Gene Symbol: Cdc2
Description: cyclin dependent kinase 1
Alias: CDC2, CDC28A, P34CDC2, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cell cycle controller CDC2, cell division control protein 2 homolog, cell division cycle 2, G1 to S and G2 to M, cell division protein kinase 1, p34 protein kinase
Species: human
Products:     Cdc2

Top Publications

  1. Gavet O, Pines J. Activation of cyclin B1-Cdk1 synchronizes events in the nucleus and the cytoplasm at mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the intrinsic link between cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation and its rapid nuclear import inherently coordinates the reorganization of the nucleus and the cytoplasm at mitotic entry. ..
  2. Krämer A, Mailand N, Lukas C, Syljuåsen R, Wilkinson C, Nigg E, et al. Centrosome-associated Chk1 prevents premature activation of cyclin-B-Cdk1 kinase. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:884-91 pubmed
  3. Gutierrez G, Tsuji T, Chen M, Jiang W, Ronai Z. Interplay between Cdh1 and JNK activity during the cell cycle. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:686-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory mechanism between JNK and Cdh1 reveals an important function for JNK during the cell cycle. ..
  4. Trinh A, Kim S, Chang H, Mastrocola A, Tibbetts R. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein decreases chromatin occupancy. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined results suggest that CDK1-dependent phosphorylation of CREB on Ser-270/Ser-271 facilitates its dissociation from chromatin during mitosis by reducing its intrinsic DNA binding potential. ..
  5. Yuan Z, Becker E, Merlo P, Yamada T, Dibacco S, Konishi Y, et al. Activation of FOXO1 by Cdk1 in cycling cells and postmitotic neurons. Science. 2008;319:1665-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define a conserved signaling link between Cdk1 and FOXO1 that may have a key role in diverse biological processes, including the degeneration of postmitotic neurons. ..
  6. Chen S, Bohrer L, Rai A, Pan Y, Gan L, Zhou X, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate epigenetic gene silencing through phosphorylation of EZH2. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that CDK-mediated phosphorylation is a key mechanism governing EZH2 function and that there is a link between the cell-cycle machinery and epigenetic gene silencing. ..
  7. Masuda T, Inoue H, Nishida K, Sonoda H, Yoshikawa Y, Kakeji Y, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 gene expression is associated with poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:5693-8 pubmed
    ..Cks1 could play an important role in gastric carcinoma progression and would be a novel target for the treatment of gastric carcinomas as well as a strong prognostic marker. ..
  8. Gavet O, Pines J. Progressive activation of CyclinB1-Cdk1 coordinates entry to mitosis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:533-43 pubmed publisher
  9. Baldin V, Pelpel K, Cazales M, Cans C, Ducommun B. Nuclear localization of CDC25B1 and serine 146 integrity are required for induction of mitosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35176-82 pubmed
    ..Serine 146 phosphorylation is proposed to be a key event in the regulation of the CDC25B function in the initiation of mammalian mitosis. ..

More Information


  1. Qi W, Tang Z, Yu H. Phosphorylation- and polo-box-dependent binding of Plk1 to Bub1 is required for the kinetochore localization of Plk1. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3705-16 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that phosphorylation of Bub1 at T609 by Cdk1 creates a docking site for the PBD of Plk1 and facilitates the kinetochore recruitment of Plk1. ..
  2. Potapova T, Daum J, Byrd K, Gorbsky G. Fine tuning the cell cycle: activation of the Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation pathway during mitotic exit. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This late Cdk1 reactivation often results in caspase-dependent cell death. Thus, in G1, the Cdk inhibitory phosphorylation pathway is functional and can lock Cdk1 in the inactive state. ..
  3. Chow J, Poon R, Ma H. Inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 as a compensatory mechanism for mitosis exit. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1478-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that, in the absence of sufficient APC/C activity, an alternative mechanism that utilized the classic inhibitory phosphorylation of CDK1 could mediate mitotic exit. ..
  4. Shah O, Ghosh S, Hunter T. Mitotic regulation of ribosomal S6 kinase 1 involves Ser/Thr, Pro phosphorylation of consensus and non-consensus sites by Cdc2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16433-42 pubmed
    During mitosis, the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2, signals the inactivation of major anabolic processes such as transcription, mRNA processing, translation, and ribosome biogenesis, thereby providing energy needed for the radical and ..
