CD99

Summary

Gene Symbol: CD99
Description: CD99 molecule (Xg blood group)
Alias: HBA71, MIC2, MIC2X, MIC2Y, MSK5X, CD99 antigen, E2 antigen, MIC2 (monoclonal antibody 12E7), T-cell surface glycoprotein E2, antigen identified by monoclonal 12E7, Y homolog, antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 12E7, F21 and O13, cell surface antigen 12E7, cell surface antigen HBA-71, cell surface antigen O13, surface antigen MIC2
Species: human
Products:     CD99

Top Publications

  1. Dworzak M, Fritsch G, Buchinger P, Fleischer C, Printz D, Zellner A, et al. Flow cytometric assessment of human MIC2 expression in bone marrow, thymus, and peripheral blood. Blood. 1994;83:415-25 pubmed
    The cell-surface expression of the MIC2 antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody 12E7 was investigated on human leukocytes in bone marrow (BM), thymus, and peripheral blood (PB) using multiparameter flow cytometry and cell sorting...
  2. Lee H, Kim E, Jee B, Hahn J, Han K, Jung K, et al. Functional involvement of src and focal adhesion kinase in a CD99 splice variant-induced motility of human breast cancer cells. Exp Mol Med. 2002;34:177-83 pubmed
    Earlier report showed that expression of a splice variant of CD99 transmembrane protein increases invasive ability of human breast cancer cells. Cell motility was also significantly enhanced by the CD99 splice variant expression...
  3. Yoon S, Jung K, Choi Y, Choi E, Lee I, Park S, et al. Engagement of CD99 triggers the exocytic transport of ganglioside GM1 and the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. FEBS Lett. 2003;540:217-22 pubmed
    We studied the role of lipid rafts and actin cytoskeleton in CD99-mediated signaling to elucidate the mechanism of protein transport upon CD99 engagement...
  4. Jung K, Kim N, Park W, Park S, Bae Y. The CD99 signal enhances Fas-mediated apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line, Jurkat. FEBS Lett. 2003;554:478-84 pubmed
    The CD99 antigen has been implicated in various cellular processes, including apoptosis in T cells. Previously, we reported two monoclonal antibodies that recognize different epitopes of the CD99 molecule, named DN16 and YG32...
  5. Jung K, Park W, Bae Y, Hahn J, Hahn K, Lee H, et al. Immunoreactivity of CD99 in stomach cancer. J Korean Med Sci. 2002;17:483-9 pubmed
    b>CD99 is characteristically expressed in Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Recently its immunoreactivity has also been reported in other tumors...
  6. Byun H, Hong I, Kim E, Jin Y, Jeoung D, Hahn J, et al. A splice variant of CD99 increases motility and MMP-9 expression of human breast cancer cells through the AKT-, ERK-, and JNK-dependent AP-1 activation signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34833-47 pubmed
    The CD99 gene encodes two distinct transmembrane proteins by alternative splicing of its transcript...
  7. Goodfellow P, Darling S, Thomas N, Goodfellow P. A pseudoautosomal gene in man. Science. 1986;234:740-3 pubmed
    The X/Y homologous gene MIC2 was shown to exchange between the sex chromosomes, thus demonstrating that it is a pseudoautosomal gene in man. MIC2 recombines with the sex-determining gene(s) TDF at a frequency of 2 to 3 percent...
  8. Gordon M, Corless C, Renshaw A, Beckstead J. CD99, keratin, and vimentin staining of sex cord-stromal tumors, normal ovary, and testis. Mod Pathol. 1998;11:769-73 pubmed
    b>CD99, a marker for MIC-2, reacts with normal Sertoli cells and granulosa cells...
  9. Cerisano V, Aalto Y, Perdichizzi S, Bernard G, Manara M, Benini S, et al. Molecular mechanisms of CD99-induced caspase-independent cell death and cell-cell adhesion in Ewing's sarcoma cells: actin and zyxin as key intracellular mediators. Oncogene. 2004;23:5664-74 pubmed
    b>CD99 is a unique 32-kDa cell surface molecule with broad cellular expression but still poorly understood biological functions. In cancer cells, CD99 is highly expressed in virtually all Ewing's sarcoma (ES)...

More Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. Brémond A, Meynet O, Mahiddine K, Coito S, Tichet M, Scotlandi K, et al. Regulation of HLA class I surface expression requires CD99 and p230/golgin-245 interaction. Blood. 2009;113:347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, powerful processes should regulate their surface expression. Here we document the mechanisms used by CD99 to mediate HLA class I modulation. Up-regulation of HLA class I by IFN-gamma requires CD99...
