Gene Symbol: CD274
Description: CD274 molecule
Alias: B7-H, B7H1, PD-L1, PDCD1L1, PDCD1LG1, PDL1, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, B7 homolog 1, CD274 antigen, PDCD1 ligand 1
Species: human
Products:     CD274

Top Publications

  1. Velcheti V, Schalper K, Carvajal D, Anagnostou V, Syrigos K, Sznol M, et al. Programmed death ligand-1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer. Lab Invest. 2014;94:107-16 pubmed publisher
    Recent strategies targeting the interaction of the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) with its receptor, PD-1, resulted in promising activity in early phase clinical trials...
  2. Yang W, Song Y, Lu Y, Sun J, Wang H. Increased expression of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L1 correlates with impaired cell-mediated immunity in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Immunology. 2013;139:513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the programmed death 1/programmed death 1 ligand (PD-1/PD-L1; CD279/CD274) pathway was demonstrated to play a critical role in attenuating T-cell responses and promoting T-cell tolerance ..
  3. Kobayashi M, Kawano S, Hatachi S, Kurimoto C, Okazaki T, Iwai Y, et al. Enhanced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:2156-63 pubmed
    ..PD-1 is expressed on T lymphocytes and PD-L1 on epithelial cells from inflamed salivary glands of patients with SS, which suggests that dysfunction of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be related to tolerance for lymphocytes, which causes SS. ..
  4. Alvarez I, Pasquinelli V, Jurado J, Abbate E, Musella R, de la Barrera S, et al. Role played by the programmed death-1-programmed death ligand pathway during innate immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:524-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we described a novel inhibitory role played by PD-1:PD-L interactions in innate immunity in tuberculosis. ..
  5. Kassel R, Cruise M, Iezzoni J, Taylor N, Pruett T, Hahn Y. Chronically inflamed livers up-regulate expression of inhibitory B7 family members. Hepatology. 2009;50:1625-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The PD-1 pathway may assist the liver in protecting itself from immune-mediated destruction. ..
  6. Jeong H, Lee Y, Seo S, Lee S, Park S, Lee J, et al. Blocking of monocyte-associated B7-H1 (CD274) enhances HCV-specific T cell immunity in chronic hepatitis C infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:755-64 pubmed
    ..Blockade of the B7-H1 pathway thus represents an attractive approach in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. ..
  7. Selenko Gebauer N, Majdic O, Szekeres A, Höfler G, Guthann E, Korthauer U, et al. B7-H1 (programmed death-1 ligand) on dendritic cells is involved in the induction and maintenance of T cell anergy. J Immunol. 2003;170:3637-44 pubmed
    ..Our results thus demonstrate that the mAb DF272-defined surface molecule B7-H1 represents a unique receptor structure on DC that might play a role in the induction and maintenance of T cell anergy. ..
  8. Zeng Z, Shi F, Zhou L, Zhang M, Chen Y, Chang X, et al. Upregulation of circulating PD-L1/PD-1 is associated with poor post-cryoablation prognosis in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23621 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of circulating PD-L1/PD-1 is associated with poor post-cryoablation prognosis in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  9. Franceschini D, Paroli M, Francavilla V, Videtta M, Morrone S, Labbadia G, et al. PD-L1 negatively regulates CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs by limiting STAT-5 phosphorylation in patients chronically infected with HCV. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:551-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, PD-L1 blockade upregulated STAT-5 phosphorylation in Tregs ex vivo. These data suggest that PD-L1 negatively regulates Tregs at sites of chronic inflammation by controlling STAT-5 phosphorylation. ..

More Information


  1. Yao Y, Tao R, Wang X, Wang Y, Mao Y, Zhou L. B7-H1 is correlated with malignancy-grade gliomas but is not expressed exclusively on tumor stem-like cells. Neuro Oncol. 2009;11:757-66 pubmed publisher
  2. Blank C, Kuball J, Voelkl S, Wiendl H, Becker B, Walter B, et al. Blockade of PD-L1 (B7-H1) augments human tumor-specific T cell responses in vitro. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:317-27 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data suggest that PD-L1/PD-1 interactions negatively regulate T cell effector functions predominantly in the absence of exogenous cytokine support, indicating an important role for this pathway in tumor evasion. ..
  3. Hatam L, DeVoti J, Rosenthal D, Lam F, Abramson A, Steinberg B, et al. Immune suppression in premalignant respiratory papillomas: enriched functional CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and PD-1/PD-L1/L2 expression. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:1925-35 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4(+)CD25(-)CD127(low/-)Foxp3(-) T-cells failed to suppress PBMC proliferation and may be exhausted. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway may represent an additional immunosuppressive mechanism that contributes to defective HPV6/11 clearance in RRP. ..
