in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the basal forebrain...
  39. Ozturk T, Vural K, Tuglu I, Var A, Kurdal T, Aydemir I. Acute and Chronic Pretreatment With Atenolol Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016;30:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should encourage future studies of atenolol in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing procedures with a high risk of intestinal ischemia. ..
  40. Sjogren P, Gurgel R, Park A. Does canal wall down mastoidectomy benefit syndromic children with congenital aural stenosis?. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;90:200-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Syndromic children with congenital aural stenosis with poorly pneumatized mastoids may benefit from canal wall down mastoidectomy to improve ease of office examinations. ..
  41. Howell T, Rohlf V, Coleman G, Rault J. Online Chats to Assess Stakeholder Perceptions of Meat Chicken Intensification and Welfare. Animals (Basel). 2016;6: pubmed
    ..03), general welfare ratings and support for intensification did not change over time, counter to assertions that lack of knowledge results in lack of support for some practices. ..
  42. Kim K, Suh Y, Park W, Jhoo J, Lee D, Youn J, et al. Choline acetyltransferase G +4 A polymorphism confers a risk for Alzheimer's disease in concert with Apolipoprotein E epsilon4. Neurosci Lett. 2004;366:182-6 pubmed
    To examine whether the single nucleotide polymorphism at position +4 of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) confers a risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we determined the ChAT and the Apolipoprotein (APOE) genotypes of the 246 AD ..
  43. Harold D, Macgregor S, Patterson C, Hollingworth P, Moore P, Owen M, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in CHAT influences response to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006;16:75-7 pubmed
    ..To examine whether sequence variation in the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (CHAT), which encodes the major catalytic enzyme of the cholinergic pathway, predicts response to AChE ..
  44. Gambardella C, Morgana S, Bari G, Ramoino P, Bramini M, Diaspro A, et al. Multidisciplinary screening of toxicity induced by silica nanoparticles during sea urchin development. Chemosphere. 2015;139:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..molecules involved in larval development and neurotoxicity effects - such as acetylated tubulin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) - and measuring AChE activity...
  45. Mathews M, Murray A, Wijesinghe R, Cullen K, Tung V, Camp A. Efferent Vestibular Neurons Show Homogenous Discharge Output But Heterogeneous Synaptic Input Profile In Vitro. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139548 pubmed publisher
    ..of 4-week-old mice, and performed immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), both expressed in the EVN of other species...
  46. Thangnipon W, Puangmalai N, Suwanna N, Soi ampornkul R, Phonchai R, Kotchabhakdi N, et al. Potential role of N-benzylcinnamide in inducing neuronal differentiation from human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Neurosci Lett. 2016;610:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that N-benzylcinnamide may provide a useful adjuvant in BMP-9-induced transdifferentiation of AFMSCs into ultimately cholinergic neurons. ..
  47. Szot P, Yang A, Wang X, Parsania C, Röhm U, Wong K, et al. PBrowse: a web-based platform for real-time collaborative exploration of genomic data. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:e67 pubmed publisher
    ..PBrowse is available at, and its source code is available via an open source BSD 3 license at ..
  48. Amrein M, Rackow P, Inauen J, Radtke T, Scholz U. The role of Compensatory Health Beliefs in eating behavior change: A mixed method study. Appetite. 2017;116:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption. ..
  49. Fan W, Liu P, Wang G, Pu J, Xue X, Zhao J. Transplantation of hypoxic preconditioned neural stem cells benefits functional recovery via enhancing neurotrophic secretion after spinal cord injury in rats. J Cell Biochem. 2018;119:4339-4351 pubmed publisher
  50. Cervini R, Rocchi M, DiDonato S, Finocchiaro G. Isolation and sub-chromosomal localization of a DNA fragment of the human choline acetyltransferase gene. Neurosci Lett. 1991;132:191-4 pubmed
    ..on human genomic DNA using two oligonucleotide mixtures derived from peptide sequences of human placenta choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and from partially conserved amino acid sequences of rat, porcine and Drosophila ChAT...
  51. Kleiboer A, Donker T, Seekles W, van Straten A, Riper H, Cuijpers P. A randomized controlled trial on the role of support in Internet-based problem solving therapy for depression and anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 2015;72:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Results for anxiety were less robust but in favor of the weekly support condition. The results underscore the importance of structural support in Internet-based interventions for depression and anxiety. ..
  52. Benitez Temino B, Davis Lopez de Carrizosa M, Morcuende S, Matarredona E, de la Cruz R, Pastor A. Functional Diversity of Neurotrophin Actions on the Oculomotor System. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)...
  53. Park E, Gu Y, Jeon C. Immunocytochemical localization of cholinergic amacrine cells in the bat retina. Acta Histochem. 2017;119:428-437 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence and localization of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) cells in the microbat retina were investigated using immunocytochemistry, ..