  2. Gelin C, Aubrit F, Phalipon A, Raynal B, Cole S, Kaczorek M, et al. The E2 antigen, a 32 kd glycoprotein involved in T-cell adhesion processes, is the MIC2 gene product. EMBO J. 1989;8:3253-9 pubmed
    ..These findings show that the E2 antigen, a cell surface molecule involved in T cell adhesion processes, is the product of the MIC2 gene, the only ..
  3. Manara M, Bernard G, Lollini P, Nanni P, Zuntini M, Landuzzi L, et al. CD99 acts as an oncosuppressor in osteosarcoma. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1910-21 pubmed
    b>CD99 was recently reported to be under control of the osteoblast-specific transcription factor Cbfa1 (RUNX2) in osteoblasts, suggesting a role in the phato-physiology of these cells...
  4. Kovar H, Dworzak M, Strehl S, Schnell E, Ambros I, Ambros P, et al. Overexpression of the pseudoautosomal gene MIC2 in Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Oncogene. 1990;5:1067-70 pubmed
    ..Nucleotide sequencing revealed the HBA-71 antigen to be the product of the pseudoautosomal gene MIC2 previously identified by the mAb 12E7 in haematopoietic cells...
  5. Scotlandi K, Zuntini M, Manara M, Sciandra M, Rocchi A, Benini S, et al. CD99 isoforms dictate opposite functions in tumour malignancy and metastases by activating or repressing c-Src kinase activity. Oncogene. 2007;26:6604-18 pubmed
    b>CD99 gene encodes two distinct proteins, produced by alternative splicing of CD99 gene transcript...
  6. Hahn J, Kim M, Choi E, Kim S, Sohn H, Ham D, et al. CD99 (MIC2) regulates the LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated adhesion of lymphocytes, and its gene encodes both positive and negative regulators of cellular adhesion. J Immunol. 1997;159:2250-8 pubmed
    ..is known about the mechanisms that control the adhesion and deadhesion processes generated by the engagement of CD99 between various types of immune cells...
  7. Yoo S, Han J, Kim T, Chung D. Expression of CD99 in pleomorphic carcinomas of the lung. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:50-5 pubmed
    ..To characterize the immunophenotype for CD99 in PCL, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of PCLs for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), ..
  8. Rocchi A, Manara M, Sciandra M, Zambelli D, Nardi F, Nicoletti G, et al. CD99 inhibits neural differentiation of human Ewing sarcoma cells and thereby contributes to oncogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:668-80 pubmed publisher
    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is an aggressive bone tumor of uncertain cellular origin. CD99 is a membrane protein that is expressed in most cases of EWS, although its function in the disease is unknown...
  9. Wu Z, Yang H, Weng D, Ding Y. Rapid recurrence and bilateral lungs, multiple bone metastasis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the right occipital lobe: report of a case and review. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10:91 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and CD99, focal positive for CD34, bcl-2 and Actin. Ki-67 labelling index was more than 40%...
  10. Wang J, Wang W, Li Y, Jin B, Yu M, Liu W, et al. A Primary Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Arising from Left Subclavian Vein and Extending along Left Brachiocephalic Vein and Superior Vena Cava into Right Atrium. Ann Vasc Surg. 2015;29:839.e13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The neoplastic cells showed a strong immunopositivity for CD99, synaptophysin, CD56, CD57, and friend leukemia integration 1, thus confirming a diagnosis of the PNET...
  11. Li T, Zhang F, Cao Y, Ning S, Bi Y, Xue W, et al. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ileum: case report of a 16-year-old Chinese female and literature review. Diagn Pathol. 2017;12:37 pubmed publisher
    ..After resection, the tumor's histology and immunohistochemistry (positive for CD99, vimentin and synaptophysin) results suggested ES/PNET...
  12. Béguin E, van den Eshof B, Hoogendijk A, Nota B, Mertens K, Meijer A, et al. Integrated proteomic analysis of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β-induced endothelial inflammation. J Proteomics. 2019;192:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Current strategies targeting endothelial adhesion molecules, including PECAM, CD99, ICAM1 and VCAM1 do not completely prevent transmigration...
  13. Tonyali S, Yazici S, Yeşilırmak A, Ergen A. The Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors of Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Balkan Med J. 2016;33:462-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry showed strong vimentin, synaptophysin and membranous CD99 expression by the tumor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis displayed the EWSR1 rearrangement...
  14. Monument M, Grossmann A, Baker C, Randall R, Liu T, Albertson D. Molecular Confirmation of Ewing Sarcoma in an 85-Year-Old Woman. Int J Surg Pathol. 2015;23:500-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent mitoses, apoptosis, and necrosis were present. The cells were positive for CD99 with a strong concentric staining pattern. Epithelial, hematopoietic, and neural markers were all negative...
