Gene Symbol: CCL3
Description: C-C motif chemokine ligand 3
Alias: G0S19-1, LD78ALPHA, MIP-1-alpha, MIP1A, SCYA3, C-C motif chemokine 3, G0/G1 switch regulatory protein 19-1, PAT 464.1, SIS-beta, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha, small inducible cytokine A3 (homologous to mouse Mip-1a), tonsillar lymphocyte LD78 alpha protein
Species: human
Products:     CCL3

Top Publications

  1. Nakao M, Nomiyama H, Shimada K. Structures of human genes coding for cytokine LD78 and their expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:3646-58 pubmed
    ..mRNA phenotyping experiments revealed that the LD78 alpha and LD78 beta genes were both transcribed in PMA-stimulated U937 cells. ..
  2. Cocchi F, DeVico A, Garzino Demo A, Arya S, Gallo R, Lusso P. Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells. Science. 1995;270:1811-5 pubmed
    ..These data may have relevance for the prevention and therapy of AIDS. ..
  3. Bonwetsch R, Croul S, Richardson M, Lorenzana C, del Valle L, Sverstiuk A, et al. Role of HIV-1 Tat and CC chemokine MIP-1alpha in the pathogenesis of HIV associated central nervous system disorders. J Neurovirol. 1999;5:685-94 pubmed
    ..Tat may play an important role in the pathogenesis of both HIV associated CNS disease states, acting indirectly through cytokine and chemokine dysregulation. ..
  4. Hahn Y, Vo P, Fitting S, Block M, Hauser K, Knapp P. beta-Chemokine production by neural and glial progenitor cells is enhanced by HIV-1 Tat: effects on microglial migration. J Neurochem. 2010;114:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..The beta-chemokines CCL5/regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta were increased by 12-h ..
  5. Sheng W, Hu S, Hegg C, Thayer S, Peterson P. Activation of human microglial cells by HIV-1 gp41 and Tat proteins. Clin Immunol. 2000;96:243-51 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest that HIV-1 Tat and gp41 proteins impact several key functions of microglial cells which could contribute to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1. ..
  6. Choe W, Volsky D, Potash M. Induction of rapid and extensive beta-chemokine synthesis in macrophages by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and gp120, independently of their coreceptor phenotype. J Virol. 2001;75:10738-45 pubmed
    ..We conclude that human macrophages respond rapidly to R5 and X4 envelope binding by production of high levels of physiologically active proteins that are implicated in HIV-1 pathogenesis. ..
  7. Bonecchi R, Locati M, Galliera E, Vulcano M, Sironi M, Fra A, et al. Differential recognition and scavenging of native and truncated macrophage-derived chemokine (macrophage-derived chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 22) by the D6 decoy receptor. J Immunol. 2004;172:4972-6 pubmed
    ..By recognizing intact CCL22, but not its truncated variants, D6 expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells may regulate the traffic of CCR4-expressing cells, such as dendritic cells. ..
  8. Bernstein H, Kinter A, Jackson R, Fauci A. Neonatal natural killer cells produce chemokines and suppress HIV replication in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:1189-95 pubmed
    ..Our results show that nNK cells can inhibit HIV replication via a chemokine-mediated mechanism, and support a potential role for the innate immune system in preventing perinatal transmission of HIV in a noncytolytic manner. ..
  9. de Jager S, Kraaijeveld A, Grauss R, de Jager W, Liem S, van der Hoeven B, et al. CCL3 (MIP-1 alpha) levels are elevated during acute coronary syndromes and show strong prognostic power for future ischemic events. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of CCL3 were prospectively verified in 54 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP)...

More Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Paximadis M, Mohanlal N, Gray G, Kuhn L, Tiemessen C. Identification of new variants within the two functional genes CCL3 and CCL3L encoding the CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) chemokine: implications for HIV-1 infection. Int J Immunogenet. 2009;36:21-32 pubmed publisher
    The CC chemokine CCL3 is encoded by two functional genes, namely CCL3 and CCL3L, and has been identified as a key chemokine in HIV-1 susceptibility and disease progression...
  2. Hirashima M, Ono T, Nakao M, Nishi H, Kimura A, Nomiyama H, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the third cytokine LD78 gene and mapping of all three LD78 gene loci to human chromosome 17. DNA Seq. 1992;3:203-12 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of generation of the three LD78 genes is discussed. ..
