CD44

Summary

Gene Symbol: CD44
Description: CD44 molecule (Indian blood group)
Alias: CDW44, CSPG8, ECMR-III, HCELL, HUTCH-I, LHR, MC56, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4, Pgp1, CD44 antigen, GP90 lymphocyte homing/adhesion receptor, Hermes antigen, cell surface glycoprotein CD44, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8, epican, extracellular matrix receptor III, hematopoietic cell E- and L-selectin ligand, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, homing function and Indian blood group system, hyaluronate receptor, phagocytic glycoprotein 1, soluble CD44
Species: human
Products:     CD44

Top Publications

  1. Herishanu Y, Gibellini F, Njuguna N, Hazan Halevy I, FAROOQUI M, Bern S, et al. Activation of CD44, a receptor for extracellular matrix components, protects chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from spontaneous and drug induced apoptosis through MCL-1. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011;52:1758-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Interactions between tumor cells and the extracellular matrix are in part mediated by CD44, whose principal ligand is hyaluronic acid...
  2. Afify A, Tate S, Durbin Johnson B, Rocke D, Konia T. Expression of CD44s and CD44v6 in lung cancer and their correlation with prognostic factors. Int J Biol Markers. 2011;26:50-7 pubmed
    b>CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein receptor, plays a major role in tumor progression and metastasis.
  3. Garouniatis A, Zizi Sermpetzoglou A, Rizos S, Kostakis A, Nikiteas N, Papavassiliou A. FAK, CD44v6, c-Met and EGFR in colorectal cancer parameters: tumour progression, metastasis, patient survival and receptor crosstalk. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013;28:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for receptor interaction, properly clarifying their importance, which could potentially lead to more effective anti-CRC regimens. ..
  4. Bourguignon L, Wong G, Earle C, Chen L. Hyaluronan-CD44v3 interaction with Oct4-Sox2-Nanog promotes miR-302 expression leading to self-renewal, clonal formation, and cisplatin resistance in cancer stem cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32800-24 pubmed
    ..sites, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrate that stimulation of miR-302 expression by HA-CD44 is Oct4-Sox2-Nanog-dependent in HNSCC-specific CSCs...
  5. Camerlingo R, Ferraro G, De Francesco F, Romano M, Nicoletti G, Di Bonito M, et al. The role of CD44+/CD24-/low biomarker for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2014;31:1127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..CSCs have been isolated from breast cancer using CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype...
  6. Lazari P, Poulias H, Gakiopoulou H, Thomopoulou G, Barbatis C, Lazaris A. Differential immunohistochemical expression of CD44s, E-cadherin and ?-catenin among hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the prostate gland. Urol Int. 2013;90:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?-catenin staining pattern in neoplastic lesions, either preinvasive or invasive, differs from that in non-neoplastic prostate lesions. ..
  7. Bánky B, Rásó Barnett L, Barbai T, Timar J, Becságh P, Raso E. Characteristics of CD44 alternative splice pattern in the course of human colorectal adenocarcinoma progression. Mol Cancer. 2012;11:83 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is considered as 'a' metastasis associated gene, despite the fact that it is an umbrella term for a group of molecules produced from a single gene by alternative splicing...
  8. Yang C, Cao M, Liu H, He Y, Xu J, Du Y, et al. The high and low molecular weight forms of hyaluronan have distinct effects on CD44 clustering. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:43094-107 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Native high molecular weight hyaluronan (nHA) and oligosaccharides of hyaluronan (oHA) provoke distinct biological effects upon binding to CD44...
  9. Perrone G, Gaeta L, Zagami M, Nasorri F, Coppola R, Borzomati D, et al. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43110 pubmed publisher
    Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Hao J, Madigan M, Khatri A, Power C, Hung T, Beretov J, et al. In vitro and in vivo prostate cancer metastasis and chemoresistance can be modulated by expression of either CD44 or CD147. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40716 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 and CD147 are associated with cancer metastasis and progression...
  2. ILDEFONSO C, Bond W, Al Tawashi A, Hurwitz M, Hurwitz R. The liberation of CD44 intracellular domain modulates adenoviral vector transgene expression. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32697-707 pubmed
    ..Introduction of hyaluronan receptor CD44 into CD44-negative cells followed by transduction in the presence of vitreous with an adenoviral vector containing ..