  15. Tsukamoto Y, Futani H, Yoshiya S, Watanabe T, Kihara T, Matsuo S, et al. Primary undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma of the deep abdominal wall with a novel variant of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 gene fusion. Pathol Res Pract. 2017;213:1315-1321 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor cells of the surgical specimen were positive for CD99, WT1, calretinin, INI1, ERG and Fli1 by immunohistochemistry...
  16. Matsuyama A, Shiba E, Umekita Y, Nosaka K, Kamio T, Yanai H, et al. Clinicopathologic Diversity of Undifferentiated Sarcoma With BCOR-CCNB3 Fusion: Analysis of 11 Cases With a Reappraisal of the Utility of Immunohistochemistry for BCOR and CCNB3. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:1713-1721 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor cells were immunoreactive to CCNB3 (9/11), BCOR (10/10), TLE1 (6/10), bcl-2 (9/11), CD99 (8/10), CD56 (8/10), c-kit (4/10), and cyclin D1 (10/10)...
  17. Sánchez O, Barrera M, Farnós O, Parra N, Salgado E, Saavedra P, et al. Effectiveness of the E2-classical swine fever virus recombinant vaccine produced and formulated within whey from genetically transformed goats. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21:1628-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In a vaccination and challenge experiment in swine, different doses of the E2 antigen contained within the clarified whey generated an effective immune response of neutralizing antibodies that ..
  18. Li W, Liao I, Wen M, Lan H, Yu S, Huang H. BCOR-CCNB3-positive soft tissue sarcoma with round-cell and spindle-cell histology: a series of four cases highlighting the pitfall of mimicking poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma. Histopathology. 2016;69:792-801 pubmed publisher
    ..All cases were positive for CD99, three were positive for TLE1, and one was positive for EMA, indicating poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas (..
  19. Ruan H, Huang A, Cheng S, FU G. [Clinicopathologic features of solitary fibrous tumor in urogenital system]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2016;45:248-51 pubmed publisher
    ..By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for CD34 and STAT6 in all eight cases, CD99 and vimentin in six cases, bcl-2 in four cases and SMA in one case...
  20. Magro G, Brancato F, Musumeci G, Alaggio R, Parenti R, Salvatorelli L. Cyclin D1 is a useful marker for soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in children and adolescents: A comparative immunohistochemical study with rhabdomyosarcoma. Acta Histochem. 2015;117:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor of soft tissues in pediatric/adolescent patients, a strong and diffuse nuclear expression of cyclin D1 is of complementary diagnostic value to CD99 and FLI-1 in confirming diagnosis of EWS/pPNET and in ruling out rhabdomyosarcoma.
  21. R El Attar L, Thomas C, Luke J, A Williams J, Brownlie J. Enhanced neutralising antibody response to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) induced by DNA vaccination in calves. Vaccine. 2015;33:4004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that vaccines coexpressing E2t with a RIG-I agonist induced significantly higher E2 antigen specific antibody response (p<0.05)...
  22. Sood N, Sehrawat N. Adult onset sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma - a rare case report with cytohistological features. Malays J Pathol. 2016;38:169-73 pubmed
    ..IHC) showing strong myogenin positivity, focal positivity for PAX8 and negativity for CK, LCA, S-100 and CD99. Parameningeal RMS is rare in adults especially the elderly...
  23. Briseño Hernández A, Quezada López D, Corona Cobián L, Castañeda Chávez A, Duarte Ojeda A, Macías Amezcua M. [Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour]. Cir Cir. 2015;83:243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunohistochemistry was positive for desmin (> 75%), epithelial membrane antigen (> 75%), CD99 (> 50%), and S100 (25%), concluding with an abdominal tumour of small, round, blue cells as a diagnosis...
  24. Alqahtani D, AlSheddi M, Al Sadhan R. Epithelioid Osteosarcoma of the Maxilla: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Int J Surg Pathol. 2015;23:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin and negative for AE1/AE3, Melan-A, CD30, synaptophysin, NSE, CD45, CD99, desmin, and myogenin...
  25. Fouchet C, Gane P, Cartron J, Lopez C. Quantitative analysis of XG blood group and CD99 antigens on human red cells. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:688-94 pubmed
    CD99, the product of the MIC2 gene, exhibits an erythroid-specific quantitative polymorphism co-regulated with the Xga blood group polymorphism...
  26. Husak Z, Printz D, Schumich A, Potschger U, Dworzak M. Death induction by CD99 ligation in TEL/AML1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and normal B cell precursors. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:405-12 pubmed publisher
    Our study was performed to examine the role of CD99 in normal and leukemia BCPs. CD99 is strongly expressed by certain pediatric cancers including BCP-ALL...
