CD21

Summary

Gene Symbol: CD21
Description: complement component (3d/Epstein Barr virus) receptor 2
Alias: C3DR, CD21, CVID7, SLEB9, EBV receptor, complement C3d receptor, complement receptor type 2, epstein-Barr virus receptor
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Infection of human B lymphoma cells by Mycoplasma fermentans induces interaction of its elongation factor with the intracytoplasmic domain of Epstein-Barr virus receptor (gp140, EBV/C3dR, CR2, CD21)
    Michelle Balbo
    INSERM U 672 ex U 354, Immunochimie des Régulations Cellulaires et des Interactions Virales, Bâtiment G8, Campus 1, Génopole d Evry, 5 rue Henri Desbrueres, 91030, Evry Cedex, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 249:359-66. 2005
  2. ncbi Immunohistochemical analysis for CD21, CD35, Caldesmon and S100 protein on dendritic cells types in oral lymphomas
    Ricardo Alves Mesquita
    Department of Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, Dental School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    J Appl Oral Sci 17:248-53. 2009
  3. doi Immunohistochemical investigation of cells expressing CD21, membrane IgM, CD32 and a follicular dendritic cell marker in the lymphoid tissues of neonatal calves
    Kuldeep S Chattha
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 137:284-90. 2010
  4. pmc Recombinant complement receptor 2 radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3]+: a potential new radiopharmaceutical for imaging activated complement
    Adam Badar
    Medical Research Council Centre for Transplantation, King s College London, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e18275. 2011
  5. ncbi Solution structure of the complex between CR2 SCR 1-2 and C3d of human complement: an X-ray scattering and sedimentation modelling study
    Hannah E Gilbert
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Darwin Building, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Mol Biol 346:859-73. 2005
  6. pmc Alterations of the B-cell response by HIV-1 replication
    Xiaoying Shen
    Department of Surgery, Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 8:23-30. 2011
  7. doi Comparative binding of soluble fragments (derCD23, sCD23, and exCD23) of recombinant human CD23 to CD21 (SCR 1-2) and native IgE, and their effect on IgE regulation
    Sandra Lyn Bowles
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
    Cell Immunol 271:371-8. 2011
  8. pmc Functional dissection of the CD21/CD19/TAPA-1/Leu-13 complex of B lymphocytes
    A K Matsumoto
    Division of Molecular and Clinical Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 178:1407-17. 1993
  9. ncbi Genomic organization and polymorphisms of the human C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor
    A Fujisaku
    Arthritis and Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City
    J Biol Chem 264:2118-25. 1989
  10. pmc Follicular dendritic cells specifically express the long CR2/CD21 isoform
    Y J Liu
    Schering Plough, Laboratory for Immunological Research, Dardilly, France
    J Exp Med 185:165-70. 1997

Detail Information

Publications175 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Infection of human B lymphoma cells by Mycoplasma fermentans induces interaction of its elongation factor with the intracytoplasmic domain of Epstein-Barr virus receptor (gp140, EBV/C3dR, CR2, CD21)
    Michelle Balbo
    INSERM U 672 ex U 354, Immunochimie des Régulations Cellulaires et des Interactions Virales, Bâtiment G8, Campus 1, Génopole d Evry, 5 rue Henri Desbrueres, 91030, Evry Cedex, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 249:359-66. 2005
    ..These infected B cells expressed a p45 kDa protein which interacted with the intracellular domain of CD21, the EBV/C3d receptor...
  2. ncbi Immunohistochemical analysis for CD21, CD35, Caldesmon and S100 protein on dendritic cells types in oral lymphomas
    Ricardo Alves Mesquita
    Department of Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, Dental School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    J Appl Oral Sci 17:248-53. 2009
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of FDCs and IDCs in oral lymphomas...
  3. doi Immunohistochemical investigation of cells expressing CD21, membrane IgM, CD32 and a follicular dendritic cell marker in the lymphoid tissues of neonatal calves
    Kuldeep S Chattha
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 137:284-90. 2010
    Activation of B lymphocytes in the presence of passive maternal antibodies depends on expression of CD21, membrane IgM and CD32. On colligation with IgM, CD32 inhibits activation whereas CD21 enhances it...
  4. pmc Recombinant complement receptor 2 radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3]+: a potential new radiopharmaceutical for imaging activated complement
    Adam Badar
    Medical Research Council Centre for Transplantation, King s College London, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e18275. 2011
    ..We conclude that rCR2-Tc(99m) has excellent radiolabeling, stability and C3d binding characteristics and warrants in vivo evaluation as an activated complement imaging agent...
  5. ncbi Solution structure of the complex between CR2 SCR 1-2 and C3d of human complement: an X-ray scattering and sedimentation modelling study
    Hannah E Gilbert
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Darwin Building, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Mol Biol 346:859-73. 2005
    b>Complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) forms a tight complex with C3d, a fragment of C3, the major complement component...
  6. pmc Alterations of the B-cell response by HIV-1 replication
    Xiaoying Shen
    Department of Surgery, Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 8:23-30. 2011
    ..B-cell dysfunction in vivo is unknown, although roles for HIV proteins (Env, Tat, and Nef) and virions binding to CD21 on B cells have been identified...