  4. Abelson A, Johansson C, Kozyrev S, Kristjansdottir H, Gunnarsson I, Svenungsson E, et al. No evidence of association between genetic variants of the PDCD1 ligands and SLE. Genes Immun. 2007;8:69-74 pubmed
    ..We do not find support for genetic association to SLE. This is the first genetic study of SLE and the PDCD1 ligands and the lack of association in several cohorts implies that these genes are not major risk factors for SLE. ..
  5. Nakazawa A, Dotan I, Brimnes J, Allez M, Shao L, Tsushima F, et al. The expression and function of costimulatory molecules B7H and B7-H1 on colonic epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1347-57 pubmed
    ..No difference was seen between IBD or normal IEC populations. These data suggest that the B7h-ICOS costimulatory pathway may be important in IEC:T-cell interactions. ..
  6. Keir M, Butte M, Freeman G, Sharpe A. PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:677-704 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss current understanding of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their therapeutic potential. ..
  7. Amarnath S, Costanzo C, Mariotti J, Ullman J, Telford W, Kapoor V, et al. Regulatory T cells and human myeloid dendritic cells promote tolerance via programmed death ligand-1. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000302 pubmed publisher
    ..This identification of a human Treg downstream cellular effector (DC) and molecular mechanism (PD-L1) will facilitate the rational design of clinical trials to modulate alloreactivity. ..
  8. Butte M, Pena Cruz V, Kim M, Freeman G, Sharpe A. Interaction of human PD-L1 and B7-1. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that PD-L1 is induced to a higher level on CD28high T cells than on CD28low T cells upon activation. These results suggest that PD-L1 may play an important and undervalued role on human T cells. ..
  9. Ghebeh H, Tulbah A, Mohammed S, Elkum N, Bin Amer S, Al Tweigeri T, et al. Expression of B7-H1 in breast cancer patients is strongly associated with high proliferative Ki-67-expressing tumor cells. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:751-8 pubmed
    ..The relationship between B7-H1 induction and cell proliferation was also thoroughly investigated in vitro, in which a strong link between B7-H1 expression and the presence of the proliferative Ki-67 marker was clearly demonstrated. ..
  10. Kim Y, Park G, Lee H, Song H, Choi I, Lee W, et al. Cross-linking of B7-H1 on EBV-transformed B cells induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production, JNK signaling activation, and fasL expression. J Immunol. 2008;181:6158-69 pubmed
    ..These results provide a new concept for understanding reverse signaling through B7-H1 and another mechanism of tumor immunotherapy using anti-B7-H1. ..
  11. Boasso A, Hardy A, Landay A, Martinson J, Anderson S, Dolan M, et al. PDL-1 upregulation on monocytes and T cells by HIV via type I interferon: restricted expression of type I interferon receptor by CCR5-expressing leukocytes. Clin Immunol. 2008;129:132-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, T cell proliferation was improved by PDL-1 blockade in HIV-treated PBMC. In the setting of HIV infection, IFN-alpha may negatively affect T cell responses by inducing PDL-1. ..
  12. Ghebeh H, Barhoush E, Tulbah A, Elkum N, Al Tweigeri T, Dermime S. FOXP3+ Tregs and B7-H1+/PD-1+ T lymphocytes co-infiltrate the tumor tissues of high-risk breast cancer patients: Implication for immunotherapy. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:57 pubmed publisher
  13. Grabie N, Gotsman I, Dacosta R, Pang H, Stavrakis G, Butte M, et al. Endothelial programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulates CD8+ T-cell mediated injury in the heart. Circulation. 2007;116:2062-71 pubmed
    ..Myocardial PD-L1, mainly localized on endothelium, is critical for control of immune-mediated cardiac injury and polymorphonuclear leukocyte inflammation. ..
  14. Dong H, Zhu G, Tamada K, Chen L. B7-H1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion. Nat Med. 1999;5:1365-9 pubmed
    ..Our studies thus define a previously unknown co-stimulatory molecule that may be involved in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses. ..
  15. Nakanishi J, Wada Y, Matsumoto K, Azuma M, Kikuchi K, Ueda S. Overexpression of B7-H1 (PD-L1) significantly associates with tumor grade and postoperative prognosis in human urothelial cancers. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007;56:1173-82 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the manipulation of tumor-associated B7-H1 may become a beneficial target for immunotherapy in human urothelial cancer. ..
