CD28

Summary

Gene Symbol: CD28
Description: CD28 molecule
Alias: Tp44, T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28, CD28 antigen
Species: human
Products:     CD28

Top Publications

  1. Kirchhoff F, Schindler M, Specht A, Arhel N, Munch J. Role of Nef in primate lentiviral immunopathogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:2621-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This evolutionary loss of a specific Nef function may contribute to the high virulence of HIV-1 in humans. ..
  2. Deshpande M, Venuprasad K, Parab P, Saha B, Mitra D. A novel CD28 mRNA variant and simultaneous presence of various CD28 mRNA isoforms in human T lymphocytes. Hum Immunol. 2002;63:20-3 pubmed
    The primary transcript of the human CD28 gene in T lymphocytes, encoding for a costimulatory molecule, is known to undergo alternative splicing, and different small sets of variant isoforms have been reported...
  3. Dilmec F, Ozgonul A, Uzunkoy A, Akkafa F. Investigation of CTLA-4 and CD28 gene polymorphisms in a group of Turkish patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Immunogenet. 2008;35:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and CD28 genes encode receptors that provide negative and positive signals, respectively...
  4. Ariën K, Verhasselt B. HIV Nef: role in pathogenesis and viral fitness. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6:200-8 pubmed
    ..Here we review the functions of Nef involved in viral replication and infectivity and speculate on a possible role for Nef in HIV fitness. ..
  5. Swigut T, Shohdy N, Skowronski J. Mechanism for down-regulation of CD28 by Nef. EMBO J. 2001;20:1593-604 pubmed
    ..We show that SIV and HIV-1 Nefs down-modulate CD28, a major co-stimulatory receptor that mediates effective T-cell activation, by accelerating CD28 endocytosis...
  6. Wang J, Kiyokawa E, Verdin E, Trono D. The Nef protein of HIV-1 associates with rafts and primes T cells for activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:394-9 pubmed
    ..using an inducible system, we demonstrate that Nef increases IL-2 secretion from T cells stimulated via CD3 or CD28. This effect requires the conservation of the Nef myristoylation signal and SH3-binding proline-based motif...
  7. Ivansson E, Juko Pecirep I, Gyllensten U. Interaction of immunological genes on chromosome 2q33 and IFNG in susceptibility to cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;116:544-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of this the combination CD28+17(TT)/IFNG+874(AA) was shown to increase cervical cancer risk in a Brazilian population (VB Guzman et al...
  8. Greenway A, Holloway G, McPhee D, Ellis P, Cornall A, Lidman M. HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication. J Biosci. 2003;28:323-35 pubmed
  9. Fontenot A, Gharavi L, Bennett S, Canavera S, Newman L, Kotzin B. CD28 costimulation independence of target organ versus circulating memory antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:776-84 pubmed
    T cell receptor engagement with CD28 costimulation is generally required for naive T cell activation, whereas reactivation of memory cells is less dependent on CD28 costimulation...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Blotta M, Marshall J, DeKruyff R, Umetsu D. Cross-linking of the CD40 ligand on human CD4+ T lymphocytes generates a costimulatory signal that up-regulates IL-4 synthesis. J Immunol. 1996;156:3133-40 pubmed
    ..and induce cytokine synthesis, using immobilized mAbs against several T cell surface molecules, including CD3, CD28, and the CD40 ligand (CD40L)...
  2. Nunes J, Truneh A, Olive D, Cantrell D. Signal transduction by CD28 costimulatory receptor on T cells. B7-1 and B7-2 regulation of tyrosine kinase adaptor molecules. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1591-8 pubmed
    This study compares the biochemical responses in T cells activated with the CD28 ligands B7-1 and B7-2...
  3. Guzman V, Yambartsev A, Goncalves Primo A, Silva I, Carvalho C, Ribalta J, et al. New approach reveals CD28 and IFNG gene interaction in the susceptibility to cervical cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, PDCD1, FAS, TNFA, IL6, IFNG, TGFB1 and IL10 genes were determined in patients and healthy individuals ..
  4. Leonard J, Filzen T, Carter C, Schaefer M, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef disrupts intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I, CD4, CD8, and CD28 by distinct pathways that share common elements. J Virol. 2011;85:6867-81 pubmed publisher
    ..complex class I (MHC-I) and CD4, but Nef also has been reported to target several other proteins, including CD8β, CD28, CD80, CD86, and CD1d...