  7. doi Comparative binding of soluble fragments (derCD23, sCD23, and exCD23) of recombinant human CD23 to CD21 (SCR 1-2) and native IgE, and their effect on IgE regulation
    Sandra Lyn Bowles
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
    Cell Immunol 271:371-8. 2011
    ..responsible for type I hypersensitivities, is regulated by interactions between its receptor, CD23, and co-receptor CD21. To examine comparative binding of recombinant human CD21 SCR 1-2 and native human IgE to CD23 plus the effect of ..
  8. pmc Functional dissection of the CD21/CD19/TAPA-1/Leu-13 complex of B lymphocytes
    A K Matsumoto
    Division of Molecular and Clinical Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 178:1407-17. 1993
    The CD21/CD19/TAPA-1 complex of B lymphocytes amplifies signal transduction through membrane immunoglobulin (mIg), recruits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), and induces homotypic cellular aggregation...
  9. ncbi Genomic organization and polymorphisms of the human C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor
    A Fujisaku
    Arthritis and Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City
    J Biol Chem 264:2118-25. 1989
    The human C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor (CR2/CD21) is a 145-kDa protein primarily expressed on mature B lymphocytes. CR2 is a member of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) gene family found on band q32 of chromosome 1...
  10. pmc Follicular dendritic cells specifically express the long CR2/CD21 isoform
    Y J Liu
    Schering Plough, Laboratory for Immunological Research, Dardilly, France
    J Exp Med 185:165-70. 1997
    ..By expression cloning, a cDNA clone encoding for the long human CR2/ CD21 isoform (CD21L) that contains an additional exon (10a) was isolated...
  11. doi Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson's disease
    Ikuko Mizuta
    Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 B9 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565 0871, Japan
    Hum Genet 124:89-94. 2008
    ..Our genetic analysis suggests that CALB1 is associated with PD independently of SNCA, and that FGF20 is associated with PD synergistically with SNCA...
  12. ncbi Mechanism for complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in MT2 cells is enhanced entry through CD4, CD21, and CXCR4 chemokine receptors
    W Edward Robinson
    Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4800, USA
    Viral Immunol 19:434-47. 2006
    ..Finally, anti-HIV immunoglobulin enhanced replication of not only group M clade B HIV but also group M clade D and group O isolates. These data demonstrate that antibodies mediating C'ADE of HIV infection are broadly reactive...
  13. ncbi CR2/CD21 proximal promoter activity is critically dependent on a cell type-specific repressor
    D Ulgiati
    Department of Immunology and Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 167:6912-9. 2001
    Transcription of the human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) gene is controlled by both proximal promoter and intronic elements. CR2 is primarily expressed on B cells from the immature through mature cell stages...
  14. ncbi NF-kappaB regulates the expression of the human complement receptor 2 gene
    Mate Tolnay
    Department of Cellular Injury, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Immunol 169:6236-43. 2002
    ..Thus, at the onset of an infection, LPS could sensitize the B cell to Ag by enhancing the level of CR2-costimulatory molecules on the cell surface...
  15. pmc T lymphocyte expression of complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21): a role in adhesive cell-cell interactions and dysregulation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    E Levy
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110
    Clin Exp Immunol 90:235-44. 1992
    Complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21), the receptor for both the C3d,g portion of human complement component C3 and the Epstein-Barr virus, has been recently described on peripheral T cells...
  16. pmc Association of a common complement receptor 2 haplotype with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus
    Hui Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, University of California Los Angeles, 1000 Veteran Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3961-6. 2007
    ..Our findings reveal that CR2 is a likely susceptibility gene for human lupus at 1q32.2, extending previous studies suggesting that CR2 participates in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus...
  17. ncbi Cr2, a candidate gene in the murine Sle1c lupus susceptibility locus, encodes a dysfunctional protein
    S A Boackle
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Immunity 15:775-85. 2001
    ..congenic interval corresponding to Sle1c contains Cr2, which encodes complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/CR2, CD35/CD21)...
  18. ncbi The CD19/CD21 signal transducing complex of human B lymphocytes includes the target of antiproliferative antibody-1 and Leu-13 molecules
    L E Bradbury
    Division of Tumor Immunology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115 6084
    J Immunol 149:2841-50. 1992
    ..with B cell lines solubilized by digitonin have shown CD19 to be part of a multimolecular complex that includes CD21 (CR2) and other unidentified proteins...
  19. pmc Intersection of the complement and immune systems: a signal transduction complex of the B lymphocyte-containing complement receptor type 2 and CD19
    A K Matsumoto
    Division of Molecular and Clinical Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Exp Med 173:55-64. 1991
    ....
  20. ncbi Intrinsic B cell hypo-responsiveness in mice prematurely expressing human CR2/CD21 during B cell development
    Liudmila Kulik
    Department of Medicine and Immunology, UCHSC, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:623-33. 2007
    ..Overall, these data suggest that premature hCR2 expression and the consequences thereof during B cell development intrinsically alters the way mature B cells develop and subsequently respond to antigen through the BCR signaling complex...
  21. ncbi B cells from mice prematurely expressing human complement receptor type 2 are unresponsive to T-dependent antigens
    Louise Birrell
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK
    J Immunol 174:6974-82. 2005
    b>Complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21), in association with CD19, plays an important role in enhancing mature B cell responses to opsonized Ags...
  22. pmc Structure of the human B lymphocyte receptor for C3d and the Epstein-Barr virus and relatedness to other members of the family of C3/C4 binding proteins
    J J Weis
    Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Exp Med 167:1047-66. 1988
    Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2) is the B lymphocyte receptor for C3d and the Epstein-Barr virus...