  16. Muhlbauer M, Fleck M, Schutz C, Weiss T, Froh M, Blank C, et al. PD-L1 is induced in hepatocytes by viral infection and by interferon-alpha and -gamma and mediates T cell apoptosis. J Hepatol. 2006;45:520-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a novel bidirectional interaction between hepatocytes and lymphocytes modulated by PD-L1 expression in hepatocytes, which may contribute to the unique immunological properties of the liver. ..
  17. Chen Y, Zhang J, Li J, Zou L, Zhao T, Tang Y, et al. Expression of B7-H1 in inflammatory renal tubular epithelial cells. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2006;102:e81-92 pubmed
  18. Schreiner B, Mitsdoerffer M, Kieseier B, Chen L, Hartung H, Weller M, et al. Interferon-beta enhances monocyte and dendritic cell expression of B7-H1 (PD-L1), a strong inhibitor of autologous T-cell activation: relevance for the immune modulatory effect in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2004;155:172-82 pubmed
    ..IFN-beta up-regulates B7-H1 in vitro and in MS patients in vivo and might represent a novel mechanism how IFN-beta acts as a negative modulator on APC T-cell interactions in the periphery. ..
  19. McNab F, Berry M, Graham C, Bloch S, Oni T, Wilkinson K, et al. Programmed death ligand 1 is over-expressed by neutrophils in the blood of patients with active tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1941-7 pubmed publisher
  20. Crane C, Panner A, Murray J, Wilson S, Xu H, Chen L, et al. PI(3) kinase is associated with a mechanism of immunoresistance in breast and prostate cancer. Oncogene. 2009;28:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations describe a mechanism for immune escape from tumor dormancy in humans that relates to oncogenesis. ..
  21. Chen X, Liu S, Wang L, Zhang W, Ji Y, Ma X. Clinical significance of B7-H1 (PD-L1) expression in human acute leukemia. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:622-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, B7-H1 is highly expressed on leukemia cells of M5 patients, can significantly affect the immunotherapeutic efficacies of M5 patients and is a novel prognostic marker for M5. ..
  22. Wang B, Bao J, Wang J, Wang Y, Jiang M, Xing M, et al. Immunostaining of PD-1/PD-Ls in liver tissues of patients with hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:3322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05 ± 1.099 vs 4.29 ± 3.885, P = 0.004; 1.80 ± 1.473 vs 3.81 ± 3.400, P = 0.020). PD-L1 may contribute to negative regulation of the immune response in chronic hepatitis B. PD-1 and PD-Ls may play a role in immune evasion of tumors. ..
  23. Taube J, Klein A, Brahmer J, Xu H, Pan X, Kim J, et al. Association of PD-1, PD-1 ligands, and other features of the tumor immune microenvironment with response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:5064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Clin Cancer Res; 20(19); 5064-74. ©2014 AACR. ..
  24. Freeman G, Long A, Iwai Y, Bourque K, Chernova T, Nishimura H, et al. Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1027-34 pubmed
    ..PD-L1 expression on nonlymphoid tissues and its potential interaction with PD-1 may subsequently determine the extent of immune responses at sites of inflammation. ..
  25. Lin D, Tanaka Y, Iwasaki M, Gittis A, Su H, Mikami B, et al. The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3011-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune receptor-like loops offer a new surface for further study and potentially the design of molecules that would affect PD-1/PD-L1 complex formation and thereby modulate the immune response. ..
  26. Konishi J, Yamazaki K, Azuma M, Kinoshita I, Dosaka Akita H, Nishimura M. B7-H1 expression on non-small cell lung cancer cells and its relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their PD-1 expression. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:5094-100 pubmed
    ..02). The expression of B7-H1 on tumor cells in local areas reciprocally correlated with the number of TILs, and this may contribute to negative regulation in antitumor immune responses in non-small cell lung cancer. ..
  27. Droeser R, Hirt C, Viehl C, Frey D, Nebiker C, Huber X, et al. Clinical impact of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:2233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..33, P = 0.03). PD-L1 expression is paradoxically associated with improved survival in MMR-proficient CRC. ..
  28. Curiel T, Wei S, Dong H, Alvarez X, Cheng P, Mottram P, et al. Blockade of B7-H1 improves myeloid dendritic cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Nat Med. 2003;9:562-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, upregulation of B7-H1 on MDCs in the tumor microenvironment downregulates T-cell immunity. Blockade of B7-H1 represents one approach for cancer immunotherapy. ..
