Gene Symbol: CD45
Description: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C
Alias: B220, CD45, CD45R, GP180, L-CA, LCA, LY5, T200, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, CD45 antigen, T200 glycoprotein, T200 leukocyte common antigen, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, c polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     CD45

Top Publications

  1. Cui J, Saevarsdottir S, Thomson B, Padyukov L, van der Helm van Mil A, Nititham J, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis risk allele PTPRC is also associated with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1849-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 31 RA-associated risk alleles, a SNP at the PTPRC (also known as CD45) gene locus (rs10919563) was associated with the primary end point, a EULAR good response versus no response (odds ..
  2. Szvetko A, Jones A, Mackenzie J, Tajouri L, Csurhes P, Greer J, et al. An investigation of the C77G and C772T variations within the human protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C gene for association with multiple sclerosis in an Australian population. Brain Res. 2009;1255:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C gene (PTPRC) encodes the T-cell receptor CD45. Variations within PTPRC have been previously associated with diseases of autoimmune origin such as type 1 diabetes ..
  3. Ballerini C, Rosati E, Salvetti M, Ristori G, Cannoni S, Biagioli T, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C exon 4 gene mutation distribution in an Italian multiple sclerosis population. Neurosci Lett. 2002;328:325-7 pubmed
    ..mutation in position 77 of exon 4 of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C (PTPRC) gene, coding for the CD45 molecule, for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) in an Italian continental population...
  4. Miterski B, Sindern E, Haupts M, Schimrigk S, Epplen J. PTPRC (CD45) is not associated with multiple sclerosis in a large cohort of German patients. BMC Med Genet. 2002;3:3 pubmed
    ..the 77C-->G transition in exon 4 of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C (PTPRC also known as CD45) in a large cohort of German MS patients and controls...
  5. Barcellos L, Caillier S, Dragone L, Elder M, Vittinghoff E, Bucher P, et al. PTPRC (CD45) is not associated with the development of multiple sclerosis in U.S. patients. Nat Genet. 2001;29:23-4 pubmed
    ..nucleotide transition in exon 4 of PTPRC (encoding protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C, also known as CD45) was recently reported to be genetically associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  6. Jacobsen M, Schweer D, Ziegler A, Gaber R, Schock S, Schwinzer R, et al. A point mutation in PTPRC is associated with the development of multiple sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2000;26:495-9 pubmed
    ..role of a point mutation in the gene (PTPRC) encoding protein-tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type C (also known as CD45) in the heterozygous state in the development of MS...
  7. Esteghamat F, Noorinayer B, Sanati M, Hekmatdoost A, Zafarghandi M, Shalmani H, et al. C77G mutation in protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 gene and autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatol Res. 2005;32:154-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the involvement of C77G mutation in CD45 gene in patients with autoimmune hepatitis among Iranian population by genotyping this mutation in 70 patients and ..
  8. Tackenberg B, Nitschke M, Willcox N, Ziegler A, Nessler S, Schumm F, et al. CD45 isoform expression in autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Autoimmunity. 2003;36:117-21 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of the CD45 molecule in MG, having recently reported an association in multiple sclerosis...
  9. Schwinzer R, Witte T, Hundrieser J, Ehlers S, Momot T, Hunzelmann N, et al. Enhanced frequency of a PTPRC (CD45) exon A mutation (77C-->G) in systemic sclerosis. Genes Immun. 2003;4:168-9 pubmed
    A point mutation in exon A (C to G transversion at position 77) of human PTPRC (CD45) has recently been associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) for at least a subgroup of patients...

More Information


  1. Vogel A, Strassburg C, Manns M. 77 C/G mutation in the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 gene and autoimmune hepatitis: evidence for a genetic link. Genes Immun. 2003;4:79-81 pubmed
    ..Here we analyzed the genetic association of the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 and autoimmune hepatitis...
  2. Amano M, Galvan M, He J, Baum L. The ST6Gal I sialyltransferase selectively modifies N-glycans on CD45 to negatively regulate galectin-1-induced CD45 clustering, phosphatase modulation, and T cell death. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7469-75 pubmed
    ..Expression of the ST6Gal I specifically resulted in increased sialylation of N-glycans on CD45, a receptor tyrosine phosphatase that is a T cell receptor for galectin-1...