  23. pmc Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding the Epstein-Barr virus/C3d receptor (complement receptor type 2) of human B lymphocytes
    M D Moore
    Department of Immunology, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA 92037
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:9194-8. 1987
    Complementary DNA clones for complement receptor type 2 (CR2), the B-lymphocyte membrane protein that serves as the receptor for Epstein-Barr virus and the C3d complement fragment, were obtained by screening a lambda gt11 library ..
  24. pmc Epstein Barr virus/complement C3d receptor is an interferon alpha receptor
    A X Delcayre
    California Institute for Biological Research, La Jolla 92037
    EMBO J 10:919-26. 1991
    Interferon alpha contains a sequence motif similar to the complement receptor type two (CR2/CD21) binding site on complement fragment C3d...
  25. ncbi The role of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21) in promoting C3 fragment deposition and membrane attack complex formation on normal peripheral human B cells
    Claus Henrik Nielsen
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
    Eur J Immunol 32:1359-67. 2002
    ..The process is mediated via complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21), with complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) playing a subsidiary role...
  26. ncbi Are respiratory allergic diseases related to atopic dermatitis?
    L Lugović
    Department of Dermatovenerology, Zagreb Clinical Hospital Center, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 24:335-45. 2000
    ..The values of CD21 were decreased in 16 AD patients [6/10 in "pure" AD, and 10/20 in "mixed" AD]...
  27. doi Expression of complement receptor 2 (CD21), membrane IgM and the inhibitory receptor CD32 (FcgammaRIIb) in the lymphoid tissues of neonatal calves
    Kuldeep S Chattha
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 137:99-108. 2010
    ..The activating receptor CD21 (CR2), when co-ligated with membrane IgM (mIgM) by complement-bound antigen lowers the threshold for activation of ..
  28. ncbi Immunophysical exploration of C3d-CR2(CCP1-2) interaction using molecular dynamics and electrostatics
    Li Zhang
    Department of Chemistry, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Mol Biol 369:567-83. 2007
    ....
  29. ncbi A minimum CR2 binding domain of C3d enhances immunity following vaccination
    Joseph F Bower
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 586:249-64. 2006
    ..C3d has been hypothesized to enhance immunity by direct interaction with complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) on immune cells...
  30. pmc Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein
    M Tolnay
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 14th and Dahlia Streets, Bldg 40, Washington, DC 20307 5100, USA
    Biochem J 338:417-25. 1999
    ..Our results suggest a new physiological role for hnRNP D0B that involves binding to double- and single-stranded DNA sequences in a specific manner and functioning as a transcription factor...
  31. pmc Biophysical investigations of complement receptor 2 (CD21 and CR2)-ligand interactions reveal amino acid contacts unique to each receptor-ligand pair
    James M Kovacs
    Department of Medicine and Immunology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:27251-8. 2010
    Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2 and CD21) is a cell membrane receptor, with 15 or 16 extracellular short consensus repeats (SCRs), that promotes B lymphocyte responses and bridges innate and acquired immunity...
  32. doi Novel function of complement C3d as an autologous helper T-cell target
    Paul M Knopf
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 86:221-5. 2008
    ..C3d binds to the B-cell complement receptor 2 (CR2 or CD21); this binding serves as a co-activation signal to the B cell when the polysaccharide antigen portion binds ..
  33. pmc Identification of murine complement receptor type 2
    J D Fingeroth
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:242-6. 1989
    A rabbit antiserum reactive with the human complement component C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor (complement receptor type 2, CR2) immunoprecipitates a Mr 155,000 murine B-cell surface antigen...
  34. ncbi Coligation of the B cell receptor with complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) using its natural ligand C3dg: activation without engagement of an inhibitory signaling pathway
    Taras Lyubchenko
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80220, USA
    J Immunol 174:3264-72. 2005
    ..product of the C3 component of complement that can facilitate the coligation of the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) with the BCR via C3dg/Ag complexes...
  35. ncbi A site in the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) silencer is necessary for lineage specific transcriptional regulation
    K W Makar
    Department of Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Int Immunol 13:657-64. 2001
    Expression of human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) is primarily restricted to mature B cells and follicular dendritic cells...
  36. pmc Complement receptor 2/CD21- human naive B cells contain mostly autoreactive unresponsive clones
    Isabelle Isnardi
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
    Blood 115:5026-36. 2010
    Complement receptor 2-negative (CR2/CD21(-)) B cells have been found enriched in patients with autoimmune diseases and in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients who are prone to autoimmunity...
  37. pmc Laser-capture microdissection of oropharyngeal epithelium indicates restriction of Epstein-Barr virus receptor/CD21 mRNA to tonsil epithelial cells
    Ru Jiang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA
    J Oral Pathol Med 37:626-33. 2008
    ..The virus uses CD21 for attachment to B cells which constitutively express the protein...
  38. ncbi Distribution of the chromatin protein DEK distinguishes active and inactive CD21/CR2 gene in pre- and mature B lymphocytes
    Hong Gang Hu
    Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, D 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    Int Immunol 17:789-96. 2005
    ..As the first study of its kind, we investigate the distribution of DEK at the CD21/complement receptor 2 gene regulatory regions in two B lymphocyte lines, namely Ramos, which expresses the CD21 ..