  27. Williams D, Calderon T, Lopez L, Carvallo Torres L, Gaskill P, Eugenin E, et al. Mechanisms of HIV entry into the CNS: increased sensitivity of HIV infected CD14+CD16+ monocytes to CCL2 and key roles of CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM in diapedesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69270 pubmed publisher
    ..uninfected CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes into the brain was facilitated by significantly increased surface JAM-A, ALCAM, CD99, and PECAM-1, as compared to CD14(+) cells that are CD16 negative...
  28. Muller W. Transendothelial migration: unifying principles from the endothelial perspective. Immunol Rev. 2016;273:61-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CD99 regulates a step at or close to the end of TEM...
  29. Takheaw N, Laopajon W, Chuensirikulchai K, Kasinrerk W, Pata S. Exploitation of human CD99 expressing mouse myeloma cells as immunogen for production of mouse specific polyclonal antibodies. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;134:82-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of the pAb specific to the human CD99 surface molecule was used as the study model...
  30. Pettersen R, Bernard G, Olafsen M, Pourtein M, Lie S. CD99 signals caspase-independent T cell death. J Immunol. 2001;166:4931-42 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that engagement of distinct epitopes on CD99 rapidly induces T cell death by a novel caspase-independent pathway...
  31. D Andrea V, Falvo L, Catania A, Sorrenti S, Berni A, Cantisani V, et al. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET) of pelvic origin: report of a case arising from an unusual location. Tumori. 2003;89:202-6 pubmed
    ..Immunophenotyping was positive for CD99, NSE, and focally for CK...
  32. Kim H, Kim Y, Shin Y, Park S, Lee W. Solution structure of the cytoplasmic domain of human CD99 type I. Mol Cells. 2004;18:24-9 pubmed
    Human CD99, which is encoded by the mic2 gene, is a ubiquitous 32 kDa transmembrane protein...
  33. Oh K, Kim B, Ban Y, Choi E, Jung K, Lee I, et al. CD99 activates T cells via a costimulatory function that promotes raft association of TCR complex and tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR zeta. Exp Mol Med. 2007;39:176-84 pubmed
    We investigated the co-stimulatory role of a cell-surface protein, CD99. Co-ligation of CD99 and suboptimal CD3 induced T-cell activation to a level comparable to that obtained with optimal CD3 or CD3+CD28...
  34. Domínguez Malagón H, Michal M, Kazakov D, Caro Sánchez C, Lino Silva L. Utility of CD99 Paranuclear Expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol. 2016;24:293-6 pubmed publisher
    Recent reviews have referred to the paranuclear dot-like staining pattern of CD99 in several neoplasms, including solid pseudopapillary tumors in the pancreas, colonic adenocarcinomas, and colonic adenomas as well as in Merkel cell ..
  35. Comino Mendez I, Tejera A, Currás Freixes M, Remacha L, Gonzalvo P, Tonda R, et al. ATRX driver mutation in a composite malignant pheochromocytoma. Cancer Genet. 2016;209:272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SDH gene mutations) and identified downregulation of genes involved in neuronal development and homeostasis (NLGN4, CD99 and CSF2RA) as well as upregulation of Drosha, an important gene involved in miRNA and rRNA processing...
  36. Ishiguro M, Yuki M, Fukushige T, Mizoguchi M, Kaneko Y, Morishige T, et al. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of two established ESFT cell lines. Hum Cell. 2017;30:41-48 pubmed publisher
    ..and xenograft tumors and cultured cells were composed of small round cells with positive immunoreactivity for CD99 and Nkx2.2...
  37. Bedau T, Peters F, Prox J, Arnold P, Schmidt F, Finkernagel M, et al. Ectodomain shedding of CD99 within highly conserved regions is mediated by the metalloprotease meprin ? and promotes transendothelial cell migration. FASEB J. 2017;31:1226-1237 pubmed publisher
    The adhesion molecule CD99 is essential for the transendothelial migration of leukocytes...
  38. Lilo M, Bishop J, Olson M, Ali S. Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma of the parotid gland: Cytopathologic findings and differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..However, when additional material is available, CD99 and/or FLI1 immunostains need to be included for diagnostic confirmation.
  39. Bhuyan A, Memon A, Bhuiyan A, Zhonghua L, Zhang B, Ye S, et al. The construction of recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing BVDV E2 protein and its immune response in mice. J Biotechnol. 2018;270:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have constructed a novel recombinant L. casei/pELX1-E2 strain expressing the most immunogenic E2 antigen of BVDV; using growth phage dependent surface expression system pELX1...
  40. Zhao M, Wang Y, Yan Y, Wang W, Ru G, He X. [Clinicopathologic features of atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumor]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2018;47:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..INI-1 was intact and Ki-67 index was 1% to 3%. All other markers including CDK4, MDM2, STAT6, SOX10, CD99, bcl-2, β-catenin, CD117, GFAP, CK, EMA, SMA and desmin were negative...
