Gene Symbol: CELA3A
Description: chymotrypsin like elastase family member 3A
Alias: ELA3, ELA3A, chymotrypsin-like elastase family member 3A, elastase 1, elastase 3A, pancreatic, elastase IIIA, elastase-3A, protease E
Species: human
Products:     CELA3A

Top Publications

  1. Arya V, Senniappan S, Demirbilek H, Alam S, Flanagan S, Ellard S, et al. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in children following near-total pancreatectomy for diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98054 pubmed publisher
    ..post near-total pancreatectomy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, clinical and biochemical (faecal elastase 1) pancreatic exocrine insufficiency...
  2. Benini L, Gabbrielli A, Cristofori C, Amodio A, Butturini G, Cardobi N, et al. Residual pancreatic function after pancreaticoduodenectomy is better preserved with pancreaticojejunostomy than pancreaticogastrostomy: A long-term analysis. Pancreatology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to PJ, PG is associated with a more severely impaired exocrine function long-term, but they result similar endocrine function and quality of life. In patients with a long life expectancy, this should be taken into account. ..
  3. Gonzales A, Vieira S, Maurer R, Silva F, Silveira T. Use of monoclonal faecal elastase-1 concentration for pancreatic status assessment in cystic fibrosis patients. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2011;87:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no association of faecal EL-1 concentration with age and sex of patients. The test was standardized, is easy to execute, and can be used to assess the pancreatic status of patients with cystic fibrosis. ..
  4. Tahtaci M, Algin O, Karakan T, Yürekli O, Alisik M, Köseoğlu H, et al. Can pancreatic steatosis affect exocrine functions of pancreas?. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2018;29:588-594 pubmed publisher
    ..042). There were no significant differences in terms of severity or the anatomic distribution of PS in patients with PS with EPI based on MRI (p=0.052, p=0.198, p=0.405) Conclusion: Current study demonstrates that PS can cause EPI. ..
  5. Alexandre Heymann L, Lemoine A, Nakib S, Kapel N, Ledoux S, Larger E. Nutritional markers in patients with diabetes and pancreatic exocrine failure. Acta Diabetol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and altered exocrine function may thus deserve to be screened for nutritional deficiencies. ..
  6. McNamara J, McColley S, Marigowda G, Liu F, Tian S, Owen C, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of lumacaftor and ivacaftor combination therapy in children aged 2-5 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR: an open-label phase 3 study. Lancet Respir Med. 2019;7:325-335 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficacy findings also suggest that early intervention with lumacaftor and ivacaftor has the potential to modify the course of disease. Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated. ..
  7. Xie Y, Chen L, Lv X, Hou G, Wang Y, Jiang C, et al. The levels of serine proteases in colon tissue interstitial fluid and serum serve as an indicator of colorectal cancer progression. Oncotarget. 2016;7:32592-606 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibited consecutive changes in abundance were identified, including six serine proteases, chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 (CELA1), chymotrypsin-like elastase 2A (CEL2A), chymopasin, chymotrypsinogen B (CTRB1), trypsin 2 (TRY2), and ..
  8. Shandro B, Nagarajah R, Poullis A. Challenges in the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2018;9:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-response should be actively sought and addressed in a systematic manner. This article discusses these challenges, and presents a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of PEI. ..
  9. Vujasinovic M, Valente R, Maier P, von Beckerath V, Haas S, Arnelo U, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcome of autoimmune pancreatitis in Sweden. Pancreatology. 2018;18:900-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Only one-quarter of patients exhibit on imaging the characteristic "sausage-like" pancreas (diffuse enlargement), approximately three-quarters had a focal mass that could be misdiagnosed as pancreatic malignancy. ..

More Information


  1. Rosenfeld M, Wainwright C, Higgins M, Wang L, MCKEE C, Campbell D, et al. Ivacaftor treatment of cystic fibrosis in children aged 12 to <24 months and with a CFTR gating mutation (ARRIVAL): a phase 3 single-arm study. Lancet Respir Med. 2018;6:545-553 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvements in biomarkers of pancreatic function suggest that ivacaftor preserves exocrine pancreatic function if started early. The study is continuing in infants younger than 12 months. Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated. ..
  2. Vujasinovic M, Tepes B, Vujkovac B, Cokan Vujkovac A, Tretjak M, Korat V. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is not a cause of abdominal complaints in patients with Fabry disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127:931-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a potential effect of ERT on EPI cannot be excluded. Further studies are necessary to determine the aetiology, especially in the group of naïve male patients. ..