  54. Jaffray J, Mahajerin A, Young G, Goldenberg N, Ji L, Sposto R, et al. A multi-institutional registry of pediatric hospital-acquired thrombosis cases: The Children's Hospital-Acquired Thrombosis (CHAT) project. Thromb Res. 2018;161:67-72 pubmed publisher
  55. Sarimski K. Analysis of intentional communication in severely handicapped children with Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome. J Commun Disord. 2002;35:483-500 pubmed
    ..A syndrome-specific low rate of communicative initiatives indicates a special problem for designing intervention programs which depend on opportunities for facilitating strategies...
  56. Schmidt C, Abicht A, Krampfl K, Voss W, Stucka R, Mildner G, et al. Congenital myasthenic syndrome due to a novel missense mutation in the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003;13:245-51 pubmed
    ..myasthenic syndrome has been reported: Recessive loss-of-function mutations in CHAT, the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase, were described in five congenital myasthenic syndrome families...
  57. Tu H, Chen Y, McQuiston A, Chiao C, Chen C. A Novel Retinal Oscillation Mechanism in an Autosomal Dominant Photoreceptor Degeneration Mouse Model. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:513 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest the existence of a novel oscillation mechanism in mice with PD. ..
  58. Zhang B, Wang X, Li Z, Wang W, Zhang Y, Liu J, et al. Atrial Heterogeneous Autonomic Neural Remodeling in Rabbits with Experimental Atrial Fibrillation and the Effect of Intervention by Rosuvastatin. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2016;39:598-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory function of rosuvastatin may be associated with its role in reversing atrial ANR. ..
  59. Jeong J, Lee D, Jo Y. Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate food intake. Mol Metab. 2017;6:306-312 pubmed publisher DMH cholinergic neurons by injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors into the DMH of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-Cre mice...
  60. Pifarré M, Carrera A, Vilaplana J, Cuadrado J, Solsona S, Abella F, et al. TControl: A mobile app to follow up tobacco-quitting patients. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2017;142:81-89 pubmed publisher
    ..TControl is a stable and well behaved App, typically operating near optimal performance. It can be used independent of age and gender, and its wide implementation could decrease costs for the public health system. ..
  61. Zhang Y, Jin H, Wang J, Wen L, Yang Y, Ruan J, et al. Tail Nerve Electrical Stimulation and Electro-Acupuncture Can Protect Spinal Motor Neurons and Alleviate Muscle Atrophy after Spinal Cord Transection in Rats. Neural Plast. 2017;2017:7351238 pubmed publisher
    ..TANES and EA showed a significant impact in promoting survival of lumbar motor neurons and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and ameliorating atrophy of hindlimb muscle after SCI...
  62. Riva V, Cantiani C, Mornati G, Gallo M, Villa L, Mani E, et al. Distinct ERP profiles for auditory processing in infants at-risk for autism and language impairment. Sci Rep. 2018;8:715 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may support the use of objective measurement of auditory processing to delineate pathophysiological mechanisms in ASD, as compared to LI. ..
  63. Mubumbila V, Sutter A, Ptok U, Heun R, Quirin Stricker C. Identification of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the choline acetyltransferase gene associated with Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2002;333:9-12 pubmed
    ..of the cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) supports the hypothesis that a decline in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in memory as well as in cognitive functions in AD might be functionally linked...
  64. Aizawa S, Yamamuro Y. Involvement of histone acetylation in the regulation of choline acetyltransferase gene in NG108-15 neuronal cells. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, we investigated the possible involvement of histone acetylation in the gene expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a specific marker for cholinergic neuron and its function, in NG108-15 neuronal cells as an in ..
  65. Chaaya M, Saab D, Maalouf F, Boustany R. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016;46:514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..ASD prevalence was 1 in 66 children (comparable to US). Ratios were: male/female: 1.05; Beirut/Mount-Lebanon: 1.2. Using a more representative sample and ascertaining results are needed for better prevalence estimates in Lebanon. ..
  66. Kelley C, Ash J, Powers B, Velázquez R, Alldred M, Ikonomovic M, et al. Effects of Maternal Choline Supplementation on the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13:84-96 pubmed
    ..tested on the radial arm Morris water maze (RAWM) and hippocampal tissue was examined for intensity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. Hippocampal ChAT activity was evaluated in a separate cohort...
  67. Yajima M, Kimura S, Karaki S, Nio Kobayashi J, Tsuruta T, Kuwahara A, et al. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-..
  68. Hedrick T, Danskin B, Larsen R, Ollerenshaw D, GROBLEWSKI P, Valley M, et al. Characterization of Channelrhodopsin and Archaerhodopsin in Cholinergic Neurons of Cre-Lox Transgenic Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156596 pubmed publisher
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    ..blotting and in normal leukocyte subsets by flow cytometry and found a heterogeneous expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline transporter (CHT), M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-..
  70. Glowacki E, Lazard A, Wilcox G, Mackert M, Bernhardt J. Identifying the public's concerns and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's reactions during a health crisis: An analysis of a Zika live Twitter chat. Am J Infect Control. 2016;44:1709-1711 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the public and the CDC expressed concern about the spread of Zika virus, but the public showed more concern about the consequences it had for women and babies, whereas the CDC focused more on symptoms and education. ..