  5. Larochelle S, Merrick K, Terret M, Wohlbold L, Barboza N, Zhang C, et al. Requirements for Cdk7 in the assembly of Cdk1/cyclin B and activation of Cdk2 revealed by chemical genetics in human cells. Mol Cell. 2007;25:839-50 pubmed
    ..Therefore, by combining chemical genetics and homologous gene replacement in somatic cells, we reveal different modes of CDK activation by Cdk7 at two distinct execution points in the cell cycle. ..
  6. Alvarez Fernandez M, Halim V, Krenning L, Aprelia M, Mohammed S, Heck A, et al. Recovery from a DNA-damage-induced G2 arrest requires Cdk-dependent activation of FoxM1. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:452-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, we find that cells need to retain sufficient levels of Cdk activity during the DNA-damage response to maintain cellular competence to recover from a DNA-damaging insult. ..
  7. Chen H, Huang Q, Dong J, Zhai D, Wang A, Lan Q. Overexpression of CDC2/CyclinB1 in gliomas, and CDC2 depletion inhibits proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:29 pubmed publisher
    ..made to understand the molecular pathological basis of tumorigenesis which led to an identification of an oncogene, CDC2, and an epigenetic strategy has been evaluated to control the tumorigensis by downregulating this oncogene...
  8. Wei Y, Chen Y, Li L, Lang J, Yeh S, Shi B, et al. CDK1-dependent phosphorylation of EZH2 suppresses methylation of H3K27 and promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define a signalling link between CDK1 and EZH2 that may have an important role in diverse biological processes, including cancer-cell invasion and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. ..
  9. North B, Verdin E. Mitotic regulation of SIRT2 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1-dependent phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19546-55 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of SIRT2 mediates a delay in cellular proliferation that is dependent on serine 368 phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutation of serine 368 reduces hyperploidy in cells under mitotic stress due to microtubule poisons. ..
  10. Lindqvist A, van Zon W, Karlsson Rosenthal C, Wolthuis R. Cyclin B1-Cdk1 activation continues after centrosome separation to control mitotic progression. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e123 pubmed
    ..We propose that gradually increasing cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity after centrosome separation is critical to coordinate mitotic progression. ..
  11. Van Horn R, Chu S, Fan L, Yin T, Du J, Beckmann R, et al. Cdk1 activity is required for mitotic activation of aurora A during G2/M transition of human cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21849-57 pubmed publisher
  12. Bolton D, Barnitz R, Sakai K, Lenardo M. 14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr. Biol Direct. 2008;3:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data reveal a new facet of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest involving previously unrecognized abnormal rearrangements of multiprotein assemblies containing key cell cycle regulatory proteins. ..
  13. Vecchione A, Baldassarre G, Ishii H, Nicoloso M, Belletti B, Petrocca F, et al. Fez1/Lzts1 absence impairs Cdk1/Cdc25C interaction during mitosis and predisposes mice to cancer development. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:275-89 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, Lzts1 deficiency was associated with an increased incidence of both spontaneous and carcinogen-induced cancers in mice. ..
  14. Potapova T, Sivakumar S, Flynn J, Li R, Gorbsky G. Mitotic progression becomes irreversible in prometaphase and collapses when Wee1 and Cdc25 are inhibited. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1191-206 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the positive feedback in Cdk activation serves to overcome the activity of Cdk-opposing phosphatases and thus sustains forward progression in mitosis. ..
  15. Hümmer S, Mayer T. Cdk1 negatively regulates midzone localization of the mitotic kinesin Mklp2 and the chromosomal passenger complex. Curr Biol. 2009;19:607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that anaphase onset triggers the association between the CPC and Mklp2 and that this association targets the CPC-Mklp2 complex to the ends of stable microtubules in the spindle midzone. ..
  16. Litvak V, Argov R, Dahan N, Ramachandran S, Amarilio R, Shainskaya A, et al. Mitotic phosphorylation of the peripheral Golgi protein Nir2 by Cdk1 provides a docking mechanism for Plk1 and affects cytokinesis completion. Mol Cell. 2004;14:319-30 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a mechanism for coordinating mitotic and cytokinetic events with Golgi rearrangement during cell division. ..
  17. Hong K, Kim H, Kim H, Seong Y, Hong K, Bae C, et al. Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein/cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 in mitosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis. ..