  3. Hac S, Pienkowska J, Madejewska I, Łaski D, Kostro J, Mroczkowski P, et al. Pancreatic remnant fate. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2015;74:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no correlation of pancreatic exo- or endocrine insufficiency with the volume of pancreatic remnant or the kind of surgery or anastomosis performed. ..
  4. Nanno Y, Toyama H, Zen Y, Akita M, Ando Y, Mizumoto T, et al. Serum Elastase 1 Level as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Recurrence in Patients with Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Ann Surg Oncol. 2018;25:3358-3364 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to assess the potential role of the preoperative serum level of elastase 1 as a risk factor for recurrence in patients with resectable well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNETs)...
  5. Ziegler J, Maas C, Bernhard W, Arand J, Poets C, Franz A. Retrospective cohort analysis on pancreatic enzyme substitution in very low birthweight infants with postnatal growth failure. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018;103:F485-F489 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse effects were noted. PES in selected VLBW infants with growth failure despite intensified enteral nutritional support was associated with a significant increase in weight gain in the first 7 days of PES.k. ..
  6. Tahtaci M, Köseoğlu H, Alisik M, Tayfur Yürekli Ö, Tahtaci G, Erel O, et al. Association of Low Fecal Elastase-1 and Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia. J Clin Med. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation for the presence of EPI can be a cost effective approach in management of refractory patients during the process of ruling out organic reasons. ..
  7. Gianotti L, Besselink M, Sandini M, Hackert T, Conlon K, Gerritsen A, et al. Nutritional support and therapy in pancreatic surgery: A position paper of the International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). Surgery. 2018;164:1035-1048 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of this position paper is the consensus reached on the topic. Concentrating on nutritional support and therapy is of utmost value in pancreatic surgery for both short- and long-term outcomes. ..
  8. Haas S, Krins S, Knauerhase A, Löhr M. Altered bone metabolism and bone density in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. JOP. 2015;16:58-62 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone mineral density as measured by DXA and X-ray. PERT is associated with less osteopathy. ..
  9. Lindkvist B, Nilsson C, Kvarnström M, Oscarsson J. Importance of pancreatic exocrine dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized crossover study. Pancreatology. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma levels of EPA and DHA after the intake of esterified versus free EPA and DHA did not correlate with FE-1 levels. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02370537. ..
  10. Pezzilli R. Exocrine pancreas involvement in celiac disease: a review. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2014;8:167-72 pubmed
    ..Fecal elastase 1-determination in celiacs may be useful in detecting and curing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency especially in ..
  11. Gheorghe C, Seicean A, Saftoiu A, Tantau M, Dumitru E, Jinga M, et al. Romanian guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2015;24:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also indicated in patients with celiac disease, who have chronic diarrhea (in spite of gluten-free diet), and in patients with cystic fibrosis with proven EPI. ..
  12. Naik H, Natarajan B, Stansky E, Ahlman M, Teague H, Salahuddin T, et al. Severity of Psoriasis Associates With Aortic Vascular Inflammation Detected by FDG PET/CT and Neutrophil Activation in a Prospective Observational Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:2667-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Psoriasis increased neutrophil activation and neutrophil markers, and S100A8/A9 was related to both skin disease severity and vascular inflammation. ..
  13. Smits M, Tonneijck L, Muskiet M, Kramer M, Pieters van den Bos I, Vendrik K, et al. Pancreatic Effects of Liraglutide or Sitagliptin in Overweight Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:301-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from a minimal sitagliptin-induced increase in intraduodenal fluid secretion, pancreatic exocrine function was unaffected. The long-term clinical consequences of these discrete changes require further study. ..
  14. Chowdhury S, Kurien R, Ramachandran A, Joseph A, Simon E, Dutta A, et al. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Comparing fecal elastase 1 with 72-h stool for fecal fat estimation. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2016;35:441-444 pubmed
    ..In this study, we aimed to assess fecal elastase 1 (FE1) as an alternate to FFE for the diagnosis of PEI...
  15. Boros E, Szabó A, Zboray K, Héja D, Pál G, Sahin Tóth M. Overlapping Specificity of Duplicated Human Pancreatic Elastase 3 Isoforms and Archetypal Porcine Elastase 1 Provides Clues to Evolution of Digestive Enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:2690-2702 pubmed publisher
    ..The human pancreas does not express CELA1 but secretes two CELA3 isoforms, CELA3A and CELA3B...
