Gene Symbol: CD98
Description: solute carrier family 3 member 2
Alias: 4F2, 4F2HC, 4T2HC, CD98, CD98HC, MDU1, NACAE, 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain, CD98 heavy chain, antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain, antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, and T43, lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, monoclonal antibody 44D7, solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2, solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 2
Species: human
Products:     CD98

Top Publications

  1. Torrents D, Estevez R, Pineda M, Fernandez E, Lloberas J, Shi Y, et al. Identification and characterization of a membrane protein (y+L amino acid transporter-1) that associates with 4F2hc to encode the amino acid transport activity y+L. A candidate gene for lysinuric protein intolerance. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32437-45 pubmed
    ..a new human cDNA (y+L amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1)) that induces system y+L transport activity with 4F2hc (the surface antigen 4F2 heavy chain) in oocytes...
  2. Rintoul R, Buttery R, Mackinnon A, Wong W, Mosher D, Haslett C, et al. Cross-linking CD98 promotes integrin-like signaling and anchorage-independent growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2841-52 pubmed
    b>CD98, an early marker of T-cell activation, is an important regulator of integrin-mediated adhesion events...
  3. Liu X, Charrier L, Gewirtz A, Sitaraman S, Merlin D. CD98 and intracellular adhesion molecule I regulate the activity of amino acid transporter LAT-2 in polarized intestinal epithelia. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23672-7 pubmed
    We have previously shown that the heterodimer CD98/LAT-2 (LAT-2: amino acid transporter) is expressed in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelia and is associated with beta1 integrin (Merlin, D., Sitaraman, S., Liu, X...
  4. Fort J, de la Ballina L, Burghardt H, Ferrer Costa C, Turnay J, Ferrer Orta C, et al. The structure of human 4F2hc ectodomain provides a model for homodimerization and electrostatic interaction with plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31444-52 pubmed
    4F2hc (CD98hc) is a multifunctional type II membrane glycoprotein involved in amino acid transport and cell fusion, adhesion, and transformation...
  5. Cai S, Bulus N, Fonseca Siesser P, Chen D, Hanks S, Pozzi A, et al. CD98 modulates integrin beta1 function in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:889-99 pubmed
    The type II transmembrane protein CD98, best known as the heavy chain of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HAT), is required for the surface expression and basolateral localization of this transporter complex in polarized ..
  6. Quackenbush E, Clabby M, Gottesdiener K, Barbosa J, Jones N, Strominger J, et al. Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane glycoprotein involved in normal and neoplastic cell growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:6526-30 pubmed
    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the heavy chain of the heterodimeric human membrane glycoprotein 4F2 have been isolated by immunoscreening of a lambda gt11 expression library...
  7. Posillico J, Srikanta S, Eisenbarth G, Quaranta V, Kajiji S, Brown E. Binding of monoclonal antibody (4F2) to its cell surface antigen on dispersed adenomatous parathyroid cells raises cytosolic calcium and inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987;64:43-50 pubmed
    ..MAbs) recognizing cell surface antigens on dispersed human parathyroid cells (dPTCs), we identified one MAb (4F2) that bound avidly to parathyroid cells and had marked effects on parathyroid function...
  8. Haynes B, Hemler M, Mann D, Eisenbarth G, Shelhamer J, Mostowski H, et al. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (4F2) that binds to human monocytes and to a subset of activated lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1981;126:1409-14 pubmed
  9. Mastroberardino L, Spindler B, Pfeiffer R, Skelly P, Loffing J, Shoemaker C, et al. Amino-acid transport by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of a permease family. Nature. 1998;395:288-91 pubmed
    ..transporters remains unknown, although expression of the human cell-surface glycoprotein 4F2 heavy chain (h4F2hc; CD98 in the mouse) is known to induce low levels of L- and/or y(+)L-type transport...

More Information

Publications123 found, 100 shown here

  1. Merlin D, Sitaraman S, Liu X, Eastburn K, Sun J, Kucharzik T, et al. CD98-mediated links between amino acid transport and beta 1 integrin distribution in polarized columnar epithelia. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39282-9 pubmed
    In non-polarized cells, CD98 has been shown to both influence beta(1) integrins and heterodimerize with LAT-2, which confers amino acid transport capability on the LAT-2/CD98 heterodimer...