  41. Bernard A, Aubrit F, Raynal B, Pham D, Boumsell L. A T cell surface molecule different from CD2 is involved in spontaneous rosette formation with erythrocytes. J Immunol. 1988;140:1802-7 pubmed
  42. Hong J, Park S, Park J, Jang S, Ahn H, Sym S, et al. CD99 expression and newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy. Ann Hematol. 2012;91:1897-906 pubmed publisher
    In order to evaluate prognostic value of CD99 expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who underwent treatment with rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy, immunohistochemistry for CD99/CD10/BCL-2/BCL-6/MUM-1 was ..
  43. Huynh M, Liu B, Henry M, Liew L, Matthews S, Carruthers V. Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii MIC2-associated protein interaction with MIC2. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:1432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Secretory microneme proteins have been shown to be important for both gliding motility and active invasion. MIC2-M2AP is a protein complex that is essential for productive motility and rapid invasion by binding to host cell ..
  44. Watson R, Buck J, Levin L, Winger R, Wang J, Arase H, et al. Endothelial CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase and PKA to regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration. J Exp Med. 2015;212:1021-41 pubmed publisher
    b>CD99 is a critical regulator of leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). How CD99 signals during this process remains unknown...
  45. Yan M, Shield Artin K, Byrne D, Deb S, Waddell N, Haviv I, et al. Comparative microRNA profiling of sporadic and BRCA1 associated basal-like breast cancers. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:506 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Cyclin D1, FOXP1, FIH-1, pan-ERβ, NRP1 and CD99, predicted to be regulated by BRCA1 specific miRNAs by computer prediction algorithms, was assessed via ..
  46. Huang C, Yang Y, Liu L. Interaction of long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Physiol Genomics. 2015;47:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies revealed that silencing the lncRNA CD99 molecule pseudogene 1 (CD99P1) inhibited proliferation and α-smooth muscle actin expression of lung fibroblasts, ..
  47. Qi W, Deng X, Liu T, Hou Y, Yang C, Wu L, et al. Comparison of Primary Spinal Central and Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in Clinical and Imaging Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome. World Neurosurg. 2016;88:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis was cPNET in 6 patients with negative CD99 expression and pPNET in 19 patients with positive CD99 expression...
  48. Koelsche C, Hartmann W, Schrimpf D, Stichel D, Jabar S, Ranft A, et al. Array-based DNA-methylation profiling in sarcomas with small blue round cell histology provides valuable diagnostic information. Mod Pathol. 2018;31:1246-1256 pubmed publisher
    Undifferentiated solid tumors with small blue round cell histology and expression of CD99 mostly resemble Ewing sarcoma...
  49. Alsaad K, Serra S, Perren A, Hsieh E, Chetty R. CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix. Int J Surg Pathol. 2007;15:252-7 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the loss of expression of CD99 has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenesis and dedifferentiation and is associated with poor outcome in ..
  50. Sullivan D, Seidman M, Muller W. Poliovirus receptor (CD155) regulates a step in transendothelial migration between PECAM and CD99. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1031-42 pubmed publisher
    ..differential and sequential treatment with blocking antibodies directed against PVR, DNAM-1, PECAM, and CD99 showed that endothelial PVR and monocyte DNAM-1 interact at and regulate a step between those regulated by PECAM ..
  51. Val Bernal J, García González M, Mayorga M, Marrero R, Jorge Pérez N. Primary renal myxofibrosarcoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2015;211:619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..the tumor cells showed strong positivity for vimentin, bcl2 protein (nuclear staining pattern), CD34, CD99, and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase...
  52. Trabelsi S, Mama N, Chourabi M, Mastouri M, Ladib M, Popov S, et al. Meningeal Hemangiopericytomas and Meningomas: a Comparative Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:6871-6 pubmed
    ..Compared with MNG, MHPCs showed strong VIM (100% of cases), CD99 (62%), bcl-2 (87%), and p16 (75%) staining but only focal positivity with EMA (33%) and NSE (37%)...
  53. Bergamin F, Gangemi E, Cerato C, Clemente A, Borsetti M, Suriani A, et al. An unusual case of neurothekeoma of the arm in an adult. J Orthop Traumatol. 2016;17:287-90 pubmed publisher
    ..there was positivity to vimentin but S100-protein, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin AE1-3, CD99 and CD34 were all negative. This pattern suggested a myxoid tumor form of neurothekeoma, mixed subtype...
  54. Gambarotti M, Benini S, Gamberi G, Cocchi S, Palmerini E, Sbaraglia M, et al. CIC-DUX4 fusion-positive round-cell sarcomas of soft tissue and bone: a single-institution morphological and molecular analysis of seven cases. Histopathology. 2016;69:624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemically, all tumours showed focal and weak positivity for CD99, and five of seven showed nuclear and/or cytoplasmic positivity for Wilms tumour 1...