  5. Suwalska K, Pawlak E, Karabon L, Tomkiewicz A, Dobosz T, Urbaniak Kujda D, et al. Association studies of CTLA-4, CD28, and ICOS gene polymorphisms with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the Polish population. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:193-201 pubmed publisher
    Abnormal expression of the costimulatory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CD28, and inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) leads to disturbances of immune response and an increased risk of cancer...
  6. Pawlak E, Karabon L, Wlodarska Polinska I, Jedynak A, Jonkisz A, Tomkiewicz A, et al. Influence of CTLA-4/CD28/ICOS gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility to cervical squamous cell carcinoma and stage of differentiation in the Polish population. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:195-200 pubmed publisher
    Abnormal expressions of the costimulatory molecules CD28, "inducible co-stimulator" (ICOS), and inhibitory molecule cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) lead to disturbances of immune response and entail an increased risk ..
  7. Piras G, Monne M, Uras A, Palmas A, Murineddu M, Arru L, et al. Genetic analysis of the 2q33 region containing CD28-CTLA4-ICOS genes: association with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2005;129:784-90 pubmed
    ..We analysed the 2q33 chromosomal region harbouring CD28, CTLA4 and ICOS genes, which are closely linked and have related functions in immune regulation, for association in ..
  8. Bour Jordan H, Blueston J. CD28 function: a balance of costimulatory and regulatory signals. J Clin Immunol. 2002;22:1-7 pubmed
    ..b>CD28 has been widely recognized as the major costimulation pathway for naive T-cell activation, and the CD28/B7 pathway ..
  9. Gunesacar R, Erken E, Bozkurt B, Ozer H, Dinkci S, Erken E, et al. Analysis of CD28 and CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms in Turkish patients with Behcet's disease. Int J Immunogenet. 2007;34:45-9 pubmed
    In this study we aimed to investigate IVS3 +17T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CD28 gene, +49A/G and -318C/T SNPs of CTLA-4 gene in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) and their potential association to the main clinical ..
  10. Klasen S, Pages F, Peyron J, Cantrell D, Olive D. Two distinct regions of the CD28 intracytoplasmic domain are involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav and GTPase activating protein-associated p62 protein. Int Immunol. 1998;10:481-9 pubmed
    The T cell-associated CD28 molecule plays a key role in T cell co-stimulation...
  11. Specht A, Telenti A, Martinez R, Fellay J, Bailes E, Evans D, et al. Counteraction of HLA-C-mediated immune control of HIV-1 by Nef. J Virol. 2010;84:7300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..between sVLs and the efficiency of Nef-mediated enhancement of virion infectivity and modulation of CD4, CD28, and the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-associated invariant chain (Ii), while this was not ..
  12. Lenschow D, Walunas T, Bluestone J. CD28/B7 system of T cell costimulation. Annu Rev Immunol. 1996;14:233-58 pubmed
    ..The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is one of the dominant costimulatory pathways...
  13. Pages F, Ragueneau M, Klasen S, Battifora M, Couez D, Sweet R, et al. Two distinct intracytoplasmic regions of the T-cell adhesion molecule CD28 participate in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase association. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:9403-9 pubmed
    Through the interaction with its ligands, CD80/B7-1 and CD86/B7-2 or B70, the human CD28 molecule plays a major functional role as a costimulator of T cells along with the CD3-TcR complex...
  14. Ledezma Lozano I, Padilla Martínez J, Leyva Torres S, Parra Rojas I, Ramírez Dueñas M, Pereira Suárez A, et al. Association of CD28 IVS3 +17T/C polymorphism with soluble CD28 in rheumatoid arthritis. Dis Markers. 2011;30:25-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology in which inflammatory pathology involves T cell activation and the CD28 costimulatory molecule involved in T cell presentation...
  15. Heigele A, Schindler M, Gnanadurai C, Leonard J, Collins K, Kirchhoff F. Down-modulation of CD8αβ is a fundamental activity of primate lentiviral Nef proteins. J Virol. 2012;86:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..for the interaction of HIV-1 Nef with AP-2, and they were also shown to be critical for down-modulation of CD4 and CD28, but not MHC-I, by SIV Nefs...