  16. Bartels R, Meyer S, Stehmann T, Bourdon C, Bandsma R, Voskuijl W. Both Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Signs of Pancreatic Inflammation Are Prevalent in Children with Complicated Severe Acute Malnutrition: An Observational Study. J Pediatr. 2016;174:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for standard rehabilitation treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition who may benefit from pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. ISRCTN.com: 13916953. ..
  17. Borbély Y, Plebani A, Kröll D, Ghisla S, Nett P. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016;12:790-794 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevalence of EPI after dRYGB (48%) and pRYGB (19%) is of clinical importance. There was no significant difference in absolute or relative limb lengths between EPI and non-EPI groups after dRYGB. ..
  18. Kim N, Gu J, Yoo H, Han S, Kim Y, Nam Goong I, et al. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;176:583-589 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. ..
  19. González Sánchez V, Amrani R, Gonzalez V, Trigo C, Pico A, de Madaria E. Diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis: 13C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test versus Fecal Elastase. Pancreatology. 2017;17:580-585 pubmed publisher
    ..FE-1 and TGBT showed similar results for the diagnosis of EPI in CP. In non-operated CP patients, TGBT does not offer any advantage to FE-1 but in operated CP patients TGBT seems a more accurate test. ..
  20. Hart P, Conwell D. Diagnosis of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2015;13:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to identify a more convenient means of accurately diagnosing at all stages of EPI. ..
  21. Joshi R, Heinz A, Fan Q, Guo S, Monia B, Schmelzer C, et al. Role for Cela1 in Postnatal Lung Remodeling and AAT-deficient Emphysema. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 (Cela1) is a digestive protease that is expressed during lung development in association with regions of elastin ..
  22. Tóth A, Szabo A, Hegyi E, Hegyi P, Sahin Toth M. Detection of human elastase isoforms by the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Test. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;312:G606-G614 pubmed publisher
    ..study was undertaken to clarify which human pancreatic elastase isoforms are detected by the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Stool Test and whether naturally occurring genetic variants influence the performance of this test...
  23. Campbell J, Sanders D, Francis K, Kurien M, Lee S, Taha H, et al. Should we Investigate Gastroenterology Patients for Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency? A Dual Centre UK Study. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016;25:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intervening with lifestyle advice such as smoking cessation and minimising alcohol intake could improve outcomes. In addition, up to 80% of patients with low faecal elastase respond to supplementation. ..
  24. Bodewes F, Verkade H, Wilschanski M. Gastroenterological endpoints in drug trials for cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:S18-S22 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:S18-S22. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  25. Weitgasser R, Abrahamian H, Clodi M, Zlamal Fortunat S, Hammer H. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and diabetes mellitus]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128 Suppl 2:S163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A pancreatogenic diabetes, also termed as type 3c diabetes, has not necessarily to be treated with insulin, often-at least initially-treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs is sufficient. ..
  26. Liu J, Peng L, Niu T, Wu Y, Li J, Wang F, et al. PIG7 promotes leukemia cell chemosensitivity via lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Oncotarget. 2016;7:4841-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Once this process was beyond the limit of intrinsic antagonism, it induced programmed cell death cooperatively via caspase-independent and caspase-dependent pathways. ..
  27. Naffouje S, Salti G. Transient Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: First Report of an Unrecognized Complication of Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC. Anticancer Res. 2018;38:2353-2358 pubmed
    ..In our patients with refractory diarrhea and low FE1, PERT provided immediate symptomatic relief. The biological basis of this phenomenon remains unclear and warrants further investigation. ..
    ..The results of the study suggest that the levels of apelin, TNF-α and elastase-1 are important diagnostic markers of CP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  29. Lim J, Park J, Yoon D. Preoperative fecal elastase-1 is a useful prognostic marker following curative resection of pancreatic cancer. HPB (Oxford). 2017;19:388-395 pubmed publisher
    ..001, P = 0.017, P = 0.038, respectively). FE-1 is a simple and non-invasive predictive clinical marker for prognosis of pancreatic cancer after attempted curative resection. ..
  30. Smits M, Tonneijck L, Muskiet M, Hoekstra T, Kramer M, Pieters I, et al. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e009579 pubmed publisher
    ..The study is approved by the local Ethics Review Board (VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam) and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice. NCT01744236. ..