  2. Feral C, Nishiya N, Fenczik C, Stuhlmann H, Slepak M, Ginsberg M. CD98hc (SLC3A2) mediates integrin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:355-60 pubmed
    ..CD98 heterodimers, comprised of a heavy chain (CD98hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains, interact with integrins through CD98hc...
  3. Michalak M, Quackenbush E, Letarte M. Inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcolemmal vesicles by monoclonal antibody 44D7. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:92-5 pubmed
    ..Preincubation of membrane vesicles with monoclonal antibody 44D7 inhibited 90% of the Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake measured in the first 10 s of the reaction and 50% of that ..
  4. Hemler M, Strominger J. Characterization of antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody (4F2): different molecular forms on human T and B lymphoblastoid cell lines. J Immunol. 1982;129:623-8 pubmed
    The monoclonal antibody 4F2 recognizes a disulfide-linked ricin-binding glycoprotein complex (Mr congruent to 125,000) composed of a sialylated heavy subunit (Mr congruent to 85,000 on T cell lines) and an unsialylated light subunit (Mr ..
  5. Ohgimoto S, Tabata N, Suga S, Nishio M, Ohta H, Tsurudome M, et al. Molecular characterization of fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) that induces multinucleated giant cell formation of monocytes and HIV gp160-mediated cell fusion. FRP-1 and 4F2/CD98 are identical molecules. J Immunol. 1995;155:3585-92 pubmed
    ..Eleven of fifteen N-terminal amino acids of FRP-1 were the same as the amino acid sequence of 4F2/CD98 heavy chain. FRP-1 molecules were detected in Con A- or IL-2-stimulated lymphocytes, while FRP-1 was rare on resting ..
  6. Miyamoto Y, Mitchell J, McIntyre B. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes. Mol Immunol. 2003;39:739-51 pubmed
    b>CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions...
  7. Henderson N, Collis E, Mackinnon A, Simpson K, Haslett C, Zent R, et al. CD98hc (SLC3A2) interaction with beta 1 integrins is required for transformation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54731-41 pubmed
    b>CD98hc (SLC3A2) constitutively and specifically associates with beta(1) integrins and is highly expressed on the surface of human tumor cells irrespective of the tissue of origin...
  8. Rosell A, Meury M, Álvarez Marimon E, Costa M, Perez Cano L, Zorzano A, et al. Structural bases for the interaction and stabilization of the human amino acid transporter LAT2 with its ancillary protein 4F2hc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:2966-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, transmission electron microscopy and single-particle analysis of purified human 4F2hc/L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) heterodimers overexpressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, together with ..
  9. Yamamoto Y, Sawa R, Wake I, Morimoto A, Okimura Y. Glucose-mediated inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase reduces the levels of L-type amino acid transporter 1 mRNA in C2C12 cells. Nutr Res. 2017;47:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose also reduced the level of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 mRNA, but not that of 4F2 heavy chain...
  10. Yun S, Han Y, Lee J, Kim S, Lee S. Enhanced Susceptibility to 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colon Cancer Cells by Silencing of GRP78. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:2975-2984 pubmed
    ..GRP78 silencing and incubation with 5-FU have synergistic effects on the inhibition of LoVo colon cancer cell growth via the induction of ER stress-dependent apoptosis. ..
  11. Batistel F, Alharthi A, Wang L, Parys C, Pan Y, Cardoso F, et al. Placentome Nutrient Transporters and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Proteins Are Altered by the Methionine Supply during Late Gestation in Dairy Cows and Are Associated with Newborn Birth Weight. J Nutr. 2017;147:1640-1647 pubmed publisher
  12. Chairoungdua A, Segawa H, Kim J, Miyamoto K, Haga H, Fukui Y, et al. Identification of an amino acid transporter associated with the cystinuria-related type II membrane glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:28845-8 pubmed
    ..y(+)L, and system x(-)C, which are linked, via a disulfide bond, to the other type II membrane glycoprotein, 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain)...
  13. Duan X, Lin Y, Lv H, Yang Y, Jiao H, Hou X. Methionine Induces LAT1 Expression in Dairy Cow Mammary Gland by Activating the mTORC1 Signaling Pathway. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:1126-1133 pubmed publisher
    ..of methionine for 24?h resulted in increased expression of LAT1 and its associated protein 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc). Maximal expression levels occurred after treatment with 0.6?mM methionine...