  3. Blanchetot C, Tertoolen L, Overvoorde J, den Hertog J. Intra- and intermolecular interactions between intracellular domains of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47263-9 pubmed
    ..Seven RPTPs from four different subfamilies were used: RPTPalpha, RPTPepsilon, LAR, RPTPvarsigma, RPTPdelta, CD45, and RPTP(mu). We found that RPTP-D2s bound to RPTPs with different affinities...
  4. Thude H, Rosenhahn S, Hunger Dathe W, Muller U, Barz D. A transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C (CD45) exon A point mutation (77 C to G) is not associated with the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a German population. Eur J Immunogenet. 2004;31:245-7 pubmed
    To investigate whether a C to G transversion at position 77 in exon A of the CD45 gene is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D), we studied 165 patients and 220 control individuals...
  5. Wood J, Bieda K, Segni M, Herwig J, Krause M, Usadel K, et al. CD45 exon 4 point mutation does not confer susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus or Graves' disease. Eur J Immunogenet. 2002;29:73-4 pubmed
    A point mutation in the leukocyte common antigen (CD45, C-->G77, exon 4) was investigated in patients with type 1 diabetes (IDDM), patients with Graves' disease and controls...
  6. Baldwin T, Ostergaard H. Developmentally regulated changes in glucosidase II association with, and carbohydrate content of, the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45. J Immunol. 2001;167:3829-35 pubmed
    Glucosidase II (GII) stably interacts with the external domain of CD45 in a carbohydrate-dependent manner. We have found that the association occurs in immature cells, but is significantly reduced in mature T cells...
  7. Elhabazi A, Delaire S, Bensussan A, Boumsell L, Bismuth G. Biological activity of soluble CD100. I. The extracellular region of CD100 is released from the surface of T lymphocytes by regulated proteolysis. J Immunol. 2001;166:4341-7 pubmed
    ..Mainly, these findings shed light on a possible function for the semaphorin region of CD100 as a long range guidance cue in the immune system. ..
  8. Kung C, Pingel J, Heikinheimo M, Klemola T, Varkila K, Yoo L, et al. Mutations in the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 gene in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Nat Med. 2000;6:343-5 pubmed
    The hematopoietic-specific transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 functions to regulate Src kinases required for T- and B-cell antigen receptor signal transduction...
  9. Wang Y, Guo W, Liang L, Esselman W. Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7454-61 pubmed
    b>CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes...
  10. van Vliet S, Gringhuis S, Geijtenbeek T, van Kooyk Y. Regulation of effector T cells by antigen-presenting cells via interaction of the C-type lectin MGL with CD45. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:1200-8 pubmed
    ..Glycosylation-dependent interactions of MGL with CD45 on effector T cells negatively regulated T cell receptor-mediated signaling and T cell-dependent cytokine responses,..
  11. Mustelin T, Williams S, Tailor P, Couture C, Zenner G, Burn P, et al. Regulation of the p70zap tyrosine protein kinase in T cells by the CD45 phosphotyrosine phosphatase. Eur J Immunol. 1995;25:942-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, the CD45 phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) is required for the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation by the TcR/CD3, ..
  12. Justement L, Campbell K, Chien N, Cambier J. Regulation of B cell antigen receptor signal transduction and phosphorylation by CD45. Science. 1991;252:1839-42 pubmed
    b>CD45 is a member of a family of membrane proteins that possess phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity, and is the source of much of the tyrosine phosphatase activity in lymphocytes...
  13. Ish Shalom E, Gargir A, Andre S, Borovsky Z, Ochanuna Z, Gabius H, et al. alpha2,6-Sialylation promotes binding of placental protein 14 via its Ca2+-dependent lectin activity: insights into differential effects on CD45RO and CD45RA T cells. Glycobiology. 2006;16:173-83 pubmed
    ..The recent demonstration of PP14 as lectin has provided insight into how it may mediate its CD45 glycoprotein-dependent T-cell inhibition...
  14. Vyshkina T, Leist T, Shugart Y, Kalman B. CD45 (PTPRC) as a candidate gene in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2004;10:614-7 pubmed
    The 77C-->G polymorphism in exon 4 of CD45 or protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C (PTPRC) has been investigated in families with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in several cohorts of sporadic patients and controls, however, with ..