  3. Brenneman D, Hauser J, Spong C, Phillips T, Pert C, Ruff M. VIP and D-ala-peptide T-amide release chemokines which prevent HIV-1 GP120-induced neuronal death. Brain Res. 1999;838:27-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, neuroprotection produced by chemokines is dependent on both the type of chemokine and the variant structure of gp120 and may be relevant to drug strategies for the treatment of AIDS dementia. ..
  4. Fernández N, Renedo M, Garcia Rodriguez C, Sánchez Crespo M. Activation of monocytic cells through Fc gamma receptors induces the expression of macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and RANTES. J Immunol. 2002;169:3321-8 pubmed
  5. Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002;13:455-81 pubmed
    ..Since both human MIP-1alpha subtypes (LD78alpha and LD78beta) and MIP-1beta signal through CCR5, the major co-receptor for M-tropic HIV-1 strains, these ..
  6. King J, Eugenin E, Buckner C, Berman J. HIV tat and neurotoxicity. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1347-57 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the most recent data addressing tat-induced neurotoxicity and integrates these new findings in the context of NeuroAIDS. ..
  7. McManus C, Weidenheim K, Woodman S, Nunez J, Hesselgesser J, Nath A, et al. Chemokine and chemokine-receptor expression in human glial elements: induction by the HIV protein, Tat, and chemokine autoregulation. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:1441-53 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for the complex interplay of Tat, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the inflammatory processes of HIV encephalitis and illustrate an important new role for chemokines as autocrine regulators. ..
  8. Lentzsch S, Gries M, Janz M, Bargou R, Dorken B, Mapara M. Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1 alpha ) triggers migration and signaling cascades mediating survival and proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Blood. 2003;101:3568-73 pubmed
  9. Walker W, Kurscheid S, Joshi S, Lopez C, Goh G, Choi M, et al. Increased Levels of Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins Result in Resistance to R5-Tropic HIV-1 in a Subset of Elite Controllers. J Virol. 2015;89:5502-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the genes encoding macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), CCL3 and CCL3L1, were found to be upregulated...
  10. Krensky A, Clayberger C. Biology and clinical relevance of granulysin. Tissue Antigens. 2009;73:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Small synthetic forms of granulysin are being developed as novel antibiotics. Studies of the full-length forms may give rise to new diagnostics and therapeutics for use in a wide variety of diseases. ..
  11. Johnson M, Dasgupta T, Gopichandran N, Field S, Orsi N. A Bayesian view of murine seminal cytokine networks. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188897 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a marked interspecific conservation of seminal cytokine networks...
  12. Kennedy P, Sandalova E, Jo J, Gill U, Ushiro Lumb I, Tan A, et al. Preserved T-cell function in children and young adults with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:637-645 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-22, and IL-8), T-helper (Th)2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-4), Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IL-21), and the CC chemokine CCL3 (MIP-1)...
  13. Wang Z, Liang Q, Zhang Y, Yang J, Li M, Wang K, et al. An optimized HMGB1 expressed by recombinant rabies virus enhances immunogenicity through activation of dendritic cells in mice. Oncotarget. 2017;8:83539-83554 pubmed publisher
    ..of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1? or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
  14. Peri G, Milanese C, Matteucci C, Ruco L, Zhou D, Sozzani S, et al. A new monoclonal antibody (5D3-F7) which recognizes human monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 but not related chemokines. Development of a sandwich ELISA and in situ detection of producing cells. J Immunol Methods. 1994;174:249-57 pubmed
    ..The 5D3-F7 mAb provides a novel, highly specific reagent with which to investigate the in vitro and in vivo production and role of MCP-1. ..
  15. Sanadgol N, Golab F, Mostafaie A, Mehdizadeh M, Abdollahi M, Sharifzadeh M, et al. Ellagic acid ameliorates cuprizone-induced acute CNS inflammation via restriction of microgliosis and down-regulation of CCL2 and CCL3 pro-inflammatory chemokines. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016;62:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha/Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (MIP-1-?/CCL3) dramatically reduced in CC after EA treatment...
  16. Pawlowski T, Radkowski M, Małyszczak K, Inglot M, Zalewska M, Jablonska J, et al. Depression and neuroticism in patients with chronic hepatitis C: correlation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells activation. J Clin Virol. 2014;60:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a pivotal role of immune cells activation in depression and possibly neurocognitive dysfunction among chronic hepatitis C patients. ..