  14. Seara F, Barbosa R, de Oliveira D, Gran da Silva D, Carvalho A, Freitas Ferreira A, et al. Administration of anabolic steroid during adolescence induces long-term cardiac hypertrophy and increases susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult Wistar rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;171:34-42 pubmed publisher
  15. Choi D, Kim D, Kanai Y, Wempe M, Endou H, Kim J. JPH203, a selective L-type amino acid transporter 1 inhibitor, induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in Saos2 human osteosarcoma cells. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017;21:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..FOB human osteoblastic cells and Saos2 cells expressed LAT1 and LAT2 together with their associating protein 4F2 heavy chain, but the expression of LAT2 in the Saos2 cells was especially weak...
  16. Liu X, Shen M, Qi Q, Zhang H, Guo S. Corroborating evidence for platelet-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation in the development of adenomyosis. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:734-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Support for data collection and analysis was provided by grants from the National Science Foundation of China. None of the authors has anything to disclose. ..
  17. Yim J, Cho H, Rabkin S. Gene expression and gene associations during the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in the Dahl salt sensitive model of hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2017;:1-12 pubmed publisher
  18. Seara F, Barbosa R, Santos M, Domingos A, Monnerat G, Carvalho A, et al. Paradoxical effect of testosterone supplementation therapy on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in aged rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, TST did not promote significant effects in adult rat hearts. Taken together, these findings suggest that myocardial stunning and infarct size of aged hearts were distinctly affected by TST. ..
  19. Sanayama Y, Matsumoto A, Shimojo N, Kohno Y, Nakaya H. Phenylalanine sensitive K562-D cells for the analysis of the biochemical impact of excess amino acid. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6941 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased expression of the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2) and its adapter protein 4F2 heavy chain appeared to be responsible for the higher sensitivity to phenylalanine in K562-D cells...
  20. Poncet N, Mitchell F, Ibrahim A, McGuire V, English G, Arthur J, et al. The catalytic subunit of the system L1 amino acid transporter (slc7a5) facilitates nutrient signalling in mouse skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89547 pubmed publisher
    ..high-affinity System L1 functions as a glycoprotein-associated heterodimer with the multifunctional protein SLC3A2 (CD98)...
  21. Smith R, Moccia R, Seymour C, Mothersill C. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in a proteomic legacy in adult gills. Part A; proteomic responses in the irradiated fish and in non-irradiated bystander fish. Environ Res. 2018;163:297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..These bystander effect proteomic changes have been shown to be overwhelmingly anti-tumorigenic or protective of the fish gill. ..
  22. Belyhun Y, Liebert U, Maier M. Clade homogeneity and low rate of delta virus despite hyperendemicity of hepatitis B virus in Ethiopia. Virol J. 2017;14:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the potential role of HBV drug resistance associated polymerase mutations and concomitant HBsAg protein variability on HDV viral assembly, secretion and infectivity needs further investigation. ..
  23. Kaufman J, Kassube K, Almeida R, Rius A. Short communication: High incubation temperature in bovine mammary epithelial cells reduced the activity of the mTOR signaling pathway. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:7480-7486 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may help explain the direct effect of elevated temperature on AA metabolism and protein translation in heat-stressed animals. ..
  24. Zhao Y, Cao H, Song Y, Feng Y, Ding X, Pang M, et al. Identification of novel mutations including a double mutation in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy by a targeted sequencing approach using the Ion Torrent PGM system. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:1511-20 pubmed publisher
  25. Lin X, Yang P, Reece E, Yang P. Pregestational type 2 diabetes mellitus induces cardiac hypertrophy in the murine embryo through cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:216.e1-216.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse cardiac remodeling, including elevated collagen synthesis, suppressed fibronectin synthesis, profibrosis, and apoptosis, is implicated as the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  26. Rajesh M, Batkai S, Kechrid M, Mukhopadhyay P, Lee W, Horváth B, et al. Cannabinoid 1 receptor promotes cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes. 2012;61:716-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, CB(1) receptor inhibition may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. ..
  27. Könning D, Zielonka S, Grzeschik J, Empting M, Valldorf B, Krah S, et al. Camelid and shark single domain antibodies: structural features and therapeutic potential. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2017;45:10-16 pubmed publisher
  28. Mamedov A, Ponomarenko N, Belogurov A, Gabibov A. Heterodimer HLA-DM Fused with Constant Fragment of the Heavy Chain of the Human Immunoglobulin Accelerates Influenza Hemagglutinin HA306-318 Loading to HLA-DR1. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016;161:92-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results can be used to study the presentation of other viral and self-antigens and can become the basis for the development of new drug modeling. ..