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    ..efferent and afferent filament aspects, VAChT-positive cells did not contain serotonin, but did express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme that synthesizes ACh, and were often closely apposed to nerve fibers labeled with the ..
  72. Shen X, He P, Fang R, Yao J, Li W. [Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with 5p15.33 microdeletion]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2017;34:416-418 pubmed publisher
    ..No abnormalities were found during the follow-up. This study may provide further data for the phenotype-genotype correlation of 5p15.33 microdeletion, which differs from Cri du Chat syndrome. ..
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    ..AD/GAL+ cells displayed a significant upregulation in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA expression compared to NCI and AD/GAL- cells...
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    ..the BF to the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortex by using retrograde tracing combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry in rats...
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    ..These findings show the types of information young people are seeking about drugs and have clear implications to inform youth drug education programs. ..
  79. Lu Q, Aguilar B, Li M, Jiang Y, Chen Y. Genetic alterations of δ-catenin/NPRAP/Neurojungin (CTNND2): functional implications in complex human diseases. Hum Genet. 2016;135:1107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Catenin likely lies where Wnt signaling meets Rho GTPases and is a unique and vulnerable common target for mutagenesis in different human diseases. ..
  80. Yeung E, Kulasagarem K, Woods N, Dubrowski A, Hodges B, Carnahan H. Validity of a new assessment rubric for a short-answer test of clinical reasoning. BMC Med Educ. 2016;16:192 pubmed publisher
    ..Future examination of examiner stringency is also warranted. ..
  81. Hersh L, Takane K, Gylys K, Moomaw C, Slaughter C. Conservation of amino acid sequences between human and porcine choline acetyltransferase. J Neurochem. 1988;51:1843-5 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of 11 peptides generated from human placental choline acetyltransferase was compared to the corresponding amino acid sequences predicted from the nucleotide sequence of a recently cloned porcine choline ..
  82. Liu X, Shi Y, Niu B, Shi Z, Li J, Ma Z, et al. Polymorphic variation in CHAT gene modulates general cognitive ability: An association study with random student cohort. Neurosci Lett. 2016;617:122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some issues remained indeterminable, such as gender differences and the extent of the influence on individuals' general cognitive abilities; thus, the further research using an independent random sample was required. ..
  83. Bordia T, Zhang D, Perez X, Quik M. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia. Exp Neurol. 2016;286:32-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. ..
  84. Marei H, El Gamal A, Althani A, Afifi N, Abd Elmaksoud A, Farag A, et al. Cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:936-945 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved protocols for MSCs induction will facilitate and ensure the reproducibility and standard production of MSCs for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases. ..
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    ..Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
  86. Schwartz M, Sternberg D, Whalen S, Afenjar A, Isapof A, Chabrol B, et al. How chromosomal deletions can unmask recessive mutations? Deletions in 10q11.2 associated with CHAT or SLC18A3 mutations lead to congenital myasthenic syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The deletion was inherited from the healthy mother in the first case. These deletions unmasked a recessive mutation at the same locus in both cases, but in two different genes: CHAT and SLC18A3...
  87. Strauss W, Kemper R, Jayakar P, Kong C, Hersh L, Hilt D, et al. Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to region 10q11-q22.2 by in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1991;9:396-8 pubmed
  88. Viegas Pequignot E, Berrard S, Brice A, Apiou F, Mallet J. Localization of a 900-bp-long fragment of the human choline acetyltransferase gene to 10q11.2 by nonradioactive in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1991;9:210-2 pubmed
  89. Kengaku M, Misawa H, Deguchi T. Multiple mRNA species of choline acetyltransferase from rat spinal cord. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1993;18:71-6 pubmed
    ..directed by a specific primer was constructed from the rat spinal cord and screened with 32P-labeled rat choline acetyltransferase cDNA which was recently isolated in this laboratory...
  90. Oda Y. Choline acetyltransferase: the structure, distribution and pathologic changes in the central nervous system. Pathol Int. 1999;49:921-37 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, is presently the most specific indicator for monitoring the functional state of cholinergic neurones in the central and peripheral nervous ..
  91. Sakakibara A, Hattori S. Chat, a Cas/HEF1-associated adaptor protein that integrates multiple signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:6404-10 pubmed
    ..After the epidermal growth factor stimulation, Chat and Cas were colocalized with actin filaments at ruffling membranes. These findings suggest that Chat transduces signals of tyrosine kinases and MAP kinase to Cas signaling pathway. ..
  92. Dobransky T, Davis W, Xiao G, Rylett R. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human choline acetyltransferase: phosphorylation of the enzyme regulates catalytic activity. Biochem J. 2000;349:141-51 pubmed
    b>Choline acetyltransferase synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and, in humans, may be produced in 82- and 69-kDa forms...