  16. Studer S, George M, Zhu X, Song Y, Valentine V, Stoner M, et al. CD28 down-regulation on CD4 T cells is a marker for graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:765-73 pubmed publisher
    Repeated antigen-driven proliferations cause CD28 on T cells to down-regulate. We hypothesized that alloantigen-induced proliferations could cause CD28 down-regulation in lung transplant recipients...
  17. Fasth A, Dastmalchi M, Rahbar A, Salomonsson S, Pandya J, Lindroos E, et al. T cell infiltrates in the muscles of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis are dominated by CD28null T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:4792-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-four patients with dermatomyositis and 42 with polymyositis were screened for frequency of CD4+CD28(null) and CD8+CD28(null) T cells in peripheral blood by flow cytometry...
  18. Aruffo A, Seed B. Molecular cloning of a CD28 cDNA by a high-efficiency COS cell expression system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8573-7 pubmed
    CD28 (Tp44) is a human T-cell-specific homodimer surface protein that may participate in T-cell activation...
  19. Chen X, Li H, Qiao Y, Yu D, Guo H, Tan W, et al. Association of CD28 gene polymorphism with cervical cancer risk in a Chinese population. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Host genetic factors may confer susceptibility to this disease. CD28 participates in the maintenance of immune homeostasis as an important positive co-stimulatory molecule...
  20. King P, Sadra A, Teng J, Xiao Rong L, Han A, Selvakumar A, et al. Analysis of CD28 cytoplasmic tail tyrosine residues as regulators and substrates for the protein tyrosine kinases, EMT and LCK. J Immunol. 1997;158:580-90 pubmed
    The CD28 cell surface receptor provides an important costimulatory signal for T cells necessary for their response to Ag...
  21. Bromley S, Iaboni A, Davis S, Whitty A, Green J, Shaw A, et al. The immunological synapse and CD28-CD80 interactions. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:1159-66 pubmed
    ..The structure and binding properties of CD28 imply that it may perform both functions, blurring the distinction between adhesion and costimulatory molecules...
  22. Hanawa H, Ma Y, Mikolajczak S, Charles M, Yoshida T, Yoshida R, et al. A novel costimulatory signaling in human T lymphocytes by a splice variant of CD28. Blood. 2002;99:2138-45 pubmed
    We have characterized a splice variant (isoform) of the human CD28 T cell costimulatory receptor...
  23. Wang J, Lei X, Cheng X, Zhang X, Liu G, Cheng J, et al. LW-AFC, a new formula derived from Liuwei Dihuang decoction, ameliorates behavioral and pathological deterioration via modulating the neuroendocrine-immune system in PrP-hA?PPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic mice. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2016;8:57 pubmed
    ..Moreover, LW-AFC increased CD8+CD28+ T cells, and reduced CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in the spleen lymphocytes,..
  24. Peach R, Bajorath J, Naemura J, Leytze G, Greene J, Aruffo A, et al. Both extracellular immunoglobin-like domains of CD80 contain residues critical for binding T cell surface receptors CTLA-4 and CD28. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21181-7 pubmed
    ..B7-related molecules CD80 and CD86 are expressed on antigen-presenting cells, bind the homologous T cell receptors CD28 and CTLA-4, and trigger costimulatory signals important for optimal T cell activation...
  25. Juvet S, Sanderson S, Hester J, Wood K, Bushell A. Quantification of CD4(+) T Cell Alloreactivity and Its Control by Regulatory T Cells Using Time-Lapse Microscopy and Immune Synapse Detection. Am J Transplant. 2016;16:1394-407 pubmed publisher
    ..By blocking CD4-MHC class II and CD28-B7 interactions, we defined immunologically relevant interactions as those ≥500 s...
  26. Cassiano G, Furini A, Capobianco M, Storti Melo L, Almeida M, Barbosa D, et al. Immunogenetic markers associated with a naturally acquired humoral immune response against an N-terminal antigen of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-1). Malar J. 2016;15:306 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in the CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, CD40, CD86 and BLYS genes of 178 subjects infected with P...
  27. Bamoulid J, Crépin T, Gaiffe E, Laheurte C, Moulin B, Frimat L, et al. Immune reconstitution with two different rabbit polyclonal anti-thymocytes globulins. Transpl Immunol. 2017;45:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..001) in Grafalon-treated patients. By contrast, T cell activation (CD38+DR+Ki67+) and senescence (CD8+CD57+CD28-) was increased in Thymoglobulin-treated patients...