  31. Tu J, Zhang J, Ke L, Yang Y, Yang Q, Lu G, et al. Endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after acute pancreatitis: long-term follow-up study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17:114 pubmed publisher
    ..2% of patients developed severe and mild to moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, respectively. The extent of pancreatic necrosis>50%, WON and insulin resistance were the independent risk factors of new onset diabetes after AP. ..
  32. Widodo A, Timan I, Bardosono S, Winarta W, Prasetyo D, Firmansyah A. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in malnourished children and those with persistent diarrhoeae. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25:S57-S61 pubmed publisher
    ..Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is found in children with persistent diarrhoea. Children with combined persistent diarrhoea and malnutrition have the lowest FE-1, to which persistent diarrhea has the most significant contribution. ..
  33. Stella N, Callaghan J, Zhang L, Brothers K, Kowalski R, Huang J, et al. SlpE is a calcium-dependent cytotoxic metalloprotease associated with clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens. Res Microbiol. 2017;168:567-574 pubmed publisher
    ..This gene was named serralysin-like protease E, SlpE, and was found in the majority (67%) of tested clinical isolates, but was absent from most tested non-..
  34. Drzymała Czyż S, Krzyżanowska P, Koletzko B, Nowak J, Miśkiewicz Chotnicka A, Moczko J, et al. Determinants of Serum Glycerophospholipid Fatty Acids in Cystic Fibrosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..They seem to be caused by both metabolic disturbances and independent clinical risk factors. Further research into the influence of CFTR mutations on fat metabolism and desaturases' activity is warranted. ..
  35. Williams N, Moriatis M, Chambers G, Ooi C. The role, yield and cost of paediatric faecal elastase-1 testing. Pancreatology. 2016;16:551-4 pubmed publisher
    ..50 (AUD2015) for FTT with short-gut syndrome and $420.00 (AUD2015) for CF-related indications. Our study shows that for patients with isolated failure to thrive, FE1 testing is low yield and costly. ..
  36. Sun X, Olivier A, Yi Y, Pope C, Hayden H, Liang B, et al. Gastrointestinal pathology in juvenile and adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1309-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. ..
  37. Joshi R, Liu S, Brown M, Young S, Batie M, Kofron J, et al. Stretch regulates expression and binding of chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 in the postnatal lung. FASEB J. 2016;30:590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Our prior work demonstrated an association of chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 (Cela1) with lung elastin remodeling, and that strain triggered a near-instantaneous elastin-remodeling response...
  38. Rathmann W, Haastert B, Oscarsson J, Berglind N, Lindkvist B, Wareham N. Association of faecal elastase 1 with non-fasting triglycerides in type 2 diabetes. Pancreatology. 2016;16:563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Marked loss of exocrine pancreatic function had the opposite effect, resulting in higher levels of plasma triglycerides. ..
  39. Hollemans R, Hallensleben N, Mager D, Kelder J, Besselink M, Bruno M, et al. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency following acute pancreatitis: Systematic review and study level meta-analysis. Pancreatology. 2018;18:253-262 pubmed publisher
    ..Alcoholic etiology and severe and necrotizing pancreatitis are associated with higher risk of PEI. The prevalence of PEI may change as time of follow-up increases. ..
  40. Rathmann W, Haastert B, Oscarsson J, Berglind N, Wareham N. Inverse association of HbA1c with faecal elastase 1 in people without diabetes. Pancreatology. 2015;15:620-5 pubmed publisher
    Faecal elastase 1 (FE1) was inversely correlated with diabetes duration and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The association of FE1 and HbA1c has not been investigated in people without diabetes...
  41. Vanga R, Tansel A, Sidiq S, El Serag H, Othman M. Diagnostic Performance of Measurement of Fecal Elastase-1 in Detection of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;16:1220-1228.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in these patients, an abnormal level of elastase-1 (below 200 mcg/g) has a high false-positive rate. ..
  42. Walkowiak J, Glapa A, Nowak J, Bober L, Rohovyk N, Wenska Chyży E, et al. Pancreatic Elastase-1 Quick Test for rapid assessment of pancreatic status in cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2016;15:664-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8 and 90.5% in CF patients. Pancreatic Elastase-1 Quick Test™ proves to be a rapid and reliable option to qualitatively evaluate pancreatic function for diagnostic purposes in a clinical setting of CF care. ..
  43. Dominguez Munoz J, D Hardt P, Lerch M, Löhr M. Potential for Screening for Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Using the Fecal Elastase-1 Test. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:1119-1130 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it cannot be considered the gold-standard method for the functional diagnosis of PEI, the advantages of the FE-1 test make it a very appropriate test for screening patients who may be at risk of this disorder. ..