  29. Weiss K, Littleton J. Characterization of axonal transport defects in Drosophila Huntingtin mutants. J Neurogenet. 2016;30:212-221 pubmed
  30. Kudová J, Prochazkova J, Vašíček O, Perecko T, Sedláčková M, Pesl M, et al. HIF-1alpha Deficiency Attenuates the Cardiomyogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158358 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thus suggest that HIF-1? deficiency attenuates spontaneous cardiomyogenesis through the negative regulation of endoderm development in mESC differentiating in vitro. ..
  31. Celik A, Simper G, Hiemisch W, Blasczyk R, Bade Döding C. HLA-G peptide preferences change in transformed cells: impact on the binding motif. Immunogenetics. 2018;70:485-494 pubmed publisher
    ..This exclusive and unexpected observation suggests an exquisite immune function of HLA-G. ..
  32. Lim X, Chandramohan A, Lim X, Crowe J, Lok S, Anand G. Epitope and Paratope Mapping Reveals Temperature-Dependent Alterations in the Dengue-Antibody Interface. Structure. 2017;25:1391-1402.e3 pubmed publisher
  33. Hashimoto M, Inoue T, Katakura M, Hossain S, Mamun A, Matsuzaki K, et al. Differential effects of docoosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid on fatty acid composition and myosin heavy chain-related genes of slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle tissues. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;415:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies finally indicate that DHA and ARA differentially affect the regulation of contractile and metabolic properties of slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles. ..
  34. Kawai M, Johnston J, Karam T, Wang L, Singh R, Pinto J. Myosin Rod Hypophosphorylation and CB Kinetics in Papillary Muscles from a TnC-A8V KI Mouse Model. Biophys J. 2017;112:1726-1736 pubmed publisher
  35. Areal L, Pereira L, Ribeiro F, Olmo I, Muniz M, do Carmo Rodrigues M, et al. Role of Dynein Axonemal Heavy Chain 6 Gene Expression as a Possible Biomarker for Huntington's Disease: a Translational Study. J Mol Neurosci. 2017;63:342-348 pubmed publisher
    ..Although further studies are necessary to underlie the molecular mechanisms of dynein-htt interaction, this data highlights DNAH6 as a potential new blood marker for HD. ..
  36. Chellappan G, Kumar R, Santos E, Goyal D, Cai S, Singh B. Structural and functional analysis of botulinum neurotoxin subunits for pH-dependent membrane channel formation and translocation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1854:1510-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the similarity in the structures at pH7.2 and transition pH4.5 to 7.2 suggested that the flexibility acquired by the protein at low pH was reversible upon exposure to neutral pH for cleavage of SNARE proteins. ..
  37. Cui Y, Li D, Morisseau C, Dong J, Yang J, Wan D, et al. Heavy chain single-domain antibodies to detect native human soluble epoxide hydrolase. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407:7275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also demonstrates the broad utility of VHH in biochemical and pharmacological research. ..
  38. Peng L, Zheng Y, You F, Wu Z, Tan X, Jiao S, et al. Comparison of growth characteristics between skeletal muscle satellite cell lines from diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Peerj. 2016;4:e1519 pubmed publisher
    ..Both cell lines will become the ideal tools to learn the mechanism of fish MSCs proliferation, differentiation and regeneration during muscle development in the future. ..
  39. El Ansari R, Craze M, Diez Rodriguez M, Nolan C, Ellis I, Rakha E, et al. The multifunctional solute carrier 3A2 (SLC3A2) confers a poor prognosis in the highly proliferative breast cancer subtypes. Br J Cancer. 2018;118:1115-1122 pubmed publisher
    ..001). SLC3A2 appears to play a role in the aggressive BC subtypes driven by MYC and could act as a potential prognostic marker. Functional assessment is necessary to reveal its potential therapeutic value in the different BC subtypes. ..
  40. Bröer A, Wagner C, Lang F, Broer S. The heterodimeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc/y+LAT2 mediates arginine efflux in exchange with glutamine. Biochem J. 2000;349 Pt 3:787-95 pubmed
    ..into the plasma membrane, these transporters have to be associated with the type-II membrane glycoprotein 4F2hc [Torrents, Estevez, Pineda, Fernandez, Lloberas, Shi, Zorzano and Palacin (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32437-32445]...