  28. Lee S, Kim J, Kim J, Kim S, Kim W, Lee S, et al. A highly recurrent novel missense mutation in CD28 among angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients. Haematologica. 2015;100:e505-7 pubmed publisher
  29. Perez Villar J, Kanner S. Regulated association between the tyrosine kinase Emt/Itk/Tsk and phospholipase-C gamma 1 in human T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1999;163:6435-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, this association was enhanced following independent ligation of the CD2, CD4, or CD28 costimulatory molecules, but not of CD5 or CD6 surface receptors, correlating to the induced tyrosine ..
  30. Dai S, Gu H, Lin Q, Xing T, Chen M, Zhong T, et al. Disequilibrium in the CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T Lymphocyte Balance Is Related to Prognosis in Rats with Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:639-651 pubmed publisher
    The CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T lymphocyte balance is vital for human ulcerative colitis (UC) but has not been defined in experimental colitis...
  31. Krug C, Birkholz K, Paulus A, Schwenkert M, Schmidt P, Hoffmann N, et al. Stability and activity of MCSP-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) depend on the scFv antigen-binding domain and the protein backbone. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015;64:1623-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon RNA transfer, the expression of all receptors was limited in time. The second-generation CARs, which combined CD28-CD3ζ signaling, were expressed at higher levels and more prolonged than first-generation CARs with CD3ζ only...
  32. Hesse M, Stamm A, Weber R, Glünder G, Berndt A. Immune response of turkey poults exposed at 1 day of age to either attenuated or wild Salmonella strains. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2016;174:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..immunohistochemistry, we also assessed immune reactions in terms of antibody production, influx of CD4-, CD8?- and CD28-positive cells into the caecal mucosa and the expression of four different immune-related proteins...
  33. Zhao Z, Condomines M, van der Stegen S, Perna F, Kloss C, Gunset G, et al. Structural Design of Engineered Costimulation Determines Tumor Rejection Kinetics and Persistence of CAR T Cells. Cancer Cell. 2015;28:415-428 pubmed publisher
    ..T cells, we studied the functionality and persistence imparted by seven different CAR structures providing CD28 and/or 4-1BB costimulation...
  34. Haimila K, Turpeinen H, Alakulppi N, Kyllönen L, Salmela K, Partanen J. Association of genetic variation in inducible costimulator gene with outcome of kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2009;87:393-6 pubmed publisher
    The closely-linked genes of CD28, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), inducible costimulator (ICOS), and programmed cell death 1 on chromosome 2q encode costimulatory molecules, which are regulators of the T-cell activity...
  35. Louveau A, Nerrière Daguin V, Vanhove B, Naveilhan P, Neunlist M, Nicot A, et al. Targeting the CD80/CD86 costimulatory pathway with CTLA4-Ig directs microglia toward a repair phenotype and promotes axonal outgrowth. Glia. 2015;63:2298-312 pubmed publisher
    Among the costimulatory factors widely studied in the immune system is the CD28/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4)-CD80/CD86 pathway, which critically controls the nature and duration of the T-cell response...
  36. Schiavinato J, Haddad R, Saldanha Araujo F, Baiochi J, Araujo A, Santos Scheucher P, et al. TGF-beta/atRA-induced Tregs express a selected set of microRNAs involved in the repression of transcripts related to Th17 differentiation. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3627 pubmed publisher
    ..Naïve T cells were immunomagnetically isolated from umbilical cord blood and activated with anti-human CD2/CD3/CD28 beads in the presence of IL-2 alone (CD4Med) or with the addition of TGF-? and atRA (CD4TGF/atRA
  37. Lichtenfels R, Rappl G, Hombach A, Recktenwald C, Dressler S, Abken H, et al. A proteomic view at T cell costimulation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32994 pubmed publisher
    ..MHC)-presented peptide, with "signal 2″ provided by costimulatory molecules, the prototype of which is CD28, is required to induce T cell effector functions...
  38. Jiang X, Björkström N, Melum E. Intact CD100-CD72 Interaction Necessary for TCR-Induced T Cell Proliferation. Front Immunol. 2017;8:765 pubmed publisher
    ..four of these antibodies significantly reduced the expansion of T cells in the presence of bead-bound anti-CD3/CD28, either in total peripheral blood mononuclear cell or purified T cell culture systems...