  3. Saito S, Okabe H, Watanabe M, Ishimoto T, Iwatsuki M, Baba Y, et al. CD44v6 expression is related to mesenchymal phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:1570-8 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is a cancer stem cell marker in many tumors, and is one of the CD44 isoforms.CD44v6 has been reported to correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer...
  4. Lindquist D, Ährlund Richter A, Tarján M, Tot T, Dalianis T. Intense CD44 expression is a negative prognostic factor in tonsillar and base of tongue cancer. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:153-61 pubmed
    ..Tumor markers CD44, p16, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), E-cadherin, ..
  5. Rajarajan A, Stokes A, Bloor B, Ceder R, Desai H, Grafström R, et al. CD44 expression in oro-pharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e28776 pubmed publisher
    Expression of CD44, a transmembrane hyaluronan-binding glycoprotein, is variably considered to have prognostic significance for different cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma...
  6. Zhu J, He J, Liu Y, Simeone D, Lubman D. Identification of glycoprotein markers for pancreatic cancer CD24+CD44+ stem-like cells using nano-LC-MS/MS and tissue microarray. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:2272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, the malignant phenotype of pancreatic cancer stem-like CD24+CD44+ cells was isolated from a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (PANC-1) and demonstrated 4-fold increased invasion ..
  7. Hiraga T, Ito S, Nakamura H. Cancer stem-like cell marker CD44 promotes bone metastases by enhancing tumorigenicity, cell motility, and hyaluronan production. Cancer Res. 2013;73:4112-22 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44, an adhesion molecule that binds to the extracellular matrix, primarily to hyaluronan (HA), has been implicated in cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis...
  8. Wang S, Earle C, Wong G, Bourguignon L. Role of hyaluronan synthase 2 to promote CD44-dependent oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma progression. Head Neck. 2013;35:511-20 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is a transmembrane receptor found on many different benign and malignant cells. Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix, is the primary ligand for CD44 receptors...
  9. Omran O, Ata H. CD44s and CD44v6 in diagnosis and prognosis of human bladder cancer. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2012;36:145-52 pubmed publisher
    The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) CD44 standard (CD44s) and its variant 6 (CD44v6) are involved in the progression and invasion of human malignancies...
  10. Geng S, Guo Y, Wang Q, Li L, Wang J. Cancer stem-like cells enriched with CD29 and CD44 markers exhibit molecular characteristics with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013;305:35-47 pubmed publisher
    ..CD29 is involved in EMT through cross-talk with cadherins and CD44 has been reported as a successful used marker for CSCs...
  11. Zaytseva Y, Rychahou P, Gulhati P, Elliott V, Mustain W, O CONNOR K, et al. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase attenuates CD44-associated signaling and reduces metastasis in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1504-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted inhibition of lipogenic enzymes abolished expression of CD44, a transmembrane protein associated with metastases in several cancers including CRC...
  12. Tamada M, Nagano O, Tateyama S, Ohmura M, Yae T, Ishimoto T, et al. Modulation of glucose metabolism by CD44 contributes to antioxidant status and drug resistance in cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1438-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that CD44, a cell surface marker for cancer stem cells, interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and thereby enhances the ..
  13. Pham P, Phan N, Nguyen N, Truong N, Duong T, Le D, et al. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy. J Transl Med. 2011;9:209 pubmed publisher
    ..In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin...
  14. Zhang Y, Wei J, Wang H, Xue X, An Y, Tang D, et al. Epithelial mesenchymal transition correlates with CD24+CD44+ and CD133+ cells in pancreatic cancer. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether EMT correlates with CD24+CD44+ and CD133+ cells in pancreatic cancer...
  15. Mima K, Okabe H, Ishimoto T, Hayashi H, Nakagawa S, Kuroki H, et al. CD44s regulates the TGF-?-mediated mesenchymal phenotype and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of the standard isoform of CD44 (CD44s), a major adhesion molecule of the extracellular matrix and a cancer stem cell marker, in the TGF-?-mediated ..
  16. Montgomery N, Hill A, McFarlane S, Neisen J, O Grady A, Conlon S, et al. CD44 enhances invasion of basal-like breast cancer cells by upregulating serine protease and collagen-degrading enzymatic expression and activity. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R84 pubmed
    ..Hyaluronan (HA) and the HA receptor CD44 have a long-standing association with cell invasion and metastasis of breast cancer...