  55. Alexiev B, Tumer Y, Bishop J. Sinonasal adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma: A case report. Pathol Res Pract. 2017;213:422-426 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor showed strong expression of keratins, p63, CD99 and Fli-1, and EWSR1 rearrangement...
  56. Gil M, Pak H, Lee A, Park S, Lee Y, Roh J, et al. CD99 regulates CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of human plasma cells. Immunol Lett. 2015;168:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the role of CD99 in CXCL12-induced PC migration. Among B cell subsets in the tonsils, CD99 expression was highest in PCs...
  57. Sullivan D, Watson R, Muller W. 4D intravital microscopy uncovers critical strain differences for the roles of PECAM and CD99 in leukocyte diapedesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..with human cells have demonstrated that platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) functions upstream of CD99 during TEM; however, results in vivo with mice have been apparently contradictory...
  58. Czimbalmos C, Csecs I, Pólos M, Bartha E, Szucs N, Toth A, et al. Uncommon presentation of a rare tumour - incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient: case report and comprehensive review of the literature on intrapericardial solitary fibrous tumours. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:612 pubmed publisher
    ..forming an irregular patternless pattern; immunohistochemically, the cells tested positive for vimentin, CD34, CD99 and STAT6 but negative for keratin (AE1-AE3), CD31 and S100...
  59. Wu Y, Tang H, Ding Y, Pan X, Tan C. [Value of CD, MPO, Ki-67 and C-MYC Positive Rate in the Pathological Tissues and C-MYC Gene of Patients with T-LBL/ALL for Predicting Prognosis]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2018;26:110-115 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), CD34+ 22 cases (24.4%), CD43+ 48 cases (53.3%), CD45RO+ 46 cases (51.1%), CD99+ 88 cases (97.8%), TDT+ 85 cases (94...
  60. Specht K, Hartmann W. [Ewing sarcomas and Ewing-like sarcomas : New aspects]. Pathologe. 2018;39:154-163 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunohistochemical profile with inconsistent CD99 positivity makes diagnosis more difficult and requires the use of a broad spectrum of antibodies and elaborate ..
  61. Banting G, Pym B, Darling S, Goodfellow P. The MIC2 gene product: epitope mapping and structural prediction analysis define an integral membrane protein. Mol Immunol. 1989;26:181-8 pubmed
    The MIC2 locus is located in the pseudoautosomal (pairing) region of human X and Y chromosomes (Goodfellow et al., Science 234, 740-743, 1986). Despite extensive molecular analysis of MIC2 (see Darling et al., Cold Spring Harb. Symp...
  62. Burkhardt J, Petit Teixeira E, Teixeira V, Kirsten H, Garnier S, Ruehle S, et al. Association of the X-chromosomal genes TIMP1 and IL9R with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:2149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..98; p = 0.048). We provide evidence for an association of at least 2 X-chromosomal genes with RA: TIMP1 (rs6520278) and IL9R (rs3093457). ..
  63. Chung S, Eng W, Hu W, Khalaj M, Garrett Bakelman F, Tavakkoli M, et al. CD99 is a therapeutic target on disease stem cells in myeloid malignancies. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..We identified CD99 as a cell surface protein frequently overexpressed on AML and MDS stem cells...
  64. Goodfellow P, Mondello C, Darling S, Pym B, Little P, Goodfellow P. Absence of methylation of a CpG-rich region at the 5' end of the MIC2 gene on the active X, the inactive X, and the Y chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:5605-9 pubmed
    ..characterized a Hpa II tiny fragment (HTF) island associated with the promoter region of the pseudoautosomal gene MIC2. The MIC2 HTF island is unmethylated on both the active and inactive X chromosome and is similarly unmethylated on ..
  65. Darling S, Goodfellow P, Pym B, Banting G, Pritchard C, Goodfellow P. Molecular genetics of MIC2: a gene shared by the human X and Y chromosomes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1986;51 Pt 1:205-12 pubmed
  66. Vural C, Uluoglu O, Akyurek N, Oguz A, Karadeniz C. The evaluation of CD99 immunoreactivity and EWS/FLI1 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization in central PNETs and Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011;17:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Another defining characteristic of ESFTs is their membranous expression of the CD99. In contrast, such translocations and immunoreactivity are not found in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (..
  67. Torzicky M, Viznerova P, Richter S, Strobl H, Scheinecker C, Foedinger D, et al. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) and CD99 are critical in lymphatic transmigration of human dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, CD31 and CD99, which act as gatekeepers during diapedesis, might have a role in RT of DCs...