  15. Do H, Baars W, Borns K, Windhagen A, Schwinzer R. The 77C->G mutation in the human CD45 (PTPRC) gene leads to increased intensity of TCR signaling in T cell lines from healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 2006;176:931-8 pubmed
    The 77C-->G mutation in exon A of the human CD45 gene occurs with low frequency in healthy individuals...
  16. Kirsten H, Blume M, Emmrich F, Hunzelmann N, Mierau R, Rzepka R, et al. No association between systemic sclerosis and C77G polymorphism in the human PTPRC (CD45) gene. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:1817-9 pubmed
    The functional variant C77G (rs17612648) of PTPRC (CD45) was described to confer risk for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in German Caucasians. We analyzed this association in an independent, larger German cohort...
  17. Parikh K, Poppema S, Peppelenbosch M, Visser L. Extracellular ligation-dependent CD45RB enzymatic activity negatively regulates lipid raft signal transduction. Blood. 2009;113:594-603 pubmed publisher
    b>CD45 is the most prominent membrane protein on lymphocytes...
  18. Felberg J, Lefebvre D, Lam M, Wang Y, Ng D, Birkenhead D, et al. Subdomain X of the kinase domain of Lck binds CD45 and facilitates dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3455-62 pubmed
    b>CD45 is a transmembrane, two-domain protein-tyrosine phosphatase expressed exclusively in nucleated hematopoietic cells...
  19. Plant D, Prajapati R, Hyrich K, Morgan A, Wilson A, Isaacs J, et al. Replication of association of the PTPRC gene with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in a large UK cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:665-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Fine-mapping studies are required to determine whether this SNP or another variant at the locus provides the greatest predictive accuracy for treatment response. ..
  20. Streuli M, Krueger N, Thai T, Tang M, Saito H. Distinct functional roles of the two intracellular phosphatase like domains of the receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases LCA and LAR. EMBO J. 1990;9:2399-407 pubmed
    ..analyzed the effects of deletion and point mutations within the cytoplasmic region of the receptor-linked PTPases, LCA and LAR...
  21. Rachmilewitz J, Borovsky Z, Riely G, Miller R, Tykocinski M. Negative regulation of T cell activation by placental protein 14 is mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD45. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14059-65 pubmed
    b>CD45 is the major protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor on T cell surfaces that functions as both a positive and a negative regulator of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling...
  22. Tchilian E, Wallace D, Wells R, Flower D, Morgan G, Beverley P. A deletion in the gene encoding the CD45 antigen in a patient with SCID. J Immunol. 2001;166:1308-13 pubmed
    ..investigated the first SCID patient to be described with minimal cell surface expression of the leukocyte common (CD45) Ag...
  23. Pingel J, Thomas M. Evidence that the leukocyte-common antigen is required for antigen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation. Cell. 1989;58:1055-65 pubmed
    ..An L-CA+ revertant was obtained and the ability to proliferate in response to antigen and cross-linked CD3 was restored. These data indicate that L-CA is required for T cells to enter into cell cycle in response to antigen. ..
  24. Streuli M, Hall L, Saga Y, Schlossman S, Saito H. Differential usage of three exons generates at least five different mRNAs encoding human leukocyte common antigens. J Exp Med. 1987;166:1548-66 pubmed
    Leukocyte common antigens (LCAs, also known as T200 and CD 45) are integral membrane proteins expressed exclusively on hematopoietic cells...
  25. Herold C, Elhabazi A, Bismuth G, Bensussan A, Boumsell L. CD100 is associated with CD45 at the surface of human T lymphocytes. Role in T cell homotypic adhesion. J Immunol. 1996;157:5262-8 pubmed
    ..the molecular relationship between CD100 and another surface structure involved in human T cell proliferation, the CD45 phosphatase...
  26. Gomez Lira M, Liguori M, Magnani C, Bonamini D, Salviati A, Leone M, et al. CD45 and multiple sclerosis: the exon 4 C77G polymorphism (additional studies and meta-analysis) and new markers. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;140:216-21 pubmed
    We re-evaluated the association with multiple sclerosis (MS) of the C77G splicing regulatory variation in the CD45 gene and screened for new mutations the three alternatively spliced exons (#4, 5 and 6)...