  17. Yae T, Tsuchihashi K, Ishimoto T, Motohara T, Yoshikawa M, Yoshida G, et al. Alternative splicing of CD44 mRNA by ESRP1 enhances lung colonization of metastatic cancer cell. Nat Commun. 2012;3:883 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that orthotopic transplantation of a CD44 variant isoform-expressing (CD44v(+)) subpopulation of 4T1 breast cancer cells, but not that of a CD44v(-) ..
  18. Gun B, Bahadir B, Bektas S, Barut F, Yurdakan G, Kandemir N, et al. Clinicopathological significance of fascin and CD44v6 expression in endometrioid carcinoma. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:80 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, CD44v6 was not a predictive factor in endometrioid cancer. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8511594927206899. ..
  19. Zhu X, Morales F, Agarwal N, Dogruluk T, Gagea M, Georgescu M. Moesin is a glioma progression marker that induces proliferation and Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation via interaction with CD44. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..of moesin occurs generally in high-grade glioblastoma in a pattern correlated with the stem cell marker CD44. Unlike NF2, moesin acts as an oncogene by increasing cell proliferation and stem cell neurosphere formation, with ..
  20. Okabe H, Ishimoto T, Mima K, Nakagawa S, Hayashi H, Kuroki H, et al. CD44s signals the acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype required for anchorage-independent cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:958-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesised that CD44-expressing CTCs show a mesenchymal phenotype and high potential for survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  21. Fuchs K, Hippe A, Schmaus A, Homey B, Sleeman J, Orian Rousseau V. Opposing effects of high- and low-molecular weight hyaluronan on CXCL12-induced CXCR4 signaling depend on CD44. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e819 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a molecular link between HA, its receptor CD44 and the chemokine CXCL12 in the regulation of cell motility and angiogenesis...
  22. Smith S, Cai L. Cell specific CD44 expression in breast cancer requires the interaction of AP-1 and NF?B with a novel cis-element. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50867 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the widely accepted markers of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is the cell surface marker CD44. As a glycoprotein, CD44 is involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration and ..
  23. Zhou G, Chiu D, Qin D, Niu L, Cai J, He L, et al. Expression of CD44v6 and integrin-?1 for the prognosis evaluation of pancreatic cancer patients after cryosurgery. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:146 pubmed publisher
    ..They may become useful predictors in assessing outcome of PC patients after cryosurgery. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4035308681009006. ..
  24. Zhang J, Chang B, Liu J. CD44 standard form expression is correlated with high-grade and advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma but not prognosis. Hum Pathol. 2013;44:1882-9 pubmed publisher
    Single-chain glycoprotein CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for hyaluronan and mediates epithelial cell adhesion by its involvement in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions...
  25. Khurana S, Riehl T, Moore B, Fassan M, Rugge M, Romero Gallo J, et al. The hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 coordinates normal and metaplastic gastric epithelial progenitor cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:16085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that CD44 labels a population of small, undifferentiated cells in the gastric unit isthmus where stem cells are known to ..
  26. Rásó Barnett L, Bánky B, Barbai T, Becságh P, Timar J, Raso E. Demonstration of a melanoma-specific CD44 alternative splicing pattern that remains qualitatively stable, but shows quantitative changes during tumour progression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53883 pubmed publisher
    The role of CD44 in the progression of human melanoma has mostly been characterised by qualitative changes in expression of its individual variable exons...
  27. So J, Smolarek A, Salerno D, Maehr H, Uskokovic M, Liu F, et al. Targeting CD44-STAT3 signaling by Gemini vitamin D analog leads to inhibition of invasion in basal-like breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54020 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is a major receptor for extracellular proteins involved in invasion and metastasis of human cancers...
  28. Midgley A, Rogers M, Hallett M, Clayton A, Bowen T, Phillips A, et al. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-stimulated fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation is mediated by hyaluronan (HA)-facilitated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CD44 co-localization in lipid rafts. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14824-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the HA receptor, CD44, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are involved in this differentiation response...
  29. Meran S, Luo D, Simpson R, Martin J, Wells A, Steadman R, et al. Hyaluronan facilitates transforming growth factor-?1-dependent proliferation via CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor interaction. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17618-30 pubmed publisher
    ..oral and dermal fibroblasts, we show that TGF-?1-dependent proliferation is mediated through the HA receptor CD44, whereas the TGF-?1-mediated antiproliferative response is CD44-independent...