  68. Belonogov R, Ruksha T. [Characteristics of CD99 expression in the skin of psoriasis patients]. Arkh Patol. 2013;75:26-9 pubmed
    The pattern of CD99 expression in the skin was studied in 22 patients with disseminated psoriasis. The patients' skin biopsy specimens were immunohistochemically stained by the standard procedure using monoclonal antibodies to CD99...
  69. Ventura S, Aryee D, Felicetti F, De Feo A, Mancarella C, Manara M, et al. CD99 regulates neural differentiation of Ewing sarcoma cells through miR-34a-Notch-mediated control of NF-κB signaling. Oncogene. 2016;35:3944-54 pubmed publisher
    Sarcomas are mesenchymal tumors characterized by blocked differentiation process. In Ewing sarcoma (EWS) both CD99 and EWS-FLI1 concur to oncogenesis and inhibition of differentiation...
  70. Buckle V, Mondello C, Darling S, Craig I, Goodfellow P. Homologous expressed genes in the human sex chromosome pairing region. Nature. 1985;317:739-41 pubmed
    ..The X-located homologue, MIC2X, escapes X-inactivation and the equivalent Y-located locus, MIC2Y, was one of the first genes shown to reside on a mammalian Y chromosome...
  71. Goodfellow P, Pym B, Mohandas T, Shapiro L. The cell surface antigen locus, MIC2X, escapes X-inactivation. Am J Hum Genet. 1984;36:777-82 pubmed
    ..is expressed by both the human X and Y chromosomes; the gene loci on the X and Y chromosomes are referred to as MIC2X and MIC2Y, respectively. It was also shown that MIC2X is located in the region Xp22...
  72. Lee E, Lee H, Park S, Choi E, Park S. CD99 type II is a determining factor for the differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal cells. Exp Mol Med. 2003;35:438-47 pubmed
    b>CD99 is a 32-kDa cell surface molecule present on thymocytes, peripheral T cells, many other hematopoietic stem cells and somatic cells were implicated in cell-cell adhesion and cell-activation phenomena...
  73. Kim H, Chong K, Kang S, Lee J, Kim J, Hahn M, et al. Identification of cyclophilin A as a CD99-binding protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. Immunol Lett. 2004;95:155-9 pubmed
    b>CD99 is a 32kDa surface glycoprotein, which is involved in the migration of leukocytes and the transport of ganglioside GM1 and transmembrane proteins...
  74. Ishizawa K, Komori T, Shimada S, Hirose T. Olig2 and CD99 are useful negative markers for the diagnosis of brain tumors. Clin Neuropathol. 2008;27:118-28 pubmed
    ..studied for the expression of Olig2 as well as other markers including epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and CD99. In general, the Olig2-positive nuclei were only sparsely distributed in ependymomas; in contrast, they were very ..
  75. Li L, Li J, Hao C, Zhang C, Mu K, Wang Y, et al. Immunohistochemical evaluation of solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas: the expression pattern of CD99 is highly unique. Cancer Lett. 2011;310:9-14 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate CD99 as a new marker to characterize solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs), and to determine a specific panel of markers to identify the disease...
  76. Lee E, Chae J, Kang M. Nuclear factor-?B2 represses Sp1-mediated transcription at the CD99 promoter. Mol Cells. 2011;32:555-60 pubmed publisher
    Downregulation of the CD99 antigen on the surface of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cells via EBV LMP1-mediated NF-?B suppression of Sp1 transcriptional activity is known to be associated with the appearance of pathogenic Reed-Sternberg cells...
  77. Xu G, Zhang J. [Giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: A case report and literature review]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2016;41:1111-1116 pubmed
    ..epithelial membrane antigen(-), mesothelial cell (-), vimentin (++), Wilm's tumor-1 (+), Bcl-2 (+), CD56 (-), CD99 (+), desmin (-), and thyroid transcription factor-1 (-). It was diagnosed as SFT at right side wall layer pleura...
  78. Dracopoli N, Rettig W, Albino A, Esposito D, Archidiacono N, Rocchi M, et al. Genes controlling gp25/30 cell-surface molecules map to chromosomes X and Y and escape X-inactivation. Am J Hum Genet. 1985;37:199-207 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the X-linked locus determining the expression of O13 is not subject to X-inactivation. ..
  79. Sung C, Ko Y, Park S, Kim K, Kim W. Immunoreactivity of CD99 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: unexpected frequent expression in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:952-6 pubmed
    To verify the spectrum of CD99-expressing lymphoid malignancy, an immunohistochemical study for CD99 was carried out in 182 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including 21 lymphoblastic lymphomas, 11 small lymphocytic lymphomas, 9 mantle ..
  80. Kim H, Kim J, Park J, Lee M, Juhng S, Cho J, et al. The association between CD99 and LMP-1 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Exp Oncol. 2006;28:40-3 pubmed
    To characterize the roles of LMP-1 and CD99 in nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis, we undertook this pilot study of LMP-1 and CD99 expressions in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC)...