  18. Sanchez V, McElroy A, Spector D. Mechanisms governing maintenance of Cdk1/cyclin B1 kinase activity in cells infected with human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2003;77:13214-24 pubmed
  19. Yuan H, Xie Y, Chen I. Depletion of Wee-1 kinase is necessary for both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr- and gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis. J Virol. 2003;77:2063-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wee-1 may serve as a key regulator of both HIV type 1 Vpr- and gamma irradiation-mediated apoptosis and possibly serve as a general regulator linking the cell cycle to some pathways of apoptosis. ..
  20. Mailand N, Podtelejnikov A, Groth A, Mann M, Bartek J, Lukas J. Regulation of G(2)/M events by Cdc25A through phosphorylation-dependent modulation of its stability. EMBO J. 2002;21:5911-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, phosphorylation-mediated switches among three differentially stable forms ensure distinct thresholds, and thereby distinct roles for Cdc25A in multiple cell cycle transitions and checkpoints. ..
  21. Chen Y, Dominguez Brauer C, Wang Z, Asara J, Costa R, Tyner A, et al. A conserved phosphorylation site within the forkhead domain of FoxM1B is required for its activation by cyclin-CDK1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30695-707 pubmed publisher
  22. Estey M, Di Ciano Oliveira C, Froese C, Fung K, Steels J, Litchfield D, et al. Mitotic regulation of SEPT9 protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Pin1 protein is important for the completion of cytokinesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:30075-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SEPT9 plays multiple roles in abscission, one of which is regulated by the action of Cdk1 and Pin1. ..
  23. Meyer A, Merkel S, Brückl W, Schellerer V, Schildberg C, Campean V, et al. Cdc2 as prognostic marker in stage UICC II colon carcinomas. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:1466-73 pubmed publisher
    Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdc2) controls the G2-M checkpoint and, therefore, the entrance of cells into mitosis. It might play a crucial role during tumour progression in colon carcinomas (CCA)...
  24. Bembenek J, Yu H. Regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex by the dual specificity phosphatase human Cdc14a. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:48237-42 pubmed
    ..Here we show that phosphorylation of human Cdh1 (hCdh1) by cyclin B-Cdc2 alters the conformation of hCdh1 and prevents it from activating APC...
  25. Yalcin A, Clem B, Simmons A, Lane A, Nelson K, Clem A, et al. Nuclear targeting of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) increases proliferation via cyclin-dependent kinases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations demonstrate an unexpected role for PFKFB3 in nuclear signaling and indicate that Fru-2,6-BP may couple the activation of glucose metabolism with cell proliferation. ..
  26. Olsen J, Vermeulen M, Santamaria A, Kumar C, Miller M, Jensen L, et al. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra3 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, nuclear proteins and proteins involved in regulating metabolic processes have high phosphorylation site occupancy in mitosis. This suggests that these proteins may be inactivated by phosphorylation in mitotic cells. ..
  27. van Vugt M, Gardino A, Linding R, Ostheimer G, Reinhardt H, Ong S, et al. A mitotic phosphorylation feedback network connects Cdk1, Plk1, 53BP1, and Chk2 to inactivate the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000287 pubmed publisher
  28. Harley M, Allan L, Sanderson H, Clarke P. Phosphorylation of Mcl-1 by CDK1-cyclin B1 initiates its Cdc20-dependent destruction during mitotic arrest. EMBO J. 2010;29:2407-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of apoptosis, therefore, is linked intrinsically to progression through mitosis and is governed by a temporal mechanism that distinguishes between normal mitosis and prolonged mitotic arrest. ..
  29. van Zon W, Ogink J, ter Riet B, Medema R, te Riele H, Wolthuis R. The APC/C recruits cyclin B1-Cdk1-Cks in prometaphase before D box recognition to control mitotic exit. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:587-602 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the spindle checkpoint blocks D box recognition of APC/C-bound cyclin B1, whereas distinctive complexes between the N terminus of cyclin A and Cdc20 evade checkpoint control. ..
  30. Chen Q, Zhang X, Jiang Q, Clarke P, Zhang C. Cyclin B1 is localized to unattached kinetochores and contributes to efficient microtubule attachment and proper chromosome alignment during mitosis. Cell Res. 2008;18:268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin B1 is then transported from each kinetochore as microtubule attachment is completed, and this relocalization may redirect the activity of cyclin B1-CDK1 and contribute to inactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. ..
  31. Allan L, Clarke P. Phosphorylation of caspase-9 by CDK1/cyclin B1 protects mitotic cells against apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2007;26:301-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of caspase-9 at Thr125 sets the threshold for activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during the cell cycle, restrains apoptosis during mitosis, and determines sensitivity to antimitotic drugs. ..