  30. Niitsu N, Iijima K. High serum soluble CD44 is correlated with a poor outcome of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Res. 2002;26:241-8 pubmed
    We measured soluble CD44 (sCD44) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 216 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The sCD44 level was significantly elevated in patients with NHL...
  31. Indinnimeo M, Cicchini C, Giarnieri E, Stazi A, Mingazzini P, Stipa V. Evaluation of CD44 variant 6 expression and clinicopathological factors in pulmonary metastases from colon carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:1875-7 pubmed
    Although relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression, recently CD44 glycoproteins and the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase have been identified as potentially important components of the metastatic ..
  32. Lee J, Wang M, Chen J. Acetylation and activation of STAT3 mediated by nuclear translocation of CD44. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:949-57 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the type I transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 has recently been recognized as a signature for cancer stem cells...
  33. Bourguignon L, Xia W, Wong G. Hyaluronan-mediated CD44 interaction with p300 and SIRT1 regulates beta-catenin signaling and NFkappaB-specific transcription activity leading to MDR1 and Bcl-xL gene expression and chemoresistance in breast tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2657-71 pubmed publisher
    In this study we have investigated hyaluronan (HA)-mediated CD44 (an HA receptor) interactions with p300 (a histone acetyltransferase) and SIRT1 (a histone deacetylase) in human breast tumor cells (MCF-7 cells)...
  34. Winder T, Ning Y, Yang D, Zhang W, Power D, Bohanes P, et al. Germline polymorphisms in genes involved in the CD44 signaling pathway are associated with clinical outcome in localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:1096-104 pubmed publisher
    The cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) signaling pathway is crucial in cancer-cell growth, invasion, proliferation and metastasis...
  35. Fillmore C, Kuperwasser C. Human breast cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD24: enriching for cells with functional properties in mice or in man?. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:303 pubmed
    ..As such, understanding whether CD44+/CD24- breast cancer cells are merely more successful in overcoming an engraftment incompatibility that exists when ..
  36. Takahashi N, Knudson C, Thankamony S, Ariyoshi W, Mellor L, Im H, et al. Induction of CD44 cleavage in articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1338-48 pubmed publisher
    The hyaluronan receptor CD44 provides chondrocytes with a mechanism for sensing and responding to changes in the extracellular matrix...
  37. Gonzalez Moles M, Gil Montoya J, Ruiz Avila I, Esteban F, Delgado Rodriguez M, Bascones Martinez A. Prognostic significance of p21WAF1/CIP1, p16INK4a and CD44s in tongue cancer. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:389-96 pubmed
    ..002, hazards ratio: 0.028). In conclusion, low expression of CD44s is related to tumour cell invasiveness and may be of clinical relevance as a prognostic factor. ..
  38. Takahashi E, Nagano O, Ishimoto T, Yae T, Suzuki Y, Shinoda T, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates transforming growth factor-beta-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition by promoting hyaluronan-CD44-moesin interaction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4060-73 pubmed publisher
    ..through activation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44-moesin interaction...
  39. Lammich S, Okochi M, Takeda M, Kaether C, Capell A, Zimmer A, et al. Presenilin-dependent intramembrane proteolysis of CD44 leads to the liberation of its intracellular domain and the secretion of an Abeta-like peptide. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44754-9 pubmed
    ..We have now investigated CD44, a cell surface adhesion molecule, which also undergoes an intramembraneous cleavage to liberate its ICD...
  40. Murakami D, Okamoto I, Nagano O, Kawano Y, Tomita T, Iwatsubo T, et al. Presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase activity mediates the intramembranous cleavage of CD44. Oncogene. 2003;22:1511-6 pubmed
    b>CD44 is the major adhesion molecule for the extracellular matrix components and is implicated in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of tumor cell growth and metastasis...
  41. Oliveira Costa J, Zanetti J, Silveira G, Soave D, Oliveira L, Zorgetto V, et al. Differential expression of HIF-1? in CD44+CD24-/low breast ductal carcinomas. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:73 pubmed publisher
    ..HIF-1? expression, but it still to be determined whether hypoxia markers are expressed in breast tumors presenting CD44+CD24-/low immunophenotype...
  42. Dimitroff C, Lee J, Fuhlbrigge R, Sackstein R. A distinct glycoform of CD44 is an L-selectin ligand on human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13841-6 pubmed
    ..adhesion molecules, we show here that hematopoietic cell L-selectin ligand is a specialized glycoform of CD44. This L-selectin ligand activity of CD44 requires sialofucosylated N-linked glycans and is sulfation-independent...