  81. Lou O, Alcaide P, Luscinskas F, Muller W. CD99 is a key mediator of the transendothelial migration of neutrophils. J Immunol. 2007;178:1136-43 pubmed
    ..PECAM (CD31) is a major mediator of monocyte and neutrophil transmigration, and CD99 was recently defined as a second mediator of the transmigration of monocytes...
  82. Lee S, Park S, Park J, Hong J, Ko Y. Clinicopathologic characteristics of CD99-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Acta Haematol. 2011;125:167-74 pubmed publisher
    b>CD99 immunoreactivity has been documented in a variety of tumors, including lymphoid malignancies such as anaplastic large-cell lymphomas...
  83. Moricoli D, Muller W, Carbonella D, Balducci M, Dominici S, Watson R, et al. Blocking monocyte transmigration in in vitro system by a human antibody scFv anti-CD99. Efficient large scale purification from periplasmic inclusion bodies in E. coli expression system. J Immunol Methods. 2014;408:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CD99 play a significant role in transendothelial migration (TEM) of leukocytes...
  84. Choi E, Park W, Jung K, Kim S, Kim Y, Lee W, et al. Engagement of CD99 induces up-regulation of TCR and MHC class I and II molecules on the surface of human thymocytes. J Immunol. 1998;161:749-54 pubmed
    b>CD99 is a cell surface molecule involved in the aggregation of lymphocytes and apoptosis of immature cortical thymocytes...
  85. Fouchet C, Gane P, Huet M, Fellous M, Rouger P, Banting G, et al. A study of the coregulation and tissue specificity of XG and MIC2 gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Blood. 2000;95:1819-26 pubmed
    CD99, the product of the MIC2 gene, exhibits an erythroid-specific quantitative polymorphism coregulated with the polymorphism of the XG blood group gene...
  86. Enein A, Rahman H, Sharkawy N, Elhamid S, Abbas S, Abdelfaatah R, et al. Significance of CD99 expression in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Biomark. 2016;17:117-23 pubmed publisher
    b>CD99 was first isolated as an antigen on the T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. It has been shown to participate in T cell adhesion and is widely expressed on a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types...
  87. Rajagopalan A, Browning D, Salama S. CD99 expression in Merkel cell carcinoma: a case series with an unusual paranuclear dot-like staining pattern. J Cutan Pathol. 2013;40:19-24 pubmed publisher
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. The utility of CD99 (MIC-2) in the diagnosis of MCC has been previously studied, with reported rates of expression ranging from 13 to 55%...
  88. Geller R, Shapiro L, Mohandas T. Fine mapping of the distal short arm of the human X chromosome using X/Y translocations. Am J Hum Genet. 1986;38:884-90 pubmed
    The loci for steroid sulfatase (STS), the deficiency of which causes X-linked ichthyosis, the cell surface antigen 12E7 (MIC2X), and the blood group antigen Xg (Xg) have been mapped to Xp22.3...
  89. Angelini D, Ottone T, Guerrera G, Lavorgna S, Cittadini M, Buccisano F, et al. A Leukemia-Associated CD34/CD123/CD25/CD99+ Immunophenotype Identifies FLT3-Mutated Clones in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:3977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified a discrete population expressing high levels of the IL3 receptor α-chain (CD123) and MIC-2 (CD99) in combination with the IL2 receptor α-chain (CD25)...
  90. Owosho A, Estilo C, Huryn J, Zhang L, Fletcher C, Antonescu C. Head and Neck Round Cell Sarcomas: A Comparative Clinicopathologic Analysis of 2 Molecular Subsets: Ewing and CIC-Rearranged Sarcomas. Head Neck Pathol. 2017;11:450-459 pubmed publisher
    ..CRS showed variable CD99 staining in 75% of cases and diffuse WT1 (6/6) reactivity, while all ES expressed diffuse membranous staining for ..
  91. Goodfellow P, Pritchard C, Tippett P, Goodfellow P. Recombination between the X and Y chromosomes: implications for the relationship between MIC2, XG and YG. Ann Hum Genet. 1987;51:161-7 pubmed
    Three loci affect the levels of expression of the 12E7 antigen on red blood cells: MIC2, the pseudoautosomal structural gene for the 12E7 antigen; XG, an X-linked red cell blood group locus and YG, a polymorphic Y-linked locus...
  92. Buxton D, Bacchi C, Gualco G, Weiss L, Zuppan C, Rowsell E, et al. Frequent expression of CD99 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 160 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;131:574-9 pubmed publisher
    Originally described as a diagnostically useful marker for Ewing sarcoma, CD99 immunoreactivity has also been documented in a variety of other tumors, including hematopoietic neoplasms...