  17. Young S, Slobbe L, Peacey M, Gilbert S, Buddle B, de Lisle G, et al. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of mycobacterial DNA vaccines incorporating plasmid-encoded cytokines against Mycobacterium bovis. Immunol Cell Biol. 2010;88:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..bovis. These data highlight both the promise and the shortcomings of new generation subunit tuberculosis vaccines, with particular emphasis on their potential as vaccines against M. bovis. ..
  18. Fleiner H, Radtke M, Ryan L, Moen T, Grill V. Circulating immune mediators are closely linked in adult-onset type 1 diabetes as well as in non-diabetic subjects. Autoimmunity. 2014;47:530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..BMI is a major confounder in the analysis of associations to autoimmunity. Associations of beta cell decline to individual immune mediators need confirmation in further studies. ..
  19. Ahmed A, Koma M. Interleukin-33 Triggers B1 Cell Expansion and Its Release of Monocyte/Macrophage Chemoattractants and Growth Factors. Scand J Immunol. 2015;82:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that these IL-33-mediated B1 cells might be able to play a vital role in the recruitment and growth of monocytes and granulocytes. ..
  20. Coluzzi F, Di Bussolo E, Mandatori I, Mattia C. Bone metastatic disease: taking aim at new therapeutic targets. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:3093-115 pubmed
    ..The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular mechanisms behind these emerging therapeutic targets in bone metastases and to give an overview of results from those in advanced clinical phases. ..
  21. Mert T, Sahin M, Sahin E, Yaman S. Anti-inflammatory properties of Liposome-encapsulated clodronate or Anti-Ly6G can be modulated by peripheral or central inflammatory markers in carrageenan-induced inflammation model. Inflammopharmacology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α/CCL3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw and spinal cord tissues in carrageenan (CG)-induced hindpaw inflammation model in ..
  22. Ramnath R, Sun J, Adhikari S, Zhi L, Bhatia M. Role of PKC-delta on substance P-induced chemokine synthesis in pancreatic acinar cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C683-92 pubmed
    ..These results show that PKC-delta is an important proinflammatory signal transducer for SP-NK1R-induced chemokine production in pancreatic acinar cells...
  23. Wallace D, Gavin I, Karpenko O, Barkhordar F, Gillis B. Cytokine and chemokine profiles in fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a potentially useful tool in differential diagnosis. Rheumatol Int. 2015;35:991-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay can be a useful tool in assisting clinicians in differentiating systemic inflammatory autoimmune processes from FM and its related syndromes and healthy individuals. ..
  24. Mabley J, Pacher P, Murthy K, Williams W, Southan G, Salzman A, et al. The novel inosine analogue, INO-2002, protects against diabetes development in multiple low-dose streptozotocin and non-obese diabetic mouse models of type I diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2008;198:581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of analogues of inosine such as INO-2002 should be considered as a potential preventative therapy in individuals susceptible to developing type I diabetes. ..
  25. Hofmann N, Lachnit N, Streppel M, Witter B, Neiss W, Guntinas Lichius O, et al. Increased expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, and MIP-1 alpha by spinal perivascular macrophages during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. BMC Immunol. 2002;3:11 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that SPM play a role in promoting lymphocyte extravasation. ..
  26. Piechota M, Korostyński M, Golda S, Ficek J, Jantas D, Barbara Z, et al. Transcriptional signatures of steroid hormones in the striatal neurons and astrocytes. BMC Neurosci. 2017;18:37 pubmed publisher
    ..aspects of cell metabolism (up-regulated Slc2a1, Pdk4 and Slc45a3) and the inflammatory response (down-regulated Ccl3, Il1b and Tnf). Progesterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol did not change gene expression in astrocytes...
  27. Duarte H, Teixeira A, Rocha N, Domingues R. Increased interictal serum levels of CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL3/MIP-1α in migraine. Neurol Sci. 2015;36:203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-nine migraine patients and forty-nine controls without headache were included. CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL3/MIP-1α levels were significantly higher among patients with migraine (P = 0.039 and 0...
  28. Dizdar O, Kalyoncu U, Karadag O, Akdogan A, Kiraz S, Ertenli I, et al. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha: a link between innate immunity and familial Mediterranean fever?. Cytokine. 2007;37:92-5 pubmed
    ..MIP-1alpha levels were weakly correlated with CRP (r=0.32, p=0.032) levels. MIP-1alpha may have a role in the pathogenesis of FMF attacks. MIP-1alpha and other chemokines may constitute a link between the innate immune system and FMF. ..