  43. Bourguignon L, Singleton P, Zhu H, Zhou B. Hyaluronan promotes signaling interaction between CD44 and the transforming growth factor beta receptor I in metastatic breast tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39703-12 pubmed
    In this study we have examined the interaction between CD44 (a hyaluronan (HA) receptor) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptors (a family of serine/threonine kinase membrane receptors) in human metastatic breast ..
  44. Zhang J, Yamada O, Kida S, Matsushita Y, Yamaoka S, Chagan Yasutan H, et al. Identification of CD44 as a downstream target of noncanonical NF-?B pathway activated by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-encoded Tax protein. Virology. 2011;413:244-52 pubmed publisher
    ..As an extension, we investigated here the possible influence of Tax on CD44, an important receptor for OPN...
  45. Desai B, Ma T, Zhu J, Chellaiah M. Characterization of the expression of variant and standard CD44 in prostate cancer cells: identification of the possible molecular mechanism of CD44/MMP9 complex formation on the cell surface. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:272-84 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is a glycosylated adhesion molecule and osteopontin is one of its ligand. CD44 undergoes alternative splicing to produce variant isoforms...
  46. Hsu K, Tsai H, Lin P, Hsu Y, Shan Y, Lu P. Clinical implication and mitotic effect of CD44 cleavage in relation to osteopontin/CD44 interaction and dysregulated cell cycle protein in gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:2199-212 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 and osteopontin (OPN) are functionally related molecules that, alone or in combination, play miscellaneous biological and pathophysiologic roles...
  47. Staibano S, Merolla F, Testa D, Iovine R, Mascolo M, Guarino V, et al. OPN/CD44v6 overexpression in laryngeal dysplasia and correlation with clinical outcome. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:1545-51 pubmed
  48. Roscic Mrkic B, Fischer M, Leemann C, Manrique A, Gordon C, Moore J, et al. RANTES (CCL5) uses the proteoglycan CD44 as an auxiliary receptor to mediate cellular activation signals and HIV-1 enhancement. Blood. 2003;102:1169-77 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the latter pathway is mediated by an interaction between RANTES and glycosaminoglycan chains of CD44. We provide evidence that this association, at both low, physiologically relevant, and higher, probably ..
  49. Stamenkovic I, Yu Q. Shedding light on proteolytic cleavage of CD44: the responsible sheddase and functional significance of shedding. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1321-4 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is the major cell-surface receptor for hyaluronan, which is implicated in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration, and signaling...
  50. Päll T, Gad A, Kasak L, Drews M, Stromblad S, Kogerman P. Recombinant CD44-HABD is a novel and potent direct angiogenesis inhibitor enforcing endothelial cell-specific growth inhibition independently of hyaluronic acid binding. Oncogene. 2004;23:7874-81 pubmed
    b>CD44 is the main cellular receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA). We previously found that overexpression of CD44 inhibited tumor growth of mouse fibrosarcoma cells in mice...
  51. Alves C, Yakovlev S, Medved L, Konstantopoulos K. Biomolecular characterization of CD44-fibrin(ogen) binding: distinct molecular requirements mediate binding of standard and variant isoforms of CD44 to immobilized fibrin(ogen). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1177-89 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 and fibrin(ogen) play critical roles in the hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells, including colon carcinomas. We recently reported that CD44 is the primary fibrin, but not fibrinogen, receptor on LS174T colon carcinomas...
  52. Singleton P, Salgia R, Moreno Vinasco L, Moitra J, Sammani S, Mirzapoiazova T, et al. CD44 regulates hepatocyte growth factor-mediated vascular integrity. Role of c-Met, Tiam1/Rac1, dynamin 2, and cortactin. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30643-57 pubmed
    ..study, we explored the regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated enhancement of EC barrier function via CD44 isoforms...
  53. Hong S, Wen J, Bang S, Park S, Song S. CD44-positive cells are responsible for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..After high-dose gemcitabine treatment to eliminate most of the cells, CD44(+) cells proliferated and reconstituted the population of resistant cells...
  54. Diaz L, Zhou X, Wright E, Cristofanilli M, Smith T, Yang Y, et al. CD44 expression is associated with increased survival in node-negative invasive breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:3309-14 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a multifunctional cell surface receptor with many known splice variants, some of which have been reported to play a role in tumor progression...