  27. Vorechovsky I, Kralovicova J, Tchilian E, Masterman T, Zhang Z, Ferry B, et al. Does 77C-->G in PTPRC modify autoimmune disorders linked to the major histocompatibility locus?. Nat Genet. 2001;29:22-3 pubmed
    A 77G allele of the gene encoding CD45, also known as the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C gene (PTPRC), has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  28. Tonks N, Charbonneau H, Diltz C, Fischer E, Walsh K. Demonstration that the leukocyte common antigen CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Biochemistry. 1988;27:8695-701 pubmed
    It has been proposed on the basis of amino acid sequence homology that the leukocyte common antigen CD45 represents a family of catalytically active, receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases [Charbonneau, H., Tonks, N. K., Walsh, K...
  29. Furukawa T, Itoh M, Krueger N, Streuli M, Saito H. Specific interaction of the CD45 protein-tyrosine phosphatase with tyrosine-phosphorylated CD3 zeta chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10928-32 pubmed
    The CD45 transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase, EC plays an essential role in T-cell activation by activating the Lck and/or Fyn protein-tyrosine kinases...
  30. Han A, Veeneman B, El Sawy L, Day K, Day M, Tomlins S, et al. Fibulin-3 promotes muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Oncogene. 2017;36:5243-5251 pubmed publisher
    ..This also suggests fibulin-3 and IGFBP5 may have potential as biomarkers of aggressive bladder cancer or therapeutic targets. ..
  31. Ibtehaj N, Huda R. High-dose BAFF receptor specific mAb-siRNA conjugate generates Fas-expressing B cells in lymph nodes and high-affinity serum autoantibody in a myasthenia mouse model. Clin Immunol. 2017;176:122-130 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas high-dose siRNA conjugate resulted in significant accumulation of Fas expressing CD19+/B220+ cells and concurrent expression of type 1 interferon in lymph nodes, low-dose conjugate did not induce FAS ..
  32. Fasinu P, Manda V, Dale O, Egiebor N, Walker L, Khan S. Modulation of Cytochrome P450, P-glycoprotein and Pregnane X Receptor by Selected Antimalarial Herbs-Implication for Herb-Drug Interaction. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that these herbs may be capable of eliciting herb-drug interactions if consumed in high quantities with concomitant use of conventional therapies. ..
  33. Dai B, Wang W, Ma Y, Liu R, Zhang Y. A taspine derivative supresses Caco-2 cell growth by competitively targeting EphrinB2 and regulating its pathway. Oncol Rep. 2016;36:1526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the expression of CD34, CD45 and HIF?1? were downregulated in the Caco?2 cells...
  34. Fiebig U, Holzer A, Ivanusic D, Plotzki E, Hengel H, Neipel F, et al. Antibody Cross-Reactivity between Porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..HCMV is not related with PCMV, and no correlation between antibody reactivity against PCMV and HCMV was detected. These data indicate that antibodies against PCMV found in humans are cross-reactive antibodies against HHV-6. ..
  35. Fabris M, Cifù A, Pistis C, Siega Ducaton M, Fontana D, Giacomello R, et al. Exploring the plasmatic platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Auto Immun Highlights. 2017;8:5 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ± 3.8 nmol/min/ml; p = 0.003). PAF-AH plasmatic activity is particularly up-regulated in LAC+ and in aβ2GPI IgG+ patients, possibly representing an alternative prognostic biomarker for the therapeutic management of APS patients. ..
  36. da Luz M, Glezer I, Xavier A, da Silva M, Pino J, Zamith T, et al. Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase is Negatively Regulated Via Prion Protein. Neurochem Res. 2016;41:1691-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that PrP(C) has suppressive effects on TH expression. As a consequence, altered PrP(C) functions may affect the regulation of dopamine metabolism and related neurological disorders. ..
  37. Zhang J, Zhu L, Fang J, Ge Z, Li X. LRG1 modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer via HIF-1α activation. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016;35:29 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that LRG1 plays a crucial role in the progression of CRC by regulating HIF-1α expression, thereby may be a promising therapeutic target of CRC. ..
  38. Ding H, Zhang T, Du Y, Liu B, Liu Y, Wang F. HUCMNCs protect vascular endothelium and prevent ISR after endovascular interventional therapy for vascular diseases in T2DM rabbits. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;433:161-167 pubmed publisher
    ..HUCMNCs purified from umbilical cord blood were 100% CD45+ and 96.5% CD34- with round or oval morphology and adherent growth pattern...