  32. Kaneko S, Li G, Son J, Xu C, Margueron R, Neubert T, et al. Phosphorylation of the PRC2 component Ezh2 is cell cycle-regulated and up-regulates its binding to ncRNA. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2615-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A phospho-mimic at residue 345 increased HOTAIR ncRNA binding to Ezh2, while the phospho-mimic at residue 487 was ineffectual. An Ezh2 domain comprising T345 was found to be important for binding to HOTAIR and the 5' end of Xist. ..
  33. Chae S, Sohn J, Kim D, Choi Y, Park Y, Kim K, et al. Overexpressions of Cyclin B1, cdc2, p16 and p53 in human breast cancer: the clinicopathologic correlations and prognostic implications. Yonsei Med J. 2011;52:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was to analyze the cyclin B1, cdc2, p53 and p16 tumor suppressor genes in human breast cancer...
  34. Hu X, Moscinski L. Cdc2: a monopotent or pluripotent CDK?. Cell Prolif. 2011;44:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been generally believed that cdc2/CDK1 only control G(2)-M transition in mammalian and many other higher eukaryotic cells...
  35. Major M, Lepe R, Costa R. Forkhead box M1B transcriptional activity requires binding of Cdk-cyclin complexes for phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of p300/CBP coactivators. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2649-61 pubmed
  36. Chow J, Siu W, Ho H, Ma K, Ho C, Poon R. Differential contribution of inhibitory phosphorylation of CDC2 and CDK2 for unperturbed cell cycle control and DNA integrity checkpoints. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40815-28 pubmed
    ..In this study, we compared the relative contribution of inhibitory phosphorylation for cyclin A/B1-CDC2 and cyclin A/E-CDK2 complexes...
  37. Santos S, Wollman R, Meyer T, Ferrell J. Spatial positive feedback at the onset of mitosis. Cell. 2012;149:1500-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that spatial positive feedback ensures a rapid, complete, robust, and irreversible transition from interphase to mitosis and suggest that bistable spatiotemporal switches may be widespread in biological regulation. ..
  38. Shindo N, Kumada K, Hirota T. Separase sensor reveals dual roles for separase coordinating cohesin cleavage and cdk1 inhibition. Dev Cell. 2012;23:112-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, by consecutively acting as a protease and a cdk1 inhibitor, separase coordinates two key processes to achieve simultaneous and abrupt separation of sister chromatids. ..
  39. Yoon C, Miah M, Kim K, Bae Y. New Cdc2 Tyr 4 phosphorylation by dsRNA-activated protein kinase triggers Cdc2 polyubiquitination and G2 arrest under genotoxic stresses. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:393-9 pubmed publisher
    Cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) protein is an essential subunit of M-phase kinase (MPK), which has a key role in G2/M transition...
  40. Kotak S, Busso C, GONCZY P. NuMA phosphorylation by CDK1 couples mitotic progression with cortical dynein function. EMBO J. 2013;32:2517-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover a mechanism whereby the status of NuMA phosphorylation coordinates mitotic progression with proper spindle function. ..
  41. Timofeev O, Cizmecioglu O, Settele F, Kempf T, Hoffmann I. Cdc25 phosphatases are required for timely assembly of CDK1-cyclin B at the G2/M transition. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16978-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that complex assembly and dephosphorylation of Cdk1 at G(2)/M is tightly coupled and regulated by Cdc25 phosphatases. ..
  42. Kang J, Sergio C, Sutherland R, Musgrove E. Targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) but not CDK4/6 or CDK2 is selectively lethal to MYC-dependent human breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that further investigation of CDK1 inhibition as a potential therapy for MYC-dependent breast cancer is warranted. ..
  43. Merrick K, Larochelle S, Zhang C, Allen J, Shokat K, Fisher R. Distinct activation pathways confer cyclin-binding specificity on Cdk1 and Cdk2 in human cells. Mol Cell. 2008;32:662-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, differential ordering of common activation steps promotes CDK-cyclin specificity, with Cdk7 acting catalytically to enforce fidelity. ..
  44. Romani B, Engelbrecht S. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr: functions and molecular interactions. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the critical role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenicity, study of the interactions between Vpr and cellular proteins may help us to understand the mechanism(s) of HIV-1 pathogenicity. ..