  39. pmc Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C: molecular mimicry of complement regulatory proteins by a viral protein
    H P Huemer
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Innsbruck, Austria
    Immunology 79:639-47. 1993
    ..e. the complement system. In addition, the inhibition of the C3/CR2 interaction may suggest a possible immunoregulatory role of HSV glycoprotein C...
  40. ncbi Serum regulates the expression of complement receptor 2 on human B cell lines
    M Tolnay
    Department of Cellular Injury, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 20307 5100, USA
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 22:205-19. 2000
    ..Because stimuli that alter CR2 expression can influence the extent of the B cell response to antigen-C3d complexes, serum factors may play a role in regulating the responsiveness of B cells...
  41. ncbi Expression of human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) in Cr2-/- mice restores humoral immune function
    K J Marchbank
    Division of Rheumatology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 165:2354-61. 2000
    b>Complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) is expressed by both human and murine B cells and has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the humoral immune response...
  42. ncbi A critical role for complement C3d and the B cell coreceptor (CD19/CD21) complex in the initiation of inflammatory arthritis
    Christopher J Del Nagro
    Program of Inflammatory Disease Research, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Immunol 175:5379-89. 2005
    ..the C3d fragment to Ag promotes B lymphocyte activation through coengagment of the BCR and complement receptor 2 (CD21). Signal augmentation is thought to be achieved through enhanced recruitment and activation of CD21-associated CD19...
  43. ncbi T cell-independent and T cell-dependent immunoglobulin G responses to polyomavirus infection are impaired in complement receptor 2-deficient mice
    Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Virology 352:52-60. 2006
    ..Thus, our studies revealed a profound dependence of TI and TD antiviral antibody responses on CR2-mediated signals in PyV-infected mice, where the viral antigen is abundant and persistent...
  44. ncbi Expression of complement receptor 2 (CR2) on HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes and transformed cell lines
    T A McNearney
    , , Innsbruck, Austria
    Eur J Immunol 23:1266-70. 1993
    ..The expression of CR2 in cellular activation of T cells may be stage restricted. This study also expands the cellular distribution for CR2...
  45. ncbi Impaired antibody response to group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide in C3- and complement receptor 2-deficient mice
    Olga Pozdnyakova
    Department of Pathology, Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 170:84-90. 2003
    ..in the humoral immune response to type III GBS capsular polysaccharide (III-PS), mice deficient in C3 or in CD21/CD35 (i.e., complement receptors 1 and 2; CR1/CR2) were immunized with III-PS...
  46. pmc Defective B cell ontogeny and immune response in human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) transgenic mice is partially recovered in the absence of C3
    Jason Twohig
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XX, UK
    Mol Immunol 44:3434-44. 2007
    ....
  47. pmc A novel targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement and its therapeutic application in ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Yuxiang Huang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Immunol 181:8068-76. 2008
    ..The data further indicate alternative pathway dependence for local and remote injury following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in a clinically relevant therapeutic paradigm...
  48. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus and CD21 expression in gastrointestinal tumors
    Y S Kim
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Gojan Dong, Ansan, Korea
    Pathol Res Pract 194:705-11. 1998
    ..To determine the presence of CD21, an EBV receptor, in the EBV-associated gastrointestinal tumors, we, first, examined the EBV genome in sixty seven patients with ..
  49. ncbi Low doses of antigen coupled to anti-CR2 mAbs induce rapid and enduring IgG immune responses in mice and in cynomolgus monkeys
    Emily C Whipple
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States
    Mol Immunol 44:377-88. 2007
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of using anti-CR2 mAbs as antigen carriers for i.v. immunization with small amounts of antigens without adjuvant...
  50. ncbi Regulation of B lymphocyte development and activation by the CD19/CD21/CD81/Leu 13 complex requires the cytoplasmic domain of CD19
    S Sato
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 159:3278-87. 1997
    ..are regulated in part by the CD19 cell surface receptor complex, which is composed of at least four proteins; CD19, CD21 (CR2, complement receptor 2), CD81, and Leu 13...
  51. ncbi A complement C3 inhibitor specifically targeted to sites of complement activation effectively ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice
    Hongbin Song
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    J Immunol 179:7860-7. 2007
    ..Of interest, a previous study reported that Crry-Ig, an untargeted counterpart of CR2-Crry, had minimal effect on disease, even when administered at a sufficiently high dose to maintain chronic complement inhibition...
  52. doi A targeted inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway reduces RPE injury and angiogenesis in models of age-related macular degeneration
    Barbel Rohrer
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 703:137-49. 2010
    ..In both the in vivo and in vitro paradigm of RPE damage, a model requiring molecular events known to be involved in AMD, complement-dependent VEGF production, was confirmed. These data may open new avenues for AMD treatment strategies...
  53. doi Adult-type fibrosarcoma: A reevaluation of 163 putative cases diagnosed at a single institution over a 48-year period
    Armita Bahrami
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 34:1504-13. 2010
    ..Melan A, HMB-45, CD34, TLE1, CD31, HHV8, smooth muscle actin, desmin, ALK1, CD99, Myo-D1, myogenin, c-kit, INI1, CD21, p63, calretinin, WT1, and TTF1...
  54. ncbi Tumours of histiocytes and accessory dendritic cells: an immunohistochemical approach to classification from the International Lymphoma Study Group based on 61 cases
    S A Pileri
    Service of Pathologic Anatomy and Hematopathology, Institute of Haematology and Clinical Oncology L e A Seràgnoli, Bologna University, Italy
    Histopathology 41:1-29. 2002
    ..those reactive with histiocytes (CD68, lysozyme (LYS)), Langerhans cells (CD1a), follicular dendritic cells (FDC: CD21, CD35) and S100 protein...