  39. Gattringer M, Baranyi U, Pilat N, Hock K, Klaus C, Ramsey H, et al. Anti-OX40L alone or in combination with anti-CD40L and CTLA4Ig does not inhibit the humoral and cellular response to a major grass pollen allergen. Clin Exp Allergy. 2016;46:354-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the potential of interfering with OX40 alone or in combination with CD40/CD28 signals to influence the allergic immune response...
  40. Hasegawa H, Kawahata K, Mizoguchi F, Okiyama N, Miyasaka N, Kohsaka H. Direct suppression of autoaggressive CD8+ T cells with CD80/86 blockade in CD8+ T cell-mediated polymyositis models of mice. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35:593-597 pubmed
    CD80/86 blockade to inhibit CD28 costimulation suppressed alloreactive human and murine CD4+ T cells but not alloreactive CD8+ T cells...
  41. Putheti P. Polarizing Cytokines for Human Th9 Cell Differentiation. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1585:73-82 pubmed publisher
    CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subset generation in vivo requires T cell receptor activation and surface CD28 co-stimulation in the presence of one or more cytokines...
  42. Kallikourdis M, Trovato A, Roselli G, Muscolini M, Porciello N, Tuosto L, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase β Controls Recruitment of Lipid Rafts into the Immunological Synapse. J Immunol. 2016;196:1955-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyze the contribution of PIP5Kβ to T cell activation and show that CD28 induces the recruitment of PIP5Kβ to the immunological synapse, where it regulates filamin A and lipid raft ..
  43. Oelsner S, Wagner J, Friede M, Pfirrmann V, Genßler S, Rettinger E, et al. Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered cytokine-induced killer cells overcome treatment resistance of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and enhance survival. Int J Cancer. 2016;139:1799-809 pubmed publisher
    ..transduced CIK cells with a lentiviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that carries a composite CD28-CD3? domain for signaling and a CD19-specific scFv antibody fragment for cell binding (CAR 63.28.z)...
  44. Song Q, Weng X, Cai D, Zhang W, Wang J. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28-4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0162791 pubmed publisher
    ..At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What's more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA...
  45. Fukuyo S, Nakayamada S, Iwata S, Kubo S, Saito K, Tanaka Y. Abatacept therapy reduces CD28+CXCR5+ follicular helper-like T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35:562-570 pubmed
    ..RA patients showed an increase in the proportion of CD28- cells among CD4+ cells, which was significantly high in patients who had not achieved remission after ABT therapy...
  46. Gazeau P, Alegria G, Devauchelle Pensec V, Jamin C, Lemerle J, Bendaoud B, et al. Memory B Cells and Response to Abatacept in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017;53:166-176 pubmed publisher
    ..Abatacept acts both by disrupting the CD28-mediated activation of T cells and by interacting with CD80/CD86 molecules present on antigen presenting cells such ..
  47. Wu D, Tang R, Qi Q, Zhou X, Zhou H, Mao Y, et al. Five functional polymorphisms of B7/CD28 co-signaling molecules alter susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Cell Immunol. 2015;293:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined 16 putatively functional polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR of 11 B7/CD28 genes in 382 colorectal cancer patients and 714 healthy controls...
  48. Park I, He J. HIV-1 Nef-mediated T-cell activation and chemotaxis are decoupled using a HIV-1/SIVpbj1.9. chimeric nef variant. Arch Virol. 2013;158:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..9, we found that HIV-1 Nef activated T cells only in the presence of CD3/ CD28 stimulation, while SIVpbj1.9 Nef did even without CD3/CD28...
  49. Sato Y, Nagata S, Takiguchi M. Effective elicitation of human effector CD8+ T Cells in HLA-B*51:01 transgenic humanized mice after infection with HIV-1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42776 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no differences in the frequency of late effector memory and effector subsets (CD27(low)CD28(-)CD45RA(+/-)CCR7(-) and CD27(-)CD28(-)CD45RA(+/-)CCR7(-), respectively) among human CD8(+) T cells and in that of ..
  50. Inoue S, Setoyama Y, Beck Y, Kitagawa D, Odaka A. Ex vivo induction of antitumor DEC-205+ CD11c+ cells in a murine neuroblastoma model by co-stimulation with doxorubicin, lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-4. Biomed Rep. 2016;4:27-32 pubmed
    ..and neuro-2a cells, interferon-γ production by the CD8α+ cells increased in response to anti-CD3/CD28 antibody stimulation...