  29. Green M, Rodig S, Juszczynski P, Ouyang J, Sinha P, O Donnell E, et al. Constitutive AP-1 activity and EBV infection induce PD-L1 in Hodgkin lymphomas and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders: implications for targeted therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:1611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..AP-1 signaling and EBV infection represent alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 induction and extend the spectrum of tumors in which to consider PD-1 blockade. ..
  30. Yamamoto R, Nishikori M, Kitawaki T, Sakai T, Hishizawa M, Tashima M, et al. PD-1-PD-1 ligand interaction contributes to immunosuppressive microenvironment of Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2008;111:3220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding provides a potentially effective immunologic strategy for the treatment of HL. ..
  31. Chen X, Yuan S, Chen C, Mao Y, Xu G, Wang X. [Expression of B7-H1 protein in human pancreatic carcinoma tissues and its clinical significance]. Ai Zheng. 2009;28:1328-32 pubmed
    ..B7-H1 protein was expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma tissues, and was associated with the prognosis. ..
  32. Bertsias G, Nakou M, Choulaki C, Raptopoulou A, Papadimitraki E, Goulielmos G, et al. Genetic, immunologic, and immunohistochemical analysis of the programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 pathway in human systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of PD-1/PDL-1 in renal tissue and during AMLRs suggests an important role in regulating peripheral T cell tolerance. ..
  33. Marzec M, Zhang Q, Goradia A, Raghunath P, Liu X, Paessler M, et al. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells strongly express the immunosuppressive cell-surface protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1), as determined on the mRNA and protein level...
  34. D Addio F, Riella L, Mfarrej B, Chabtini L, Adams L, Yeung M, et al. The link between the PDL1 costimulatory pathway and Th17 in fetomaternal tolerance. J Immunol. 2011;187:4530-41 pubmed publisher
    Fetomaternal tolerance has been shown to depend both on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and negative signals from the PD1-PDL1 costimulatory pathway...
  35. Lucas J, Menke J, Rabacal W, Schoen F, Sharpe A, Kelley V. Programmed death ligand 1 regulates a critical checkpoint for autoimmune myocarditis and pneumonitis in MRL mice. J Immunol. 2008;181:2513-21 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we suggest that PD-L1 expression is central to autoimmune heart and lung disease in lupus-susceptible (MRL) mice. ..
  36. Qian Y, Deng J, Geng L, Xie H, Jiang G, Zhou L, et al. TLR4 signaling induces B7-H1 expression through MAPK pathways in bladder cancer cells. Cancer Invest. 2008;26:816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results elucidated the molecule mechanism of regulation of B7-H1 expression through TLR4 signaling and may suggest new strategies of down-regulating the cancer-associated B7-H1 expression for bladder cancer treatment. ..
  37. Haile S, Bosch J, Agu N, Zeender A, Somasundaram P, Srivastava M, et al. Tumor cell programmed death ligand 1-mediated T cell suppression is overcome by coexpression of CD80. J Immunol. 2011;186:6822-9 pubmed publisher
    Programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1, or B7-H1) is expressed constitutively or is induced by IFN-? on the cell surface of most human cancer cells and acts as a "molecular shield" by protecting tumor cells from T cell-mediated ..
  38. Wölfle S, Strebovsky J, Bartz H, Sähr A, Arnold C, Kaiser C, et al. PD-L1 expression on tolerogenic APCs is controlled by STAT-3. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, during DC differentiation TLR agonists induce a STAT-3-mediated expression of PD-L1 and favor the development of tolerogenic APCs. ..
  39. Jurado J, Alvarez I, Pasquinelli V, Martinez G, Quiroga M, Abbate E, et al. Programmed death (PD)-1:PD-ligand 1/PD-ligand 2 pathway inhibits T cell effector functions during human tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2008;181:116-25 pubmed
    ..Together, we demonstrated that PD-1 interferes with T cell effector functions against M. tuberculosis, suggesting that PD-1 has a key regulatory role during the immune response of the host to the pathogen. ..
  40. Dong H, Strome S, Salomao D, Tamura H, Hirano F, Flies D, et al. Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion. Nat Med. 2002;8:793-800 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for the design of T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. ..
  41. Ohigashi Y, Sho M, Yamada Y, Tsurui Y, Hamada K, Ikeda N, et al. Clinical significance of programmed death-1 ligand-1 and programmed death-1 ligand-2 expression in human esophageal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:2947-53 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PD-L1 and PD-L2 status may be a new predictor of prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer and provide the rationale for developing novel immunotherapy of targeting PD-1/PD-L pathway. ..