  55. ncbi Role of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD35 and CD21), C3, C4, and C5 in survival by mice of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia
    Kenji M Cunnion
    Department of Pediatrics and Duke Clinical Research Institue, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    J Lab Clin Med 143:358-65. 2004
    ..Complement receptor 1 (CD35) is the primary receptor for the opsonin C3b. Mice deficient in CD35/CD21 showed a 67% decrease in survival compared with normal mice, suggesting that CD35/CD21 is of major importance in ..
  56. ncbi Transmission of antibody-induced arthritis is independent of complement component 4 (C4) and the complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD21/35)
    Samuel Solomon
    Immunology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 32:644-51. 2002
    ..The crucial role of complement C5, while neither classical nor lectin pathway is necessary, indicates that the alternative complement pathway may have a role in the K/BxN serum-induced RA model...
  57. ncbi Changes in antigen expression on B lymphocytes during HIV infection
    L Ginaldi
    Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of L Aquila, Italy
    Pathobiology 66:17-23. 1998
    ..the level of expression of a series of constitutive surface markers in B lymphocytes (HLA-DR, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22) from 30 HIV-seropositive adult patients and 20 normal controls...
  58. pmc Mannan-Abeta28 conjugate prevents Abeta-plaque deposition, but increases microhemorrhages in the brains of vaccinated Tg2576 (APPsw) mice
    Irina Petrushina
    The Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 4540, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 5:42. 2008
    ..mannan that can promote a Th2-polarized immune response through interactions with mannose-binding and CD35/CD21 receptors of the innate immune system...
  59. ncbi The partly folded back solution structure arrangement of the 30 SCR domains in human complement receptor type 1 (CR1) permits access to its C3b and C4b ligands
    Patricia B Furtado
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Mol Biol 375:102-18. 2008
    ..The extra-cellular component of CR1 is comprised of 30 short complement regulator (SCR) domains, whereas complement receptor type 2 (CR2) has 15 SCR domains and factor H (FH) has 20 SCR domains...
  60. ncbi Mouse complement receptors type 1 (CR1;CD35) and type 2 (CR2;CD21): expression on normal B cell subpopulations and decreased levels during the development of autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice
    K Takahashi
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Immunol 159:1557-69. 1997
    Human complement receptors type 1 (hCR1;CD35) and type 2 (hCR2;CD21) are expressed on B lymphocytes at specific stages during differentiation and activation...
  61. ncbi Examining the role of Paneth cells in the small intestine by lineage ablation in transgenic mice
    E M Garabedian
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:23729-40. 1997
    ....
  62. ncbi Duplication and concerted evolution of the mitochondrial control region in the parrot genus Amazona
    J R Eberhard
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama
    Mol Biol Evol 18:1330-42. 2001
    ....
  63. pmc Sequence comparisons of plasmids pBJS-O of Spiroplasma citri and pSKU146 of S. kunkelii: implications for plasmid evolution
    Bharat D Joshi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, 246 NRC, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
    BMC Genomics 6:175. 2005
    ..The S. kunkelii CR2-3X plasmid, pSKU146, encodes a homolog of SARP1, Sk-ARP1. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of the two pathogens, we hypothesized that the two plasmids are closely related as well...
  64. doi 18F-FDG uptake in reactive neck lymph nodes of oral cancer: relationship to lymphoid follicles
    Tassei Nakagawa
    Department of Radiology, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba, Japan
    J Nucl Med 49:1053-9. 2008
    ..Reactive lymphadenopathy is well known as a principal cause of false-positive findings on PET/CT for nodal staging. We investigated the reactive lymph nodes of oral cancer to elucidate the (18)F-FDG-avid area in these nodes...
  65. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in children: virus latency and its correlation with CD21 and CD23 molecules
    Aldona Kasprzak
    Department of Histology and Embryology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Folia Histochem Cytobiol 45:169-79. 2007
    ..Other studies demonstrated that only those B lymphocytes which carry the surface CD21 (EBV receptor) become transformation-competent...
  66. ncbi Complement receptors and the shaping of the natural antibody repertoire
    V Michael Holers
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, B 115, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 E 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Springer Semin Immunopathol 26:405-23. 2005
    ..have clearly demonstrated a key role for the complement C3d activation fragment receptor designated CR2 (complement receptor type 2) in the switched-isotype, high-affinity and memory humoral immune responses to T-dependent foreign ..
  67. ncbi Mucosal type mast cells express complement receptor type 2 (CD21)
    Márton Andrásfalvy
    Department of Immunology, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary
    Immunol Lett 82:29-34. 2002
    ..Complement receptor type 1 (CR1/CD35) and type 2 (CR2/CD21) interacting with the larger activation products, such as C3b and C3d, have so far been shown on serosal type mast ..
  68. doi Fusion of Ross chicken complement component C3d-P29 repeats with a chicken viral Newcastle disease virus F gene enhances immune responses following DNA immunization
    Dong Liu
    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agriculture University, Daizong Road No 61, Tai an, Shandong, China
    Viral Immunol 22:221-31. 2009
    C3d, a split product of C3, interacts with its receptor (CR2 or CD21) on B cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and is crucial for induction and maintenance of a normal humoral immune response...