  29. Ichiyama T, Hasegawa M, Hashimoto K, Matsushige T, Hirano R, Furukawa S. Cysteinyl leukotrienes induce macrophage inflammatory protein-1 in human monocytes/macrophages. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;148:147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..CysLTs induce MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta production mediated by ERK via binding to the CysLT(1) receptor in human monocytes/macrophages. ..
  30. Sadeghi M, Lahdou I, Oweira H, Daniel V, Terness P, Schmidt J, et al. Serum levels of chemokines CCL4 and CCL5 in cirrhotic patients indicate the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2015;113:756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF basic and VEGF, HMGB1, CK-18 (M65) and CK18 fragment (M30) and a panel of proinflammatory chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL5 and IL-8) were measured...
  31. Moreno Indias I, Oliva Olivera W, Omiste A, Castellano Castillo D, Lhamyani S, Camargo A, et al. Adipose tissue infiltration in normal-weight subjects and its impact on metabolic function. Transl Res. 2016;172:6-17.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..EMR-1, CD206, MerTK, CD64, ITGAX), inflammation (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], IL-10, IL-1b, CCL2, CCL3), and adipogenic and lipogenic capacity markers (PPARgamma, FABP4) were measured...
  32. Singh K, Al Greene N, Verriere T, Coburn L, Asim M, Barry D, et al. The L-Arginine Transporter Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 2 Mediates the Immunopathogenesis of Attaching and Effacing Bacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005984 pubmed publisher
    ..were decreased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines G-CSF, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-1?, and the chemokines CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL2, and CCL5...
  33. Catani J, Medrano R, Hunger A, Del Valle P, Adjemian S, Zanatta D, et al. Intratumoral Immunization by p19Arf and Interferon-? Gene Transfer in a Heterotopic Mouse Model of Lung Carcinoma. Transl Oncol. 2016;9:565-574 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed genes when using microarray to evaluate tumors that were treated in vivo and confirmed the activation of CCL3, CXCL3, IL1?, IL1?, CD274, and OSM, involved in immune response and chemotaxis...
  34. Zipfel P, Balke J, Irving S, Kelly K, Siebenlist U. Mitogenic activation of human T cells induces two closely related genes which share structural similarities with a new family of secreted factors. J Immunol. 1989;142:1582-90 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the data presented here suggest that pAT 464 and pAT 744 encode novel lymphokines/cytokines which may play roles during an immune response similar to those enacted by these structurally related factors. ..
  35. Guan E, Wang J, Roderiquez G, Norcross M. Natural truncation of the chemokine MIP-1 beta /CCL4 affects receptor specificity but not anti-HIV-1 activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32348-52 pubmed
    ..synthesize and secrete substantial amounts of the beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha/CCL3 and MIP-1 beta/CCL4, both of which inhibit infection of cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  36. Mrugacz M, Zelazowska B, Bakunowicz Lazarczyk A, Kaczmarski M, Wysocka J. Elevated tear fluid levels of MIP-1alpha in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007;27:491-5 pubmed
    ..This current study indicates that chemokines play an important role in the ongoing inflammatory response. Our findings may help to explain one of the key factors contributing to the pathogenesis of ocular surface changes in CF patients. ..
  37. Levine A, Singer E, Sinsheimer J, Hinkin C, Papp J, Dandekar S, et al. CCL3 genotype and current depression increase risk of HIV-associated dementia. Neurobehav HIV Med. 2009;1:1-7 pubmed
    ..Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within seven genes (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, interleukin-1? [IL-1?], IL-10, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and tumor necrosis factor-?)...
  38. Duan J, Han X, Ling S, Gan W, Sun L, Ni R, et al. Aortic Remodelling Is Improved by 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside Involving the Smad3 Pathway in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:789027 pubmed publisher
    ..rate in response to acetylcholine, and reduced remodelling-related mRNA expression, such as that of ACTA2, CCL3, COL1A2, COL3A1, TIMP1 WISP2, IGFBP1, ECE1, KLF5, MYL1 BMP4, FN1, and PAI-1...
  39. Makker P, Duffy S, Lees J, Perera C, Tonkin R, Butovsky O, et al. Characterisation of Immune and Neuroinflammatory Changes Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170814 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factor-3 in IB4+ and NF200+ sensory neurons as well as an increase in the chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion...
  40. Takada T, Suzuki E, Morohashi K, Omori K, Gejyo F. MCP-1 and MIP-1A gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with sarcoidosis. Intern Med. 2002;41:813-8 pubmed
    ..The MCP-1 SNP might be related to the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to the alveolar spaces in sarcoidosis. ..