  45. Chen Z, Indjeian V, McManus M, Wang L, Dynlacht B. CP110, a cell cycle-dependent CDK substrate, regulates centrosome duplication in human cells. Dev Cell. 2002;3:339-50 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that CP110 is a physiological centrosomal CDK target that promotes centrosome duplication, and its deregulation may contribute to genomic instability. ..
  46. Esteban V, Vázquez Novelle M, Calvo E, Bueno A, Sacristán M. Human Cdc14A reverses CDK1 phosphorylation of Cdc25A on serines 115 and 320. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:2894-8 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we also show that the upregulation of Cdc14A phosphatase affects Cdc25A protein levels in human cells. Our results suggest that Cdc14A may be involved in the cell cycle regulation of Cdc25A stability. ..
  47. de Boer L, Oakes V, Beamish H, Giles N, Stevens F, Somodevilla Torres M, et al. Cyclin A/cdk2 coordinates centrosomal and nuclear mitotic events. Oncogene. 2008;27:4261-8 pubmed publisher
  48. D Angiolella V, Palazzo L, Santarpia C, Costanzo V, Grieco D. Role for non-proteolytic control of M-phase-promoting factor activity at M-phase exit. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e247 pubmed
    ..Thus, timely M-phase exit requires a tight coupling of proteolysis-dependent and proteolysis-independent mechanisms of MPF inactivation. ..
  49. Watanabe N, Arai H, Nishihara Y, Taniguchi M, Watanabe N, Hunter T, et al. M-phase kinases induce phospho-dependent ubiquitination of somatic Wee1 by SCFbeta-TrCP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4419-24 pubmed
    Wee1, the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase, needs to be down-regulated at the onset of mitosis to ensure rapid activation of Cdc2...
  50. Zhang C, Elkahloun A, Robertson M, Gills J, Tsurutani J, Shih J, et al. Loss of cytoplasmic CDK1 predicts poor survival in human lung cancer and confers chemotherapeutic resistance. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23849 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for personalizing lung cancer therapy and highlight the potential of combined approaches for biomarker discovery. ..
  51. Summers M, Bothos J, Halazonetis T. The CHFR mitotic checkpoint protein delays cell cycle progression by excluding Cyclin B1 from the nucleus. Oncogene. 2005;24:2589-98 pubmed
    ..Several markers suggested that Cyclin A/Cdc2 had been activated, whereas Aurora-A and -B and Cyclin B1/Cdc2 were inactive...
  52. Niiya F, Xie X, Lee K, Inoue H, Miki T. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 induces cytokinesis without chromosome segregation in an ECT2 and MgcRacGAP-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36502-9 pubmed
    ..Chemical induction of cytokinesis will be a valuable tool to study the initiation mechanism of cytokinesis. ..
  53. Li M, Stefansson B, Wang W, Schaefer E, Brautigan D. Phosphorylation of the Pro-X-Thr-Pro site in phosphatase inhibitor-2 by cyclin-dependent protein kinase during M-phase of the cell cycle. Cell Signal. 2006;18:1318-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of I-2 is catalyzed by cdk1::cyclinB1 and staining with a specific antibody should prove useful as a selective marker of cells in the early stages of mitosis. ..
  54. Neef R, Gruneberg U, Kopajtich R, Li X, Nigg E, Sillje H, et al. Choice of Plk1 docking partners during mitosis and cytokinesis is controlled by the activation state of Cdk1. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:436-44 pubmed
    ..The activation state of Cdk1, therefore, controls the switch of Plk1 localization from centrosomes and kinetochores during metaphase, to the central spindle during anaphase. ..
  55. Linares J, Amanchy R, Greis K, Diaz Meco M, Moscat J. Phosphorylation of p62 by cdk1 controls the timely transit of cells through mitosis and tumor cell proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, p62 emerges as a node for the control of not only cell survival but also cell transit through mitosis. ..
  56. Skoufias D, Indorato R, Lacroix F, Panopoulos A, Margolis R. Mitosis persists in the absence of Cdk1 activity when proteolysis or protein phosphatase activity is suppressed. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:671-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the degradation of a protein other than cyclin B1 is essential to activate a phosphatase that, in turn, enables mitotic exit. ..
  57. Wang Y, Seemann J, Pypaert M, Shorter J, Warren G. A direct role for GRASP65 as a mitotically regulated Golgi stacking factor. EMBO J. 2003;22:3279-90 pubmed
    ..GRASP65 is the major phosphorylation target in rat liver Golgi membranes of two mitotic kinases, cdc2-cyclin B and polo-like kinases, which alone will unstack Golgi membranes, generating single cisternae...