  69. pmc Long term outcome of ocular adnexal lymphoma subtyped according to the REAL classification. Revised European and American Lymphoma
    C Auw-Haedrich
    University Eye Hospital, Freiburg, Germany
    Br J Ophthalmol 85:63-9. 2001
    ..To classify ocular adnexal lymphomas according to the Revised European and American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and to determine any correlation between clinical features or histomorphological variables with the patients' outcome...
  70. ncbi The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse: a comprehensive review of the literature
    Lance H Leopold
    Department of Clinical Research and Development, Wyeth Research, P O Box 42528, Philadelphia, PA 19101, USA
    Leuk Lymphoma 43:1715-27. 2002
    ..The CR2 rates were closely associated with age and duration of CR1. Therefore, considering the poor clinical outcomes of patients with AML in first relapse, improved therapies need to be developed...
  71. ncbi Structure of complement receptor (CR) 2 and CR2-C3d complexes
    J Hannan
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 30:983-9. 2002
    ..To characterize this interaction further, several approaches directed at the determination of solution phase interactions as well as the analysis of the three-dimensional structure of CR2 alone and key CR2 mutants will be necessary...
  72. ncbi B cell activation leads to shedding of complement receptor type II (CR2/CD21)
    Madhan Masilamani
    Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, Immunology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 33:2391-7. 2003
    Complement receptor type II (CR2/CD21) is the major receptor for C3d fragments on immune complexes. CD21 also serves as the receptor for Epstein-Barr virus in humans...
  73. ncbi Improved gene delivery to B lymphocytes using a modified adenovirus vector targeting CD21
    Laurent Mailly
    INSERM, Unité 817, IMPRT, University of Lille 2, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex, France
    Mol Ther 14:293-304. 2006
    ..We developed a specific vector targeting the CD21 receptor, by inserting a CD21 binding sequence, derived from the EBV GP350/220 protein, into the HI loop of the ..
  74. pmc Optimal germinal center B cell activation and T-dependent antibody responses require expression of the mouse complement receptor Cr1
    Luke R Donius
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    J Immunol 191:434-47. 2013
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that the production of Cr1, primarily by FDCs, is critical in the generation of appropriately activated B cells of the germinal center and the generation of mature Ab responses...
  75. ncbi Functional analysis of the human complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) promoter: characterization of basal transcriptional mechanisms
    Daniela Ulgiati
    Department of Immunology, Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 168:6279-85. 2002
    Human complement receptor (CR) type 2 (CR2/CD21) is a 145-kDa membrane protein encoded within the regulators of complement activation gene cluster localized on human chromosome 1q32...
  76. doi Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescent and adult patients with high-risk T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Mohammad Bakr
    Adult Hematology HSCT, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 18:1897-904. 2012
    ..Grade II-IV acute GVHD was significantly associated with a lower OS (P = .006) and DFS (P = .01). Our data indicate that allo-SCT represents an effective treatment for HR T-ALL, particularly when performed in CR1...
  77. doi Decreased levels of sCD21 and sCD23 in blood of patients with systemic-juvenile arthritis, polyarticular-juvenile arthritis, and pauciarticular-juvenile arthritis
    Anjana Singh
    Department of Natural Sciences, University of Applied Sciences, Immunology and Cell Biology, von Liebig Str 20, 53359, Rheinbach, Germany
    Rheumatol Int 32:1581-7. 2012
    A soluble form of CD21 (sCD21) and CD23 (sCD23) is released from the surface of human white blood cells upon shedding of the extracellular domain...
  78. ncbi Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-binding sites on complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) using human-mouse chimeras and peptides. At least two distinct sites are necessary for ligand-receptor interaction
    H Molina
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110
    J Biol Chem 266:12173-9. 1991
    The predicted amino acid sequence of human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21, C3d,g/Epstein-Barr virus receptor) and its genetic murine homologue are approximately 70% identical...
  79. pmc Complement and the alternative pathway play an important role in LPS/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatic failure
    Shihui Sun
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e26838. 2011
    ..The data further suggest that complement inhibition may be an effective strategy for the adjunctive treatment of fulminant hepatic failure...
  80. ncbi Enhancement of antibody-dependent mechanisms of tumor cell lysis by a targeted activator of complement
    Masaki Imai
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Cancer Res 67:9535-41. 2007
    ..The C3-binding domain of human complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21) was linked to the complement-activating Fc region of human IgG1 (CR2-Fc), and the ability of the construct to ..
  81. pmc A targeted inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway reduces angiogenesis in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration
    Barbel Rohrer
    Department of Neurosciences, Division of Research, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3056-64. 2009
    ..CR2-fH consists of the N terminus of mouse fH, which contains the AP-inhibitory domain, linked to a complement receptor 2 (CR2) targeting fragment that binds complement activation products...
  82. doi Modulation of murine complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) ectodomain shedding by its cytoplasmic domain
    Melanie M Hoefer
    Biotechnology Institute Thurgau, 8280 Kreuzlingen, Switzerland
    Mol Immunol 45:2127-37. 2008
    ..The extracellular domain of the human complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is released by proteolytic cleavage as a soluble protein through a variety of stimuli including the thiol ..
  83. doi Age related variation in expression of CD21 and CD32 on bovine lymphocytes: a cross-sectional study
    Kuldeep S Chattha
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1, Canada
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 130:70-8. 2009
    ..b>CD21 (complement receptor 2), an activating receptor, and CD32 (Fc gamma receptor II), an inhibitory receptor, can both ..