  41. Percario Z, Olivetta E, Fiorucci G, Mangino G, Peretti S, Romeo G, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef activates STAT3 in primary human monocyte/macrophages through the release of soluble factors: involvement of Nef domains interacting with the cell endocytotic machinery. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:821-32 pubmed
  42. Mello Coelho V, Bunbury A, Rangel L, Giri B, Weeraratna A, Morin P, et al. Fat-storing multilocular cells expressing CCR5 increase in the thymus with advancing age: potential role for CCR5 ligands on the differentiation and migration of preadipocytes. Int J Med Sci. 2009;7:1-14 pubmed
    ..We verified that the expression of CCR5 and its ligands, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, were increased in the thymus with age...
  43. Cudaback E, Yang Y, Montine T, Keene C. APOE genotype-dependent modulation of astrocyte chemokine CCL3 production. Glia. 2015;63:51-65 pubmed publisher
    ..that APOE ?4 genotype specifically modulates astrocyte secretion of potent microglial chemotactic agents, including CCL3, thus providing evidence that APOE modulation of central nervous system (CNS) innate immune response is mediated ..
  44. van den Munckhof B, de Vries E, Braun K, Boss H, Willemsen M, van Royen Kerkhof A, et al. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome. Epilepsia. 2016;57:e45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 than controls, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CCL3 were significantly lower...
  45. George M, Esmat A, Tadros M, El Demerdash E. In vivo cellular and molecular gastroprotective mechanisms of chrysin; Emphasis on oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;818:486-498 pubmed publisher
    ..expression levels of PPAR-? and M2 marker genes (Arg-1 and CD206) and down regulation of M1 marker genes (IL-6 and CCL3)...
  46. Welihinda A, Kaur M, Raveendran K, Amento E. Enhancement of inosine-mediated A2AR signaling through positive allosteric modulation. Cell Signal. 2018;42:227-235 pubmed publisher
    ..Inosine also inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-α, CCL3 and CCL4 production by splenic monocytes in an A2AR-dependent manner...
  47. Blanpain C, Migeotte I, Lee B, Vakili J, Doranz B, Govaerts C, et al. CCR5 binds multiple CC-chemokines: MCP-3 acts as a natural antagonist. Blood. 1999;94:1899-905 pubmed
    ..MCP-3 could compete efficiently for gp120 binding but was, however, found to be a weak inhibitor of HIV infection, probably as a consequence of its inability to downregulate the receptor. ..
  48. Losana G, Bovolenta C, Rigamonti L, Borghi I, Altare F, Jouanguy E, et al. IFN-gamma and IL-12 differentially regulate CC-chemokine secretion and CCR5 expression in human T lymphocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:735-42 pubmed
    ..especially in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibodies, primed CD45RO(-) T clones for high CCL3/macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and CCL4/MIP-1beta levels...
  49. Sierra B, Perez A, Vogt K, Garcia G, Schmolke K, Aguirre E, et al. MCP-1 and MIP-1? expression in a model resembling early immune response to dengue. Cytokine. 2010;52:175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was aimed at evaluating the expression of the CC-chemokines MIP-1?/CCL3 and MCP-1/CCL2 in peripheral blood leukocytes using an ex vivo model resembling dengue infection in vivo, in ..
  50. Gallo C, Borra R, Rodini C, Nunes F, Sugaya N. CC chemokine ligand 3 and receptors 1 and 5 gene expression in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:93-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the local and systemic expression of CC-chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) and its receptors (CCR1 and CCR5) in tissue samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) ..
  51. Mazzi P, Caveggion E, Lapinet Vera J, Lowell C, Berton G. The Src-Family Kinases Hck and Fgr Regulate Early Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myeloid Cell Recruitment into the Lung and Their Ability To Secrete Chemokines. J Immunol. 2015;195:2383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, mutant neutrophils displayed a marked deficit in their capability to release the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 and TNF-α in response to LPS...
  52. Rayev M, Litvinova L, Yurova K, Dunets N, Khaziakhmatova O, Timganova V, et al. Role of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein in regulation of the cytokine and chemokine profiles of intact mononuclear cells. Dokl Biol Sci. 2017;475:180-182 pubmed publisher
    ..PSG inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CCL2/MCP-1; at the same time, PSG stimulated IL-12(p70) production...
  53. Engen S, Schreurs O, Petersen F, Blix I, Baekkevold E, Schenck K. The regulatory role of the oral commensal Streptococcus mitis on human monocytes. Scand J Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..mitis (SmMo) revealed increased transcription of chemotactic factors (CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2) and cytokines (IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL23, IL36G, TNF), indicating that S...