  44. Párniczky A, Hegyi E, Tóth A, Szucs A, Szentesi A, Vincze A, et al. Genetic Analysis of Human Chymotrypsin-Like Elastases 3A and 3B (CELA3A and CELA3B) to Assess the Role of Complex Formation between Proelastases and Procarboxypeptidases in Chronic Pancreatitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    Human chymotrypsin-like elastases 3A and 3B (CELA3A and CELA3B) are the products of gene duplication and share 92% identity in their primary structure...
  45. Soares da Silva O, Lira de Oliveira R, de Carvalho Silva J, Converti A, Souza Porto T. Thermodynamic investigation of an alkaline protease from Aspergillus tamarii URM4634: A comparative approach between crude extract and purified enzyme. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;109:1039-1044 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative study on thermodynamic parameters of a serine protease produced by Aspergillus tamarii URM4634. ..
  46. Sisman P, Avci M, Akkurt A, Sahin A, Gul O, Ersoy C, et al. The effect of primary hyperparathyroidism on pancreatic exocrine function. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018;41:293-298 pubmed publisher
    ..5). Chronic hypercalcemia in primary hyperparathyroidism did not decrease the fecal elastase level, which is an indirect indicator of chronic pancreatitis; therefore, chronic hypercalcemia in PHPT may not cause chronic pancreatitis. ..
  47. Iovanna J, Keim V, Michel R, Dagorn J. Pancreatic gene expression is altered during acute experimental pancreatitis in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:G485-9 pubmed
    ..Contents in amylase, trypsinogen I, chymotrypsinogen B, elastase 1, and procarboxypeptidase A mRNAs decreased by greater than 50% during the acute phase (days 0-2), whereas actin ..
  48. Vujasinovic M, Valente R, Thorell A, Rutkowski W, Haas S, Arnelo U, et al. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency after Bariatric Surgery. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy should be part of the treatment algorithm in patients with confirmed PEI or symptoms suggestive of this complication. ..
  49. Sperti C, Moletta L. Staging chronic pancreatitis with exocrine function tests: Are we better?. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:6927-6930 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, EF-1 determination shows low sensitivity in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in early stage of the disease...
  50. Anaizi A, Hart P, Conwell D. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:1713-1720 pubmed publisher
    ..Likely the best way at establishing a diagnosis in these patients is via pancreatic function testing in the setting of indeterminate EUS results. Biomarker studies of pancreas fluid may supplement diagnosis. ..
  51. Szabo A, Pilsak C, Bence M, Witt H, Sahin Toth M. Complex Formation of Human Proelastases with Procarboxypeptidases A1 and A2. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17706-16 pubmed publisher
    ..protease zymogens in a systematic manner, we performed binding experiments using recombinant proelastases CELA2A, CELA3A, and CELA3B; chymotrypsinogens CTRB1, CTRB2, CTRC, and CTRL1; and procarboxypeptidases CPA1, CPA2, and CPB1...
  52. Shimada S, Yamaguchi K, Takahashi M, Ogawa M. Pancreatic elastase IIIA and its variants are expressed in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Int J Mol Med. 2002;10:599-603 pubmed
    ..The present study is the first report to demonstrate the expression of PE IIIA and its splicing variants in pancreatic carcinoma cells might represent another infiltrative feature of the pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma. ..
  53. Tani T, Ohsumi J, Mita K, Takiguchi Y. Identification of a novel class of elastase isozyme, human pancreatic elastase III, by cDNA and genomic gene cloning. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:1231-9 pubmed
    ..They strongly resembled cholesterol-binding pancreatic protease, suggesting that they may possess not only a digestive function but also function(s) related to cholesterol metabolism or transport in the intestine. ..
  54. Shirasu Y, Takemura K, Yoshida H, Sato Y, Iijima H, Shimada Y, et al. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA encoding one of the human pancreatic protease E isozymes. J Biochem. 1988;104:259-64 pubmed
    We have cloned a DNA from a human pancreatic cDNA library using a cloned rat pancreatic elastase 1 cDNA as a probe, and determined its nucleotide sequence...
  55. Bartels R, Bourdon C, Potani I, Mhango B, van den Brink D, Mponda J, et al. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr. 2017;190:85-92.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Mortality in severe acute malnutrition is associated with markers of poor digestive function. ISRCTN.com: 57423639. ..