  84. doi Intravenous busulfan-cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Wei Tang
    Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center, Department of Hematology, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 17:1555-61. 2011
    ..Four patients died due to TRM, for a 30-month TRM of 9.7% ± 4.6%. This study demonstrates that i.v. BU/CY can be considered a feasible conditioning regimen for adult ALL, with low incidences of VOD and TRM...
  85. ncbi Protective DNA vaccination against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is overcome by C3d in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Jean François Jégou
    INSERM U413, IFRMP 23, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neuroendocrinology, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Mol Immunol 44:3691-701. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that C3d might be involved in self-tolerance breakdown and could contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system autoimmune disorders...
  86. ncbi An antibody-deficiency syndrome due to mutations in the CD19 gene
    Menno C van Zelm
    Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 354:1901-12. 2006
    The CD19 protein forms a complex with CD21, CD81, and CD225 in the membrane of mature B cells. Together with the B-cell antigen receptor, this complex signals the B cell to decrease its threshold for activation by the antigen.
  87. pmc Age dependency and mutual relations in T and B lymphocyte abnormalities in common variable immunodeficiency patients
    M Vlkova
    Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, St Anne s University Hospital, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
    Clin Exp Immunol 143:373-9. 2006
    ..Markers associated with B cell development (CD21, CD27, IgM, IgD) were determined on B lymphocytes (CD19+); T lymphocyte development (CD45RA, CD45RO, CD62L) and ..
  88. doi Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: impact of donor source on survival
    Priya Kumar
    Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 14:1394-400. 2008
    ..4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.6, P < .01). When compared with URD:M, OS with UCB was better (RR 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.7, P = .01), supporting the use of UCB as an alternative stem cell source for adults with ALL...
  89. doi Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) transgenic mice provide an in vivo model to study immunoregulatory effects of receptor antagonists
    Liudmila Kulik
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Immunol 48:883-94. 2011
    ..We found that transgenic (tg) mice stably expressing a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-derived human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) gene demonstrate B cell specific hCR2 protein expression, normal B cell development and no ..
  90. doi Differential expression of CD21 identifies developmentally and functionally distinct subsets of human transitional B cells
    Santi Suryani
    Immunology and Inflammation Group, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia
    Blood 115:519-29. 2010
    ..Here, we have identified 2 subsets of human transitional B cells based on the differential expression of CD21. CD21(hi) transitional cells displayed higher expression of CD23, CD44, and IgD, and exhibited greater ..
  91. ncbi Spectroscopic detection and theoretical confirmation of the role of Cr2(CO)5(C5R5)2 and .Cr(CO)2(ketene)(C5R5) as intermediates in carbonylation of N=N=CHSiMe3 to O=C=CHSiMe3 by .Cr(CO)3(C5R5) (R = H, CH3)
    George C Fortman
    Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33126, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 129:14388-400. 2007
    ..A detailed mechanism for metalloradical based conversion of diazo and CO to ketene and N2 is proposed on the basis of a combination of experimental and theoretical data...
  92. pmc High CD21 expression inhibits internalization of anti-CD19 antibodies and cytotoxicity of an anti-CD19-drug conjugate
    Gladys S Ingle
    Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Br J Haematol 140:46-58. 2008
    CD19 and CD21 (CR2) are co-receptors found on B-cells and various B-cell lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma...
  93. doi Complement receptor CR2/CR1 deficiency protects mice from collagen-induced arthritis and associates with reduced autoantibodies to type II collagen and citrullinated antigens
    Kristine A Kuhn
    Departments of Immunology and Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Immunol 45:2808-19. 2008
    ....
  94. pmc CR2+ marginal zone B cell production of pathogenic natural antibodies is C3 independent
    Keith M Woods
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Immunol 186:1755-62. 2011
    ..These data indicate that CR2 expression on MZBs is sufficient to induce the appropriate Abs required for IR-induced tissue damage and that C3 is not critical for generation of the pathogenic Abs...
  95. ncbi Long-term outcomes of myeloablation and autologous transplantation of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in second remission: a British Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry study
    Andrew D Chantry
    Academic Unit of Bone Biology, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 12:1310-7. 2006
    ..TBI conditioning did not confer an advantage. Randomized studies against unrelated donor transplantation are warranted...
  96. pmc B-cell extrinsic CR1/CR2 promotes natural antibody production and tolerance induction of anti-alphaGAL-producing B-1 cells
    Ichiro Shimizu
    Bone Marrow Transplantation Section, Transplantation Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
    Blood 109:1773-81. 2007
    ..Our results suggest a possible role for follicular dendritic cells that pick up immune complexes via CR1/CR2 receptors in the tolerization of B-1b cells...
  97. pmc A complement-dependent balance between hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and liver regeneration in mice
    Songqing He
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Darby Children s Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:2304-16. 2009
    ..These data indicate that a threshold of complement activation, involving ASP and C5L2, promotes liver regeneration and suggest a balance between complement-dependent injury and regeneration...
  98. doi Directed evolution of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase to increase thermostability
    Allison McDaniel
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Microb Biotechnol 1:523-31. 2008
    ..niger GA variant previously described, THS8. In addition, Val59Ala and Glu408Lys were shown to individually increase the thermostability in GA variants by 1 and 2 kJ mol(-1), respectively, at 80°C...