  42. Hamanishi J, Mandai M, Iwasaki M, Okazaki T, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi K, et al. Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes are prognostic factors of human ovarian cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3360-5 pubmed
    ..The PD-1/PD-L pathway can be a good target for restoring antitumor immunity in ovarian cancer. ..
  43. LaGier A, Pober J. Immune accessory functions of human endothelial cells are modulated by overexpression of B7-H1 (PDL1). Hum Immunol. 2006;67:568-78 pubmed
    ..We engineered overexpression of B7-H1 in EC (B7H1-EC) to evaluate whether this manipulation could reduce T-cell responses even further...
  44. Yang J, Riella L, Chock S, Liu T, Zhao X, Yuan X, et al. The novel costimulatory programmed death ligand 1/B7.1 pathway is functional in inhibiting alloimmune responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;187:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    The programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1)/programmed death 1 (PD1) costimulatory pathway plays an important role in the inhibition of alloimmune responses as well as in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance...
  45. Shi F, Shi M, Zeng Z, Qi R, Liu Z, Zhang J, et al. PD-1 and PD-L1 upregulation promotes CD8(+) T-cell apoptosis and postoperative recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study extends our knowledge of the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in tumor evasion and provides evidence for a new therapeutic target in HCC patients. ..
  46. Raptopoulou A, Bertsias G, Makrygiannakis D, Verginis P, Kritikos I, Tzardi M, et al. The programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 inhibitory pathway is up-regulated in rheumatoid synovium and regulates peripheral T cell responses in human and murine arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1870-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative costimulatory PD-1/PDL-1 pathway regulates peripheral T cell responses in both human and murine RA. PD-1/PDL-1 in rheumatoid synovium may represent an additional target for immunomodulatory therapy in RA. ..
  47. Lee S, Seo S, Kim B, Kim C, Lee J, Kang J, et al. IFN-gamma regulates the expression of B7-H1 in dermal fibroblast cells. J Dermatol Sci. 2005;40:95-103 pubmed
  48. Trabattoni D, Saresella M, Biasin M, Boasso A, Piacentini L, Ferrante P, et al. B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression. Blood. 2003;101:2514-20 pubmed
    ..B7-H1 is a surrogate marker potentially involved in AIDS disease progression. ..
  49. Chen L, Zhang Z, Chen W, Zhang Z, Li Y, Shi M, et al. B7-H1 up-regulation on myeloid dendritic cells significantly suppresses T cell immune function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Immunol. 2007;178:6634-41 pubmed
    ..Our findings further support the notion that the blockade of B7-H1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this disease. ..
  50. Brown J, Dorfman D, Ma F, Sullivan E, Munoz O, Wood C, et al. Blockade of programmed death-1 ligands on dendritic cells enhances T cell activation and cytokine production. J Immunol. 2003;170:1257-66 pubmed
    ..PD-L1 is also highly expressed on most carcinomas but minimally expressed on adjacent normal tissue suggesting a role in attenuating antitumor immune responses. ..
  51. Wu C, Zhu Y, Jiang J, Zhao J, Zhang X, Xu N. Immunohistochemical localization of programmed death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) in gastric carcinoma and its clinical significance. Acta Histochem. 2006;108:19-24 pubmed
  52. Liu J, Hamrouni A, Wolowiec D, Coiteux V, Kuliczkowski K, Hetuin D, et al. Plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients express B7-H1 (PD-L1) and increase expression after stimulation with IFN-{gamma} and TLR ligands via a MyD88-, TRAF6-, and MEK-dependent pathway. Blood. 2007;110:296-304 pubmed
    ..Thus, B7-H1 expression by MM cells represents a possible immune escape mechanism that could be targeted therapeutically through inhibition of MyD88/TRAF6 and MEK/ERK/STAT1. ..
  53. Mazanet M, Hughes C. B7-H1 is expressed by human endothelial cells and suppresses T cell cytokine synthesis. J Immunol. 2002;169:3581-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that B7-H1 negatively regulates cytokine synthesis in T cells activated by ECs. ..
  54. Wang S, Bajorath J, Flies D, Dong H, Honjo T, Chen L. Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC uncouple costimulatory function from PD-1 interaction. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1083-91 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal unique binding characteristics of B7-H1 and B7-DC and provide direct evidence for an independent costimulatory receptor other than PD-1. ..