  51. August A, Dupont B. CD28 of T lymphocytes associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Int Immunol. 1994;6:769-74 pubmed
    ..The T cell surface molecule CD28 is effective in delivering co-stimulatory signals and prevents T cell anergy by inducing T cell proliferation in ..
  52. Cook J, Albacker L, August A, Henderson A. CD28-dependent HIV-1 transcription is associated with Vav, Rac, and NF-kappa B activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35812-8 pubmed
    Activation of HIV-1-infected T cells through the T cell receptor and costimulatory molecule CD28 induces proviral transcription; however, the mechanism behind this enhanced virus expression is unknown...
  53. Zhu Y, Yue F, He Y, Li P, Yang Y, Han Y, et al. Prokaryotic expression of the extracellular domain of porcine programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 and identification of the binding with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Can J Vet Res. 2017;81:147-154 pubmed
    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family, has 2 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Our previous studies showed that the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 is up-regulated during viral infection in pigs...
  54. Mitchell J, Seng A, Yankee T. Ikaros, Helios, and Aiolos protein levels increase in human thymocytes after β selection. Immunol Res. 2016;64:565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..were subdivided into ISP1, ISP2, DP1, DP2, DP3, DP4, and DP5 developmental stages according to their expression of CD28, CD44, CD1a, CD7, CD45RO, and CD38...
  55. Prosser M, Brown C, Shami A, Forman S, Jensen M. Tumor PD-L1 co-stimulates primary human CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells modified to express a PD1:CD28 chimeric receptor. Mol Immunol. 2012;51:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..convert PD-1 to a T cell costimulatory receptor by exchanging its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail with that of CD28. Rather than becoming exhausted upon engagement of PD-L1(+) tumors, we hypothesized that CD8(+) cytotoxic T ..
  56. Dai S, Gu H, Lin Q, Huang S, Xing T, Zhang Q, et al. CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T cell equilibrium can predict the active stage for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017;41:693-702 pubmed publisher
    The balance of blood CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T cells has been verified to be vital for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but their role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown...
  57. Yao S, Zhu Y, Zhu G, Augustine M, Zheng L, Goode D, et al. B7-h2 is a costimulatory ligand for CD28 in human. Immunity. 2011;34:729-40 pubmed publisher
    b>CD28 and CTLA-4 are cell surface cosignaling molecules essential for the control of T cell activation upon the engagement of their ligands B7-1 and B7-2 from antigen-presenting cells...
  58. Schneider H, Prasad K, Shoelson S, Rudd C. CTLA-4 binding to the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in T cells. J Exp Med. 1995;181:351-5 pubmed
    CTLA-4 is a T cell antigen that is structurally related to CD28 and serves as a high affinity ligand for the B cell antigen B7-1/2...
  59. Inderberg E, Mensali N, Oksvold M, Fallang L, Fane A, Skorstad G, et al. Human c-SRC kinase (CSK) overexpression makes T cells dummy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018;67:525-536 pubmed publisher
    ..a negative regulator of LCK, in redirected T cells, we showed that peripheral blood T cells inhibited anti-CD3/anti-CD28-induced phosphorylation of ERK, whereas TCR proximal signalling was not affected...
  60. van Ham M, Teich R, Philipsen L, Niemz J, Amsberg N, Wissing J, et al. TCR signalling network organization at the immunological synapses of murine regulatory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:2043-2058 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term triggering of T cell subsets via CD3 and CD28 widely harmonized these variations with the exception of eleven TCR signalling components that mainly regulate ..
  61. Wiencke K, Boberg K, Donaldson P, Harbo H, Ling V, Schrumpf E, et al. No major effect of the CD28/CTLA4/ICOS gene region on susceptibility to primary sclerosing cholangitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:586-91 pubmed
    ..The co-stimulatory receptor gene cluster on chromosome 2q33 encodes both the positive T-cell regulators CD28 and ICOS, and the negative regulator CTLA4...
  62. Hara T, Fu S, Hansen J. Human T cell activation. II. A new activation pathway used by a major T cell population via a disulfide-bonded dimer of a 44 kilodalton polypeptide (9.3 antigen). J Exp Med. 1985;161:1513-24 pubmed
    ..Modulation of the T3 complex did not abolish mAb 9.3-induced T cell proliferation in the presence of TPA. These results suggest that the 9.3 antigen may serve as a receptor for an activation pathway restricted to a T cell subset. ..