  99. doi Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute promyelocytic leukemia in second or third complete remission: a retrospective analysis in the Nagoya Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group
    Akio Kohno
    Division of Hematology and Oncology, JA Aichi Showa Hospital, 46 Nobaku, Nobaku cho, Konan, Aichi, Japan
    Int J Hematol 87:210-6. 2008
    ..These data suggest that auto HSCT is very effective for APL in CR2 or CR3, and may be preferable to allo HSCT for a portion of patients. Prospective studies are required to define the role of auto HSCT in the treatment of relapsed APL...
  100. ncbi Cell-specific regulation of the CD21 gene
    M D Zabel
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Int Immunopharmacol 1:483-93. 2001
    The Complement Receptor Type 2 (Cr2-145,CR2, CD21) is an important receptor in the innate and acquired immune response...

Research Grants76

  1. Natural Antibodies and Tissue Injury
    Sherry Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will provide critical data to improve our understanding of ischemia/reperfusion injury that occurs not only in the intestine but will also be applicable to other human conditions such as during heart attacks and strokes. ..
  2. Functional Analysis of Complement Receptor 2 as a Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is the strongest candidate gene for lupus susceptibility in the Sle 1c lupus susceptibility interval of the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus, based on structural and functional alterations in its protein ..
  3. Functional Analysis of Complement Receptor 2 as a Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is the strongest candidate gene for lupus susceptibility in the Sle 1c lupus susceptibility interval of the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus, based on structural and functional alterations in its protein ..
  4. Complement Receptor 2 as a Biomarker for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is the strongest candidate gene for lupus susceptibility in the Slelc lupus susceptibility interval of the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus, based on structural and functional alterations in its protein ..
  5. Functional Analysis of Complement Receptor 2 as a Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    Susan A Boackle; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is the strongest candidate gene for lupus susceptibility in the Sle 1c lupus susceptibility interval of the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus, based on structural and functional alterations in its protein ..
  6. ANALYSIS OF C3D/EBV RECEPTOR (CR2) LIGAND BINDING SITES
    V Holers; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This understanding will allow further experimental and perhaps better clinical approaches to immunotherapy and anti-viral therapy mediated through CR2...
  7. FUNCTION OF CD19 IN B CELL DEVELOPMENT & DIFFERENTIATION
    ROBERT RICKERT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..to determine the molecular basis for these defects in the context of CD19 association with the BCR and the CD19/CD21 (complement receptor 2)/CD81 complexes...
  8. REGULATION OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY BY COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS
    Hector Molina; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Following backcrossing into CR1/CR2 deficient mice, the immune response to different antigens will then be evaluated. These experiments will clarify the different roles of these proteins in the immune response. ..
  9. CD81 AND B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR SIGNALING
    Erdyni Tsitsikov; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of this project is to analyze the role of CD81, a component of the complement receptor 2 (CR2) complex, along with CD21, CD19 and Leu13, in signaling via the B cell antigen receptor (BCR)...
  10. Natural Antibodies and Tissue Injury
    Sherry Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  11. REGULATION OF COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION
    George Tsokos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Since we have found that sera from patients with systemic autoimmune diseases have antibodies directed against this hnRNP, we propose to study their frequency and clinical significance. ..
  12. Targeted Complement Inhibitors as Therapeutic Agents
    WOODRUFF EMLEN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF B-LYMPHOCYTE RESTRICTED PROTEINS
    Thomas Tedder; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..a B lymphocyte cell-surface receptor that is a central component of a signal transducing complex that includes CD21, a receptor for the C3d complement fragment...
  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MURINE COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS
    JOHN WEIS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Antibodies will be raised that recognize the peptide core of the mouse proteoglycan to study the translation and glycosaminoglycan modification of this proteoglycan in transfected cells...
  15. AIDS ASSOCIATED LEUKOPLAKIA--ROLE OF EBV
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..with virus produced by lymphoid or epithelial cells, or whether entry is mediated by the known viral receptor, CD21, or by co-cultivation...
  16. Key molecular mechanisms of extraneural pathogenesis and transmission of TSEs
    Mark D Zabel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..1) previously published data demonstrating that partial or complete depletion of Complement components C1q, C3 and CD21 delays splenic prion accumulation and replication;and impedes or even prevents disease in murine models of scrapie;..
  17. Key molecular mechanisms of extraneural pathogenesis and transmission of TSEs
    Mark Zabel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..1) previously published data demonstrating that partial or complete depletion of Complement components C1q, C3 and CD21 delays splenic prion accumulation and replication; and impedes or even prevents disease in murine models of scrapie;..
  18. HO-1 and granuloma formation in TB pleurisy
    Veena B Antony; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  19. Complement in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Arthritis
    VERNON HOLERS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  20. COMPLEMENT MEDIATED INJURY IN ALLOGRAFT REJECTION
    William Baldwin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..If these agents also prove effective in delaying acute rejection, then they could have clinical application in rejection episodes that are associated with complement activation. ..
  21. COMPLEMENT C3 AND ACQUIRED AND INNATE IMMUNITY
    Michael Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..is covalent attachment of activated C3 to pathogen surface as this provides a ligand for complement receptors CD21 and CD35 which are expressed on follicular dendritic cells and certain leukocytes including B lymphocytes and ..
  22. Complement in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Arthritis
    VERNON MICHAEL HOLERS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. EBV Entry and Spread in the Oral Cavity
    Lindsey M Hutt Fletcher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....