  41. Tanaka T, Zhang W, Sun Y, Shuai Z, Chida A, Kenny T, et al. Autoreactive monoclonal antibodies from patients with primary biliary cholangitis recognize environmental xenobiotics. Hepatology. 2017;66:885-895 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, cross-reactive mAbs also recognized lipoic acid, a mitochondrial fatty acid that is covalently bound to PDC-E2...
  42. Lian G, Arimochi H, Kitamura A, Nishida J, Li S, Kishihara K, et al. Manipulation of CD98 resolves type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2012;188:2227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We probed a panel of Abs with T cell-modulating activity and identified a mAb specific for the H chain of CD98 (CD98hc) that was able to suppress T cell proliferation...
  43. Cui X, Zhang L, Magli A, Catera R, Yan X, Griffin D, et al. Cytoplasmic myosin-exposed apoptotic cells appear with caspase-3 activation and enhance CLL cell viability. Leukemia. 2016;30:74-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that stimulation of CLL cells with antigen, such as those on MEACs, promotes CLL cell viability, which in turn could lead to progression to worse disease. ..
  44. Becs G, Zarjou A, Agarwal A, Kovács K, Becs Ã, Nyitrai M, et al. Pharmacological induction of ferritin prevents osteoblastic transformation of smooth muscle cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:217-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, utilization of such agents that will cause enhanced ferritin synthesis may have important clinical applications in prevention of vascular calcification. ..
  45. He X, Di Y, Li J, Xie Y, Tang Y, Zhang F, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of CT120, a novel membrane-associated gene involved in amino acid transport and glutathione metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:528-36 pubmed
  46. Bantleon F, Wolf S, Seismann H, Dam S, Lorentzen A, Miehe M, et al. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells. Mol Immunol. 2016;72:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. ..
  47. Shiou Y, Huang I, Lin H, Lee H. High fat diet aggravates atrial and ventricular remodeling of hypertensive heart disease in aging rats. J Formos Med Assoc. 2018;117:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Hypertensive heart disease in aging rats was aggravated by HFD with worse atrial, ventricular remodeling and associated with left ventricular systolic function impairment. ..
  48. Maity P, Blount A, Jumaa H, Ronneberger O, Lillemeier B, Reth M. B cell antigen receptors of the IgM and IgD classes are clustered in different protein islands that are altered during B cell activation. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide evidence for a preformed multimeric organization of BCRs on the plasma membrane that is remodeled after B cell activation. ..
  49. Brozic A, Pohar Marinsek Z, Novakovic S, Kloboves Prevodnik V. Inconclusive flow cytometric surface light chain results; can cytoplasmic light chains, Bcl-2 expression and PCR clonality analysis improve accuracy of cytological diagnoses in B-cell lymphomas?. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10:191 pubmed publisher
    ..Determination of cIg LCs, Bcl-2 expression and PCR clonality analysis of B cells improved accuracy of cytological diagnoses in BCL with inconclusive sIg LC. However, clonality determined by PCR was misleading in some cases. ..
  50. Abbadi A, Lauer M, Swaidani S, Wang A, Hascall V. Hyaluronan Rafts on Airway Epithelial Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:1448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these leukocyte-adhesive HA rafts are now identified as HC3-HA complexes that could be part of a host defense mechanism filling some important gaps in our current understanding of murine airway epithelial biology and secretions. ..
  51. Fischer K, Hallek M. Optimizing frontline therapy of CLL based on clinical and biological factors. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2017;2017:338-345 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript summarizes the current evidence of the available treatment options and proposes an integrated algorithm for the frontline therapy of CLL...
  52. Harridge S, Bottinelli R, Canepari M, Pellegrino M, Reggiani C, Esbjörnsson M, et al. Sprint training, in vitro and in vivo muscle function, and myosin heavy chain expression. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;84:442-9 pubmed
    ..With the shortening potential of the muscles apparently unchanged, the increased strength of the major lower limb muscles is likely to have contributed to the 7% increase (P < 0.05) in peak pedal frequency during cycling...
  53. Evangelidis P, Massey G, Ferguson R, Wheeler P, Pain M, Folland J. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27:1181-1189 pubmed publisher
  54. Pirazzini M, Azarnia Tehran D, Zanetti G, Rossetto O, Montecucco C. Hsp90 and Thioredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase enable the catalytic activity of Clostridial neurotoxins inside nerve terminals. Toxicon. 2018;147:32-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the fundamental role of L reduction and refolding, this machinery represents a rational target for the development of mechanism-based antitoxins. ..