  39. Wilson K, Goding S, Neely H, Harris K, Antony P. Depletion of B220+NK1.1+ cells enhances the rejection of established melanoma by tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. Oncoimmunology. 2015;4:e1019196 pubmed
    ..Our data suggests that NK1.1+B220+ pre-mNK cells (also known as interferon-producing killer dendritic cells; IKDCs) are an important ..
  40. Haeberlein S, Obieglo K, Ozir Fazalalikhan A, Chayé M, Veninga H, van der Vlugt L, et al. Schistosome egg antigens, including the glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, trigger the development of regulatory B cells. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006539 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the mechanism of S. mansoni-induced Breg cell development involves a direct targeting of B cells by SEA components such as the secretory glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1. ..
  41. Sanchez C, Rotmann A, Stein W, Lanzer M. Polymorphisms within PfMDR1 alter the substrate specificity for anti-malarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:786-98 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum digestive vacuole, and that this contributes to accumulation of, and susceptibility to, the drug in question...
  42. Dicker M, Strasser R. Using glyco-engineering to produce therapeutic proteins. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015;15:1501-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Further technological advances will have a major impact on manufacturing processes and may provide a completely new class of glycoprotein therapeutics with customized functions. ..
  43. Jun S, Leuze M, Nookaew I, Uberbacher E, Land M, Zhang Q, et al. Ebolavirus comparative genomics. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2015;39:764-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan ( ..
  44. Kim M, Park J, Kim K. Generation of G gene-deleted viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and evaluation of its vaccine potential in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:666-71 pubmed publisher
  45. Stegmann C, Abdellatif M, Laib Sampaio K, Walther P, Sinzger C. Importance of Highly Conserved Peptide Sites of Human Cytomegalovirus gO for Formation of the gH/gL/gO Complex. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Cysteine 343 was essential for covalent binding of gO to gH/gL; however, noncovalent complex formation in the absence of cysteine 343 also allowed for cell-free infectivity. ..
  46. Meindl R, Chaney M, Lovejoy C. Early hominids may have been weed species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:1244-1249 pubmed publisher
    ..diverged as dramatically as did their locomotor patterns as they emerged from a late Miocene last common ancestor (LCA)...
  47. Liu Y, Chen J, Chen L, Xie X, Mao N. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein on fibroblast-like synoviocytes in refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients: a potential mechanism for multidrug resistance in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..206, P > 0.05). P-gp might be upregulated during the progression of RRA, which possibly correlates with the development of resistance to MTX. ..
  48. Delierneux C, Donis N, Servais L, Wéra O, Lecut C, Vandereyken M, et al. Targeting of C-type lectin-like receptor 2 or P2Y12 for the prevention of platelet activation by immunotherapeutic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J Thromb Haemost. 2017;15:983-997 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions CLEC-2 and P2Y12 are required for CpG ODN-induced platelet activation and thrombosis, and might be targeted to prevent adverse events in patients at risk. ..
  49. Gao Q, Yellapantula V, Fenelus M, Pichardo J, Wang L, Landgren O, et al. Tumor suppressor CD99 is downregulated in plasma cell neoplasms lacking CCND1 translocation and distinguishes neoplastic from normal plasma cells and B-cell lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation from primary plasma cell neoplasms. Mod Pathol. 2018;31:881-889 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss is highly specific for identification of abnormal cells in primary plasma cell neoplasms, and can be exploited for diagnostic purposes. The role of CD99 in myeloma pathogenesis requires further investigation. ..
  50. Soldemo M, Adori M, Stark J, Feng Y, Tran K, Wilson R, et al. Glutaraldehyde Cross-linking of HIV-1 Env Trimers Skews the Antibody Subclass Response in Mice. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1654 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the presence of GLA adducts on Env influences the quality of the induced antibody response...
  51. Joshi A, Vaidya S, St Pierre M, Mikheev A, Desino K, Nyandege A, et al. Placental ABC Transporters: Biological Impact and Pharmaceutical Significance. Pharm Res. 2016;33:2847-2878 pubmed
    ..Since placental ABC transporters modulate fetal exposure to various compounds, an understanding of their functional and regulatory mechanisms will lead to more optimal medication use when necessary in pregnancy. ..