  54. Bertini R, Luini W, Sozzani S, Bottazzi B, Ruggiero P, Boraschi D, et al. Identification of MIP-1 alpha/LD78 as a monocyte chemoattractant released by the HTLV-I-transformed cell line MT4. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1995;11:155-60 pubmed
    ..Expression of MIP-1 alpha/LD78, a leukocyte chemotactic and myelosuppressive molecule, may play an important role in the manifestations of HTLV-I-related diseases. ..
  55. Maeda Y, Foda M, Matsushita S, Harada S. Involvement of both the V2 and V3 regions of the CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope in reduced sensitivity to macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. J Virol. 2000;74:1787-93 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that V2 combined with the V3 region of the CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to C-C chemokines without altering the ability to use chemokine receptors. ..
  56. Zhao R, Elder R. Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation. Cell Res. 2005;15:143-9 pubmed
  57. Lubman O, Fremont D. Parallel Evolution of Chemokine Binding by Structurally Related Herpesvirus Decoy Receptors. Structure. 2016;24:57-69 pubmed publisher
    ..of β-sandwich domains linked together by a bridging sheet, which form an acidic binding cleft for the chemokine CCL3 on the opposite face of a basic surface cluster that binds glycosaminoglycans...
  58. Shrestha D, Bajracharya B, Paula Costa G, Salles B, Leite A, Menezes A, et al. Expression and production of cardiac angiogenic mediators depend on the Trypanosoma cruzi-genetic population in experimental C57BL/6 mice infection. Microvasc Res. 2017;110:56-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The blood and heart tissue were processed in immune assays and/or qPCR (TNF, IL-17, IL-10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCR2, CCR5 and angiogenic factors VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2) and in histological assays. The T...
  59. Schoeman J, Moutloatse G, Harms A, Vreeken R, Scherpbier H, van Leeuwen L, et al. Fetal Metabolic Stress Disrupts Immune Homeostasis and Induces Proinflammatory Responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1- and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy-Exposed Infants. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:436-446 pubmed publisher
    ..Proinflammatory immune mediators, lysophospholipids as well as cytokines such as CXCL10 and CCL3, were increased whereas anti-inflammatory metabolites from the cytochrome P450 pathway were reduced in cART/HIV-1-..
  60. Muthumani K, Kudchodkar S, Papasavvas E, Montaner L, Weiner D, Ayyavoo V. HIV-1 Vpr regulates expression of beta chemokines in human primary lymphocytes and macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:366-72 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a Vpr-mediated increase in virus replication could be in part through down-regulation of chemokine production. ..
  61. Min D, Cho M, Lee S, Min S, Kim W, Min J, et al. Augmented production of chemokines by the interaction of type II collagen-reactive T cells with rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1146-55 pubmed
    ..The expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the sera, SF, and supernatant of the CII-stimulated T cells and FLS coculture ..
  62. Tripathy D, Thirumangalakudi L, Grammas P. Expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha is elevated in Alzheimer's vessels and is regulated by oxidative stress. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007;11:447-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that oxidative and lipid insults to the brain microvasculature are likely to contribute to the inflammatory milieu of the AD brain. ..
  63. van Gassen K, de Wit M, Koerkamp M, Rensen M, Van Rijen P, Holstege F, et al. Possible role of the innate immunity in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2008;49:1055-65 pubmed
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    Chemokines, including a chemoattractant for mononuclear cells CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), are responsible for attracting leukocytes into central nervous system (CNS) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningitis and encephalomeningitis...
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    ..Both PF4, MIP-1 alpha, and lysozyme play important role in different types of inflammatory reactions. The interaction with serglycin may indicate that this proteoglycan is involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response. ..
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    ..These findings suggest that TNF-alpha plays a significant role in inhibiting monocytotropic strains of HIV-1 by two distinct, but complementary, mechanisms. ..
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    ..Recombinant human MIP-1alpha isoforms LD78beta and LD78alpha were expressed and purified, and the protease cleavage sites were analyzed by mass spectrometry and peptide ..
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    ..antibody arrays, we found that, in addition to the cytokines reported previously, two chemotactic cytokines, CCL3 and CCL4, were induced in EBV-infected B cells and were expressed at high levels in all EBV-immortalized ..
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    ..Therefore, MIP-1α should be considered for prognostication and a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..