  55. Koshman Y, Chu M, Kim T, Kalmanson O, Farjah M, Kumar M, et al. Cardiomyocyte-specific expression of CRNK, the C-terminal domain of PYK2, maintains ventricular function and slows ventricular remodeling in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014;72:281-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5±1.0ms), and reduced LV remodeling (LVRI=4.9±0.1). Cardiomyocyte-specific expression of CRNK improves contractile function and slows LV remodeling in a mouse model of DCM. ..
  56. Sartim M, Costa T, Laure H, Espíndola M, Frantz F, Sorgi C, et al. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:1261-78 pubmed publisher
    ..moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders. ..
  57. Willis J, Finn J, Briney B, Sapparapu G, Singh V, King H, et al. Long antibody HCDR3s from HIV-naïve donors presented on a PG9 neutralizing antibody background mediate HIV neutralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:4446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Long HCDR3 sequences are present in the HIV-naïve B-cell repertoire, suggesting that this class of bnAbs is a favorable target for rationally designed preventative vaccine efforts. ..
  58. Kaneko K, Seta K, Soma J, Kuwahara T, Koizumi M, Kikuchi Y, et al. Gamma 1-heavy chain deposition disease accompanied by IgG kappa in serum, urine, and bone marrow. CEN Case Rep. 2014;3:44-48 pubmed publisher
    ..HCDD associated with kappa light chain is extremely rare. We report the first case of HCDD with IgG kappa detected in the serum, urine, and bone marrow. ..
  59. Flores Martín J, Reyna L, Ridano M, Panzetta Dutari G, Genti Raimondi S. Suppression of StarD7 promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces ROS production. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;99:286-295 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that StarD7 contributes to modulate cellular redox homeostasis. ..
  60. Riley R, Khomtchouk K, Blomberg B. Age-associated B cells (ABC) inhibit B lymphopoiesis and alter antibody repertoires in old age. Cell Immunol. 2017;321:61-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this manner, ABC may contribute to both qualitative and quantitative disruptions of normal B lymphopoiesis in old age. ..
  61. Gendron T, Daughrity L, Heckman M, Diehl N, Wuu J, Miller T, et al. Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain: A biomarker of survival for C9ORF72-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2017;82:139-146 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the use of CSF pNFH as a prognostic biomarker for clinical trials, which will increase the likelihood of successfully developing a treatment for c9ALS. Ann Neurol 2017;82:139-146. ..
  62. Silva P, Justicia A, Regueiro A, Fariña S, Couselo J, Loidi L. Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia due to defect in μ heavy chain caused by a novel mutation in the IGHM gene. Genes Immun. 2017;18:197-199 pubmed publisher
    ..The IGHM gene is very complex and it is likely that yet unidentified mutations appear in other patients. ..
  63. Hamid R, Tomar R, Marashi H, Shafaroudi S, Golakiya B, Mohsenpour M. Transcriptome profiling and cataloging differential gene expression in floral buds of fertile and sterile lines of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Gene. 2018;660:80-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study contribute to basic information for future screening of genes and identification of molecular portraits responsible for CMS as well as to elucidate molecular mechanisms that lead to CMS in cotton. ..
  64. Murach K, Bagley J, McLeland K, Arevalo J, Ciccone A, Malyszek K, et al. Improving human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain fiber typing efficiency. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2016;37:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may help minimize cost, personnel-time, and materials associated with this technique, thereby improving fiber typing efficiency in humans. ..
  65. Huang T, Wu K, Yuan X, Shao S, Wang W, Wei S, et al. Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in goose. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;60:160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides more insights into the immunoglobulin genes in goose that had not been fully explored before. ..
  66. Antoro E, Dwianingsih E, Indrawati -, Triningsih F, Harijadi -. The Polymerase Chain Reaction in Diagnosis of Small B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:491-5 pubmed
    ..The present study revealed a substantial agreement among pathologists in small B-cell NHL diagnosis. For difficult cases, PCR is useful as complementary method to morphologic and IHC examinations to establish definitive diagnosis. ..
  67. Callahan D, Tourville T, Slauterbeck J, Ades P, STEVENS LAPSLEY J, Beynnon B, et al. Reduced rate of knee extensor torque development in older adults with knee osteoarthritis is associated with intrinsic muscle contractile deficits. Exp Gerontol. 2015;72:16-21 pubmed publisher
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