  52. Tong M, Deochand C, DIDSBURY J, de la Monte S. T3D-959: A Multi-Faceted Disease Remedial Drug Candidate for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51:123-38 pubmed publisher
    ..A Phase 2a trial of T3D-959 in mild-to-moderate AD patients has been initiated ( identifier NCT02560753). ..
  53. Nourbakhsh M, Jaafari M, Lage H, Abnous K, Mosaffa F, Badiee A, et al. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery reduces doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells and silences MDR1 expression in xenograft model of human breast cancer. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015;18:385-92 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that the prepared NLPs could be suitable siRNA delivery systems for tumor therapy. ..
  54. Carrasco Yepez M, Campos Rodríguez R, Reséndiz Albor A, Peña Juárez C, Contis Montes de Oca A, Arciniega Martínez I, et al. Naegleria fowleri immunization modifies lymphocytes and APC of nasal mucosa. Parasite Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In all immunized groups, the percentage of CD4 was higher than CD8 cells. CD45 was increased in B cells from mice immunized...
  55. Golstein P, Boom A, van Geffel J, Jacobs P, Masereel B, Beauwens R. P-glycoprotein inhibition by glibenclamide and related compounds. Pflugers Arch. 1999;437:652-60 pubmed
  56. Kaplan R, Morse B, Huebner K, Croce C, Howk R, Ravera M, et al. Cloning of three human tyrosine phosphatases reveals a multigene family of receptor-linked protein-tyrosine-phosphatases expressed in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:7000-4 pubmed
    ..lambda gt11 was screened under conditions of reduced hybridization stringency with a leukocyte common antigen (LCA) probe that spanned both conserved cytoplasmic domains...
  57. Nobile Orazio E, Bianco M, Nozza A. Advances in the Treatment of Paraproteinemic Neuropathy. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2017;19:43 pubmed publisher
    ..In most instances, however, their efficacy needs to be confirmed in controlled trials. ..
  58. Jaberolansar N, Chappell K, Watterson D, Bermingham I, Toth I, Young P, et al. Induction of high titred, non-neutralising antibodies by self-adjuvanting peptide epitopes derived from the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11130 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a note of caution in assuming that peptide vaccines, successfully designed to structurally mimic minimal linear B cell epitopes, will necessarily elicit the desired immune response. ..
  59. Lee J, Nyenhuis D, Nelson E, Cafiso D, White J, Tamm L. Structure of the Ebola virus envelope protein MPER/TM domain and its interaction with the fusion loop explains their fusion activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E7987-E7996 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of aromatic and neighboring residues in both binding partners decreases fusion and viral entry, highlighting the functional importance of the MPER/TM-FL interaction in EBOV entry and fusion. ..
  60. Pradhan D, Morrow J. The spectrin-ankyrin skeleton controls CD45 surface display and interleukin-2 production. Immunity. 2002;17:303-15 pubmed
    With T cell receptor stimulation, intracellular pools of CD45 and spectrin move to the surface. These processes are coupled. In both peripheral lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells, betaI spectrin and ankyrin associate with CD45...
  61. Andrade A, Van Nistelrooy J, Peery R, Skatrud P, De Waard M. The role of ABC transporters from Aspergillus nidulans in protection against cytotoxic agents and in antibiotic production. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:966-77 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ABC transporters may be involved in secretion of penicillin from fungal cells...
  62. Ernst R, Kueppers P, Klein C, Schwarzmueller T, Kuchler K, Schmitt L. A mutation of the H-loop selectively affects rhodamine transport by the yeast multidrug ABC transporter Pdr5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5069-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide important insights into the molecular mechanism of Pdr5 and suggest that not solely the transmembrane domains dictate substrate selection...
  63. Sciskalska M, Marek G, Grzebieniak Z, Milnerowicz H. Resistin as a Prooxidant Factor and Predictor of Endothelium Damage in Patients with Mild Acute Pancreatitis Exposed to Tobacco Smoke Xenobiotics. Mediators Inflamm. 2017;2017:3039765 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and resistin concentrations, markers of endothelium injury, were determined...
  64. Dunne C, McDermot A, Anjan K, Ryan A, Reid C, Clyne M. Use of Recombinant Mucin Glycoprotein to Assess the Interaction of the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori with the Secreted Human Mucin MUC5AC. Bioengineering (Basel). 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the feasibility of using recombinant mucins containing tandem repeat sequences to assess microbial mucin interactions. ..