  58. Pomerening J, Ubersax J, Ferrell J. Rapid cycling and precocious termination of G1 phase in cells expressing CDK1AF. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3426-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the HeLa cell cycle is built upon an unreliable negative feedback oscillator and that the normal high reliability, slow pace and switch-like character of the cycle is imposed by a bistable CDK1/Wee1/Myt1/Cdc25 system. ..
  59. Castedo M, Roumier T, Blanco J, Ferri K, Barretina J, Tintignac L, et al. Sequential involvement of Cdk1, mTOR and p53 in apoptosis induced by the HIV-1 envelope. EMBO J. 2002;21:4070-80 pubmed
    ..Cdk1 inhibition prevents the death of syncytia elicited by HIV-1 infection of primary CD4 lymphoblasts. Thus, HIV-1 elicits a pro-apoptotic signal transduction pathway relying on the sequential action of cyclin B-Cdk1, mTOR and p53. ..
  60. Pereg Y, Liu B, O Rourke K, Sagolla M, Dey A, Komuves L, et al. Ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3 promotes oncogenic transformation by stabilizing Cdc25A. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As a major regulator of Cdc25A, Dub3 is an example of a transforming ubiquitin hydrolase that subverts a key component of the cell cycle machinery. ..
  61. Vázquez Novelle M, Sansregret L, Dick A, Smith C, McAinsh A, Gerlich D, et al. Cdk1 inactivation terminates mitotic checkpoint surveillance and stabilizes kinetochore attachments in anaphase. Curr Biol. 2014;24:638-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the simultaneous destruction of securin and cyclin B elicited by the APC/C(Cdc20) couples chromosome segregation to the dissolution of attachment monitoring mechanisms during mitotic exit. ..
  62. Hrimech M, Yao X, Branton P, Cohen E. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-mediated G(2) cell cycle arrest: Vpr interferes with cell cycle signaling cascades by interacting with the B subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A. EMBO J. 2002;21:3918 pubmed
  63. Wu S, Zhang Y. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of enhancer of zeste 2 (Ezh2) regulates its stability. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results establish a novel function for CDK1-mediated Ezh2 phosphorylation and provide a mechanism by which Ezh2 protein levels can be regulated in cells. ..
  64. Preisinger C, Körner R, Wind M, Lehmann W, Kopajtich R, Barr F. Plk1 docking to GRASP65 phosphorylated by Cdk1 suggests a mechanism for Golgi checkpoint signalling. EMBO J. 2005;24:753-65 pubmed
    ..These findings identify a Plk1-dependent signalling mechanism potentially linking Golgi structure and cell cycle control, but suggest that this may not be a cell cycle checkpoint in the classical sense. ..
  65. Smith E, Proud C. cdc2-cyclin B regulates eEF2 kinase activity in a cell cycle- and amino acid-dependent manner. EMBO J. 2008;27:1005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Tryptic mass fingerprint analysis identified it as cdc2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1)...
  66. Wolthuis R, Clay Farrace L, van Zon W, Yekezare M, Koop L, Ogink J, et al. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A. Mol Cell. 2008;30:290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identify a crucial role for the Cks proteins in mitosis and one mechanism by which the APC/C can target substrates independently of the spindle checkpoint. ..
  67. Andersen J, Le Rouzic E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr: mechanisms of G2 arrest and apoptosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008;85:2-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Vpr, in particular, leads to cell cycle arrest in G(2), followed by apoptosis. Here we summarize our current understanding of Vpr biology with a focus on Vpr-induced G(2) arrest and apoptosis. ..
  68. Lindqvist A, Rodriguez Bravo V, Medema R. The decision to enter mitosis: feedback and redundancy in the mitotic entry network. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:193-202 pubmed publisher
  69. Johnson N, Cai D, Kennedy R, Pathania S, Arora M, Li Y, et al. Cdk1 participates in BRCA1-dependent S phase checkpoint control in response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2009;35:327-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdk1 inhibition may therefore selectively sensitize BRCA1-proficient cancer cells to DNA-damaging treatments by disrupting BRCA1 function. ..
  70. Terrano D, Upreti M, Chambers T. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1-mediated Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 phosphorylation acts as a functional link coupling mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:640-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins acts as a sensor for CDK1 signal duration and as a functional link coupling mitotic arrest to apoptosis. ..