  55. Ahmed M, Aleskandarany M, Rakha E, Moustafa R, Benhasouna A, Nolan C, et al. A CD44?/CD24? phenotype is a poor prognostic marker in early invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;133:979-95 pubmed publisher
    A CD44(-)/CD24(+) phenotype is a poor prognostic marker in early invasive breast cancer. Breast cancer cells with high CD44 and low or absent CD24 (i.e. CD44(+)CD24(-)/low phenotype) are reported to have stem cell features...
  56. Bourguignon L, Zhu H, Shao L, Chen Y. CD44 interaction with tiam1 promotes Rac1 signaling and hyaluronic acid-mediated breast tumor cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1829-38 pubmed
    In this study we have explored the interaction between CD44 (the hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding receptor) and Tiam1 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor) in metastatic breast tumor cells (SP1 cell line)...
  57. Lee J, Wang M, Sudhir P, Chen J. CD44 engagement promotes matrix-derived survival through the CD44-SRC-integrin axis in lipid rafts. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5710-23 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 is present in detergent-resistant, cholesterol-rich microdomains, called lipid rafts, in many types of cells. However, the functional significance of CD44 in lipid rafts is still unknown...
  58. Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Fiska A, Koukourakis M. The CD44+/CD24- phenotype relates to 'triple-negative' state and unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer patients. Med Oncol. 2011;28:745-52 pubmed publisher
    Breast carcinomas have been reported to contain a subpopulation of CD44+/CD24- tumor cells with stem cell-like properties. This study investigates the significance of these two molecules in connection with tumor aggression and prognosis...
  59. Harada H, Takahashi M. CD44-dependent intracellular and extracellular catabolism of hyaluronic acid by hyaluronidase-1 and -2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5597-607 pubmed
    ..However, its turnover in living cells remains largely unknown. In this study, CD44, a receptor for HA, and hyaluronidase-1, -2, and -3 (Hyal-1, -2 and -3) were stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ..
  60. Telen M, Udani M, Washington M, Levesque M, Lloyd E, Rao N. A blood group-related polymorphism of CD44 abolishes a hyaluronan-binding consensus sequence without preventing hyaluronan binding. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7147-53 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a widely expressed integral membrane protein that acts as a receptor for hyaluronan (HA) and is proposed to be important to cell-extracellular matrix interaction...
  61. Ross J, del Rosario A, Bui H, Kallakury B, Okby N, Figge J. Expression of the CD44 cell adhesion molecule in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 1996;9:854-60 pubmed
    CD44 cell adhesion molecule (PgP-1, ECM III, Hermes antigen) is a polymorphic integral membrane glycoprotein associated with cell matrix adhesion, lymphocyte activation, recirculation, and homing...
  62. Legg J, Lewis C, Parsons M, Ng T, Isacke C. A novel PKC-regulated mechanism controls CD44 ezrin association and directional cell motility. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:399-407 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a novel phosphorylation mechanism that regulates the hyaluronan receptor CD44. In resting cells, CD44 is constitutively phosphorylated at a single serine residue, Ser325...
  63. Tsatas D, Kanagasundaram V, Kaye A, Novak U. EGF receptor modifies cellular responses to hyaluronan in glioblastoma cell lines. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:282-8 pubmed
    ..Although it is well established that glioma cells can bind hyaluronan to their surface via the expression of CD44, the cellular responses following ligand-receptor interaction remain poorly understood...
  64. Bourguignon L, Gilad E, Rothman K, Peyrollier K. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with IQGAP1 promotes Cdc42 and ERK signaling, leading to actin binding, Elk-1/estrogen receptor transcriptional activation, and ovarian cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11961-72 pubmed
    In this study, we have examined the interaction of hyaluronan (HA)-CD44 with IQGAP1 (one of the binding partners for the Rho GTPase Cdc42) in SK-OV-3.ipl human ovarian tumor cells...
  65. Hill A, McFarlane S, Mulligan K, Gillespie H, Draffin J, Trimble A, et al. Cortactin underpins CD44-promoted invasion and adhesion of breast cancer cells to bone marrow endothelial cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:6079-91 pubmed
    Using a validated tetracycline (tet)-regulated MCF7-founder (MCF7F) expression system to modulate expression of CD44 standard form (CD44s), we report the functional importance of CD44s and that of a novel transcriptional target of ..