  65. Xu Y, Xiao X, Li S, Jia X, Xin W, Wang P, et al. Molecular genetics of Leber congenital amaurosis in Chinese: New data from 66 probands and mutation overview of 159 probands. Exp Eye Res. 2016;149:93-99 pubmed publisher
    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe form of inherited retinal dystrophy. We have previously performed a mutational analysis of the known LCA-associated genes in probands with LCA by both Sanger and whole exome sequencing...
  66. Kruglova N, Meshkova T, Kopylov A, Mazurov D, Filatov A. Constitutive and activation-dependent phosphorylation of lymphocyte phosphatase-associated phosphoprotein (LPAP). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182468 pubmed publisher
    ..LPAP is a component of a supramolecular complex composed of the phosphatase CD45, the co-receptor CD4, and the kinase Lck...
  67. Wang Z, Wong I, Li F, Yang C, Liu Z, Jiang T, et al. Optimization of permethyl ningalin B analogs as P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015;23:5566-73 pubmed publisher
    ..0). In summary, our study demonstrates that permethyl ningalin B derivative 12 is non-toxic and efficient P-gp inhibitor that is a potential candidate to be used clinically to reverse P-gp mediated cancer drug resistance. ..
  68. Takeuchi R, Shinozaki K, Nakanishi T, Tamai I. Local Drug-Drug Interaction of Donepezil with Cilostazol at Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2) Increases Drug Accumulation in Heart. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In other words, the tissue distribution of drugs can be influenced by drug-drug interaction (DDI) at efflux transporters in certain tissues (local DDI) without any apparent change in plasma concentration (systemic DDI). ..
  69. Teplyakov A, Obmolova G, Malia T, Gilliland G. Crystal structure of CD27 in complex with a neutralizing noncompeting antibody. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2017;73:294-299 pubmed publisher
    ..This mode of action suggests a potential dual use of mAb 2177 either as an antagonist or as an agonist. ..
  70. Inouye H, Kirschner D. Evolution of myelin ultrastructure and the major structural myelin proteins. Brain Res. 2016;1641:43-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. ..
  71. Qian X, Jin Y, Chen H, Xu Q, Ren H, Zhu S, et al. Trachelogenin, a novel inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry through CD81. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:1134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TGN is a potential candidate for future cocktail therapies to treat HCV-infected patients. ..
  72. Mercier F, Sykes D, Scadden D. Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/6-CD45.1(STEM) Mouse. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;6:985-992 pubmed publisher
    ..specifically recognize hematopoietic cells from congenic mouse strains due to variants of the cell surface protein CD45, designated CD45.1 and CD45.2. The current congenic competitor strain, B6.SJL-Ptprc(a) Pepc(b)/BoyJ (CD45...
  73. Gardner T, Tortorella D. Virion Glycoprotein-Mediated Immune Evasion by Human Cytomegalovirus: a Sticky Virus Makes a Slick Getaway. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2016;80:663-77 pubmed publisher
  74. Patel S, Leibrand C, Palasuberniam P, Couraud P, Weksler B, Jahr F, et al. Effects of HIV-1 Tat and Methamphetamine on Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Function In Vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher
    ..Tat and methamphetamine may also affect several aspects of transcellular transport. ..
  75. Barra S, Bessler C, Landolt M, Aebi M. Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Juveniles Who Sexually Offended. Sex Abuse. 2018;30:803-827 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to derive subtypes of JSOs according to their patterns of 10 different ACEs...
  76. Morgeaux S, Poirier B, Ragan C, WILKINSON D, Arabin U, Guinet Morlot F, et al. Replacement of in vivo human rabies vaccine potency testing by in vitro glycoprotein quantification using ELISA - Results of an international collaborative study. Vaccine. 2017;35:966-971 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the ELISA designs was proposed to the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) and accepted for an international collaborative study under the umbrella of the Biological Standardisation Programme. ..
  77. Schumacher K, Dodds E. A case for protein-level and site-level specificity in glycoproteomic studies of disease. Glycoconj J. 2016;33:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Each will be discussed with particular emphasis on how protein-specific and site-specific approaches can contribute to improved discrimination between glycoproteomes and glycoproteins associated with healthy and unhealthy states. ..