  63. Liaskou E, Jeffery L, Chanouzas D, Soskic B, Seldin M, Harper L, et al. Genetic variation at the CD28 locus and its impact on expansion of pro-inflammatory CD28 negative T cells in healthy individuals. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7652 pubmed publisher
    The CD28 locus is associated with susceptibility to a variety of autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases including primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)...
  64. Alabanza L, Pegues M, Geldres C, Shi V, Wiltzius J, Sievers S, et al. Function of Novel Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptors with Human Variable Regions Is Affected by Hinge and Transmembrane Domains. Mol Ther. 2017;25:2452-2465 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared CARs with CD28 costimulatory moieties along with hinge and transmembrane domains from either the human CD28 molecule or the human ..
  65. Lopes D, de Almeida T, De Souza R, Ribeiro L, Page B, Fernandes J, et al. Susceptibility of dendritic cells from individuals with schistosomiasis to infection by Leishmania braziliensis. Mol Immunol. 2018;93:173-183 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of HLA-DR, CD1a, CD83, CD80, CD86, CD40, and the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) on MoDCs as well as CD28, CD40L, CD25, and CTLA-4 on lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry...
  66. Jeng M, Hull P, Fei M, Kwon H, Tsou C, Kasler H, et al. Metabolic reprogramming of human CD8+ memory T cells through loss of SIRT1. J Exp Med. 2018;215:51-62 pubmed publisher
    The expansion of CD8+CD28- T cells, a population of terminally differentiated memory T cells, is one of the most consistent immunological changes in humans during aging...
  67. Burwitz B, Wu H, Abdulhaqq S, Shriver Munsch C, Swanson T, Legasse A, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in fully MHC-matched Mauritian cynomolgus macaques recapitulates diverse human clinical outcomes. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1418 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-GvHD prophylaxis of tacrolimus, post-transplant cyclophosphamide, and CD28 blockade induces multi-lineage, full donor chimerism and recipient-specific tolerance while maintaining pathogen-..
  68. Kim H, Chung J, Kang S, Kim S, Cho B, Kim S, et al. Association of CTLA4, CD28 and ICOS gene polymorphisms with clinicopathologic characteristics of childhood IgA nephropathy in Korean population. J Genet. 2011;90:151-5 pubmed
  69. King A, Moodie S, Fraser J, Curtis D, Reid E, Dearlove A, et al. CTLA-4/CD28 gene region is associated with genetic susceptibility to coeliac disease in UK families. J Med Genet. 2002;39:51-4 pubmed
  70. Frauwirth K, Riley J, Harris M, Parry R, Rathmell J, Plas D, et al. The CD28 signaling pathway regulates glucose metabolism. Immunity. 2002;16:769-77 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CD28 costimulation, acting through phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is required for T cells to increase ..
  71. Tseng S, Waite J, Liu M, Vardhana S, Dustin M. T cell-dendritic cell immunological synapses contain TCR-dependent CD28-CD80 clusters that recruit protein kinase C theta. J Immunol. 2008;181:4852-63 pubmed
    ..In different model systems, CD28-mediated costimulatory interactions have been detected in microclusters, the cSMAC, or segregated from the TCR ..
  72. Nakagomi D, Suzuki K, Hosokawa J, Kobayashi Y, Suto A, Takatori H, et al. Therapeutic potential of B and T lymphocyte attenuator expressed on CD8+ T cells for contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:702-711 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the roles of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), a CD28 family coinhibitory receptor, in hapten-induced CHS, BTLA-deficient (BTLA(-/-)) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) ..
  73. Murray M, Gavile C, Nair J, Koorella C, Carlson L, Buac D, et al. CD28-mediated pro-survival signaling induces chemotherapeutic resistance in multiple myeloma. Blood. 2014;123:3770-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that the prototypic T-cell costimulatory receptor CD28, which is also expressed on MM cells, is a key mediator of MM survival and apoptotic resistance...