  55. de Kleijn S, Langereis J, Leentjens J, Kox M, Netea M, Koenderman L, et al. IFN-?-stimulated neutrophils suppress lymphocyte proliferation through expression of PD-L1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72249 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific stimulation of neutrophils present at the inflammatory sites might therefore have a pivotal role in regulating lymphocyte-mediated inflammation and autoimmune disease. ..
  56. Lyford Pike S, Peng S, Young G, Taube J, Westra W, Akpeng B, et al. Evidence for a role of the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway in immune resistance of HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1733-41 pubmed publisher
  57. Wang L, Ma Q, Chen X, Guo K, Li J, Zhang M. Clinical significance of B7-H1 and B7-1 expressions in pancreatic carcinoma. World J Surg. 2010;34:1059-65 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Both B7-H1 and B7-1 are expressed in PC; these molecules are important markers for PC progression. Furthermore, combined B7-1/B7-H1 expression can serve as an independent prognostic marker for PC. ..
  58. Latchman Y, Wood C, Chernova T, Chaudhary D, Borde M, Chernova I, et al. PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:261-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies show overlapping functions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and indicate a key role for the PD-L-PD-1 pathway in regulatingT cell responses. ..
  59. Mu C, Huang J, Chen Y, Chen C, Zhang X. High expression of PD-L1 in lung cancer may contribute to poor prognosis and tumor cells immune escape through suppressing tumor infiltrating dendritic cells maturation. Med Oncol. 2011;28:682-8 pubmed publisher
  60. Kuang D, Zhao Q, Peng C, Xu J, Zhang J, Wu C, et al. Activated monocytes in peritumoral stroma of hepatocellular carcinoma foster immune privilege and disease progression through PD-L1. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, expression of PD-L1 on activated monocytes/Mphi may represent a novel mechanism that links the proinflammatory response to immune tolerance in the tumor milieu. ..
  61. Das S, Suarez G, Beswick E, Sierra J, Graham D, Reyes V. Expression of B7-H1 on gastric epithelial cells: its potential role in regulating T cells during Helicobacter pylori infection. J Immunol. 2006;176:3000-9 pubmed
    ..Using blocking Abs to B7-H1 revealed that B7-H1 was involved in the suppression of T cell proliferation and IL-2 synthesis, and thus suggested a role for B7-H1 on the epithelium as a contributor in the chronicity of H. pylori infection. ..
  62. Kozako T, Yoshimitsu M, Fujiwara H, Masamoto I, Horai S, White Y, et al. PD-1/PD-L1 expression in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 carriers and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma patients. Leukemia. 2009;23:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a role in fostering persistent HTLV-1 infections, which may further ATLL development and facilitate immune evasion by ATLL cells. ..
  63. Beswick E, Pinchuk I, Das S, Powell D, Reyes V. Expression of the programmed death ligand 1, B7-H1, on gastric epithelial cells after Helicobacter pylori exposure promotes development of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4334-41 pubmed
    ..The functional role of these Treg cells was assessed in proliferation assays when the cells were cocultured with activated T cells, which effectively decreased proliferation of the cells. ..
  64. Holets L, Carletti M, Kshirsagar S, Christenson L, Petroff M. Differentiation-induced post-transcriptional control of B7-H1 in human trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2009;30:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight a novel mechanism for regulation of B7 family proteins in the placenta. ..
  65. Lipson E, Vincent J, Loyo M, Kagohara L, Luber B, Wang H, et al. PD-L1 expression in the Merkel cell carcinoma microenvironment: association with inflammation, Merkel cell polyomavirus and overall survival. Cancer Immunol Res. 2013;1:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..012). These findings suggest that an endogenous immune response promotes PD-L1 expression in the MCC microenvironment when MCPyV is present, and provide a rationale for investigating therapies blocking PD-1/PD-L1 for patients with MCC. ..
  66. Zhang P, Su D, Liang M, Fu J. Chemopreventive agents induce programmed death-1-ligand 1 (PD-L1) surface expression in breast cancer cells and promote PD-L1-mediated T cell apoptosis. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1470-6 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal a potential link between chemotherapy and cancer immunoresistance. ..
  67. Xie Z, Chen Y, Zhao S, Yang Z, Yao X, Guo S, et al. Intrahepatic PD-1/PD-L1 up-regulation closely correlates with inflammation and virus replication in patients with chronic HBV infection. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:624-38 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the intrahepatic interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1 might play an important role in balancing the immune response to HBV and immune-mediated liver damage in chronic HBV infection. ..