  66. Olsson E, Honeth G, Bendahl P, Saal L, Gruvberger Saal S, Ringner M, et al. CD44 isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in breast cancer and correlate with tumor subtypes and cancer stem cell markers. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:418 pubmed publisher
    The CD44 cell adhesion molecule is aberrantly expressed in many breast tumors and has been implicated in the metastatic process as well as in the putative cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment...
  67. Desai B, Rogers M, Chellaiah M. Mechanisms of osteopontin and CD44 as metastatic principles in prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 2007;6:18 pubmed
    ..as compared with PC3 cells: 1) an increase in multinucleated giant cells and RANKL expression; 2) an increase in CD44 surface expression, interaction of CD44/MMP-9 on the cell surface, MMP-9 activity in the conditioned medium, and ..
  68. Shi Y, Tian Y, Zhou Y, Ju J, Qu L, Chen S, et al. Inhibition of malignant activities of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells with high expression of CD44 by siRNA. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:397-403 pubmed
    Since CD44 was found to be significantly inhibited in the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2L2 with profound reduction of malignant activities caused by inhibition of alpha-mannosidase Man2c1 gene expression and CD44 has been ..
  69. Taran K, Kobos J, Sitkiewicz A, Sporny S. Estimation of prognostic value of CD44 expression in neuroblastic tumours in children. Folia Neuropathol. 2007;45:126-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to examine the expression of CD44 adhesion molecule in different histologic types in a neuroblastoma group of tumours (35 cases of neuroblastoma from ..
  70. Mylona E, Giannopoulou I, Fasomytakis E, Nomikos A, Magkou C, Bakarakos P, et al. The clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of CD44+/CD24(-/low) and CD44-/CD24+ tumor cells in invasive breast carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1096-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of the CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) and CD44(-)/CD24(+) tumor phenotypes' prevalence...
  71. Du L, Wang H, He L, Zhang J, Ni B, Wang X, et al. CD44 is of functional importance for colorectal cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6751-60 pubmed publisher
    Both CD44 and CD133 were reported as putative markers for isolating colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC). It remains to be resolved if both of these markers are of functional importance for colorectal CSC...
  72. Horst D, Kriegl L, Engel J, Kirchner T, Jung A. Prognostic significance of the cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, and CD166 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest. 2009;27:844-50 pubmed publisher
    CD133, CD44, and CD166 are cell surface markers that have recently been associated with colorectal cancer stem cells...
  73. Okayama H, Kumamoto K, Saitou K, Hayase S, Kofunato Y, Sato Y, et al. CD44v6, MMP-7 and nuclear Cdx2 are significant biomarkers for prediction of lymph node metastasis in primary gastric cancer. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:745-55 pubmed
    ..Combined evaluation of these markers could be further useful to predict lymph node status clinically. ..
  74. Stamenkovic I, Aruffo A, Amiot M, Seed B. The hematopoietic and epithelial forms of CD44 are distinct polypeptides with different adhesion potentials for hyaluronate-bearing cells. EMBO J. 1991;10:343-8 pubmed
    b>CD44 is a polymorphic integral membrane protein which recognizes hyaluronate and whose proposed roles encompass lymphocyte activation, matrix adhesion and the attachment of lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules (HEVs)...
  75. Akiyama Y, Jung S, Salhia B, Lee S, Hubbard S, Taylor M, et al. Hyaluronate receptors mediating glioma cell migration and proliferation. J Neurooncol. 2001;53:115-27 pubmed
    ..Ubiquitous receptors for HA are CD44 and the Receptor for HA-Mediated Motility known as RHAMM...
  76. Ehnis T, Dieterich W, Bauer M, Lampe B, Schuppan D. A chondroitin/dermatan sulfate form of CD44 is a receptor for collagen XIV (undulin). Exp Cell Res. 1996;229:388-97 pubmed
    ..specific monoclonal antibody identified the prominent chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as a member of the CD44 family...
  77. Mack B, Gires O. CD44s and CD44v6 expression in head and neck epithelia. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3360 pubmed publisher
    b>CD44 splice variants are long-known as being associated with cell transformation...
  78. Lesley J, Gal I, Mahoney D, Cordell M, Rugg M, Hyman R, et al. TSG-6 modulates the interaction between hyaluronan and cell surface CD44. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25745-54 pubmed
    Interactions between CD44 and hyaluronan are implicated in the primary adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelium at inflammatory locations...