  74. Marin D, Braicu C, Gras M, Pistol G, Petric R, Berindan Neagoe I, et al. Low level of ochratoxin A affects genome-wide expression in kidney of pig. Toxicon. 2017;136:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..As shown by the microarray results, 0.05 mg/kg of OTA can principally interfere with: i) canonical pathways (CD28 Signaling in T Helper Cells, Role of NFAT in Regulation of the Immune Response, Relaxin Signaling, IL-1 Signaling) ..
  75. Arad G, Levy R, Nasie I, Hillman D, Rotfogel Z, Barash U, et al. Binding of superantigen toxins into the CD28 homodimer interface is essential for induction of cytokine genes that mediate lethal shock. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001149 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CD28 is a homodimer expressed on T cells that functions as the principal costimulatory ligand in the immune response ..
  76. Tanasilovic S, Popadic S, Medenica L, Popadic D. Pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus determined by CD86 and CTLA4 polymorphisms. Clin Dermatol. 2017;35:236-241 pubmed publisher
    ..contributing to signal 2 are those mediated by B7 family molecules, such as CD80 and CD86 with their ligands; CD28, providing activation signals; and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), conferring inhibition...
  77. Habib Agahi M, Jaberipour M, Searle P. 4-1BBL costimulation retrieves CD28 expression in activated T cells. Cell Immunol. 2009;256:39-46 pubmed publisher
    Binding of CD80/86 to CD28 is regarded as the main T cell costimulatory interaction. However, CD28 downregulates soon after T cell activation...
  78. Hage Sleiman R, Hamze A, El Hed A, Attieh R, Kozhaya L, Kabbani S, et al. Ceramide inhibits PKCθ by regulating its phosphorylation and translocation to lipid rafts in Jurkat cells. Immunol Res. 2016;64:869-86 pubmed publisher
    ..To further investigate the mechanism, we stimulated human Jurkat T cells with either PMA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies following induction of ceramide accumulation by adding exogenous ceramide, bacterial sphingomyelinase, ..
  79. Miyazaki Y, Iwabuchi K, Kikuchi S, Fukazawa T, Niino M, Hirotani M, et al. Expansion of CD4+CD28- T cells producing high levels of interferon-{gamma} in peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2008;14:1044-55 pubmed publisher
    CD4(+) T cells that lack surface expression of the CD28 co-stimulatory molecule (CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells) were expanded in peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) [5.20 +/- 1.67% vs 13.00 +/- 2...
  80. Matta P, Sherrod S, Marasco C, Moore D, McLean J, WEITKAMP J. In Utero Exposure to Histological Chorioamnionitis Primes the Exometabolomic Profiles of Preterm CD4+ T Lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2017;199:3074-3085 pubmed publisher
    ..a 6-h in vitro activation of naive CD4+ T lymphocytes with soluble staphylococcal enterotoxin B and anti-CD28. We analyzed samples by ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion mobility-mass spectrometry...
  81. Jeswin J, Jeong S, Jeong J, Bae J, Kim M, Kim D, et al. Molecular characterization of a T cell co-stimulatory receptor, CD28 of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Transcriptional expression during bacterial and viral stimulation. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;66:354-359 pubmed publisher
    b>CD28 is a co-stimulatory receptor that provides a critical second signal alongside T cell receptors for the activation of naive T cells...
  82. Tzachanis D, Berezovskaya A, Nadler L, Boussiotis V. Blockade of B7/CD28 in mixed lymphocyte reaction cultures results in the generation of alternatively activated macrophages, which suppress T-cell responses. Blood. 2002;99:1465-73 pubmed
    Blockade of B7/CD28 costimulation allows human haploidentical bone marrow transplantation without graft-versus-host disease...
  83. Kawalekar O, O Connor R, Fraietta J, Guo L, McGettigan S, Posey A, et al. Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells. Immunity. 2016;44:380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the influence of signaling domains of coreceptors CD28 and 4-1BB on the metabolic characteristics of human CAR T cells...
  84. Marttila S, Nevalainen T, Jylhävä J, Kananen L, Jylha M, Hervonen A, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) env expression is not associated with markers of immunosenescence. Exp Gerontol. 2017;97:60-63 pubmed publisher
    ..and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence...
  85. van Veen T, Crusius J, van Winsen L, Xia B, Barkhof F, Salvador Peña A, et al. CTLA-4 and CD28 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility, clinical course and progression of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;140:188-93 pubmed
    The balance between CD28 and CTLA-4 signalling is important for regulation of the immune response...