CCKAR

Summary

Gene Symbol: CCKAR
Description: cholecystokinin A receptor
Alias: CCK-A, CCK1-R, CCK1R, CCKRA, cholecystokinin receptor type A, CCK-A receptor, CCK-AR, cholecystokinin type-A receptor, cholecystokinin-1 receptor
Species: human
Products:     CCKAR

Top Publications

  1. Miller L, Holicky E, Ulrich C, Wieben E. Abnormal processing of the human cholecystokinin receptor gene in association with gallstones and obesity. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:1375-80 pubmed
    ..An atypical lariat region in the third intron may explain the presence of small amounts of this product in control patients. ..
  2. Huppi K, Siwarski D, Pisegna J, Wank S. Chromosomal localization of the gastric and brain receptors for cholecystokinin (CCKAR and CCKBR) in human and mouse. Genomics. 1995;25:727-9 pubmed
    Receptors for cholcystokinin (CCK) can be pharmacologically classified into at least two distinct subtypes, CCKAR and CCKBR...
  3. Takata Y, Takeda S, Kawanami T, Takiguchi S, Yoshida Y, Miyasaka K, et al. Promoter analysis of human cholecystokinin type-A receptor gene. J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:815-20 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that polymorphism in the promoter region of the human cholecystokinin type-A receptor ( CCKAR) gene is a genetic factor affecting obesity...
  4. Miyasaka K, Yoshida Y, Matsushita S, Higuchi S, Maruyama K, Niino N, et al. Association of cholecystokinin-A receptor gene polymorphism with alcohol dependence in a Japanese population. Alcohol Alcohol. 2004;39:25-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the age of onset of alcohol dependence was significantly earlier in patients with this allele. The CCK-AR gene -81A/G polymorphism, especially in the -81G allele, may be associated with intractable alcoholism. ..
  5. Miyasaka K, Yoshida Y, Matsushita S, Higuchi S, Shirakawa O, Shimokata H, et al. Association of cholecystokinin-A receptor gene polymorphisms and panic disorder in Japanese. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004;127B:78-80 pubmed
    ..The CCK-AR gene polymorphism may be involved in the neurobiology of PD. ..
  6. Toirac I, Sanjuan J, Aguilar E, Gonzalez J, Artigas F, Rivero O, et al. Association between CCK-AR gene and schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Psychiatr Genet. 2007;17:47-53 pubmed
    ..0001). Our data support a possible role of the CCK-AR gene in the vulnerability to schizophrenia in patients with auditory hallucinations, and suggest remarkable allele heterogeneity. ..
  7. Minato T, Tochigi M, Kato N, Sasaki T. Association study between the cholecystokinin A receptor gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population. Psychiatr Genet. 2007;17:117-9 pubmed
    ..024) or hallucinatory-paranoid state (P=0.049). In conclusion, the present results may not provide evidence for the association between the CCK-AR gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population. ..
  8. Srivastava A, Pandey S, Dixit M, Choudhuri G, Mittal B. Cholecystokinin receptor A gene polymorphism in gallstone disease and gallbladder cancer. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:970-5 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the A1A1 genotype of CCK-AR is an independent genetic risk factor for gallstone disease and does not modulate the susceptibility of gallbladder cancer. ..
  9. Koefoed P, Hansen T, Woldbye D, Werge T, Mors O, Hansen T, et al. An intron 1 polymorphism in the cholecystokinin-A receptor gene associated with schizophrenia in males. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;120:281-7 pubmed
    To identify whether a genetic variation (rs1800857; IVS1-5T>C) in the neuropeptide cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCKAR) gene is a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tahara T, Arisawa T, Shibata T, Nakamura M, Wang F, Yoshioka D, et al. 779 TC of CCK-1 intron 1 is associated with postprandial syndrome (PDS) in Japanese male subjects. Hepatogastroenterology. 2009;56:1245-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the 779 T carriers of CCK-1 intron 1 is associated with an increased risk of PDS in Japanese male subjects. ..
  2. Rai R, Tewari M, Kumar M, Singh T, Shukla H. Expression profile of cholecystokinin type-A receptor in gallbladder cancer and gallstone disease. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2011;10:408-14 pubmed
    ..of gallbladder contractility and plays a potential role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through CCK type-A receptor (CCKAR), its role in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is still unknown and immunohistochemical detection of CCKAR in the ..
  3. Dunn I, Meddle S, Wilson P, Wardle C, Law A, Bishop V, et al. Decreased expression of the satiety signal receptor CCKAR is responsible for increased growth and body weight during the domestication of chickens. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E909-21 pubmed publisher
    ..as are the satiety feedback pathways that carry information from the intestine, including CCK and its receptor CCKAR (CCK1 receptor)...
  4. Ortinau L, Linden M, Dirkes R, Rector R, Hinton P. Exercise initiated after the onset of insulin resistance improves trabecular microarchitecture and cortical bone biomechanics of the tibia in hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. Bone. 2017;103:188-199 pubmed publisher
    ..O-SED. In summary, EX or CR initiated after the onset of insulin resistance preserved cancellous bone volume and structure, and EX elicited additional benefits in cortical bone. ..
  5. Eisner F, Martin E, Küper M, Raybould H, Glatzle J. CCK1-receptor stimulation protects against gut mediator-induced lung damage during endotoxemia. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;32:1878-90 pubmed publisher
    ..LCFA infusion in WT, but not in CCK1R(-/-) mice, significantly reduced these pathological effects of EL...
  6. Schroeter J, Fenn C, Small B. Elucidating the roles of gut neuropeptides on channel catfish feed intake, glycemia, and hypothalamic NPY and POMC expression. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015;188:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..POMC expression was also variable, but tended to be reduced by the highest concentration of CCK. These results provide new insight into the roles and regulation of gut neuropeptides in catfish appetite and glycemia. ..
  7. Rong Z, Chen H, Wang X, WANG Z, Xian G, Ma B, et al. Effects of sphincter of Oddi motility on the formation of cholesterol gallstones. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:5540-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCKAR) expression levels in SO smooth muscle were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and serum vasoactive ..
  8. Maron E, Tõru I, Tasa G, Must A, Toover E, Lang A, et al. Association testing of panic disorder candidate genes using CCK-4 challenge in healthy volunteers. Neurosci Lett. 2008;446:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Other polymorphisms previously associated with PD were unrelated to CCK-4-induced panic attacks, probably due to the differences between complex nature of PD and laboratory panic model. ..
  9. Pivovarova O, Hornemann S, Weimer S, Lu Y, Murahovschi V, Zhuk S, et al. Regulation of nutrition-associated receptors in blood monocytes of normal weight and obese humans. Peptides. 2015;65:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors for short chain fatty acids (GPR41, GPR43), bile acids (TGR5), incretins (GIPR, GLP1R), cholecystokinin (CCKAR), neuropeptides VIP and PACAP (VIPR1, VIPR2), and neurotensin (NTSR1) was detected in PBMC and monocytes, while ..
  10. Tian X, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Mehmood K, Wu X, Chang Z, et al. Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of hepatic metabolism disorder caused by chromium poisoning in chickens. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25:15411-15421 pubmed publisher
    ..were HKDC1, DDX4, ACACA, FDFT1, CYYR1, PPP1R3C, and SLC16A14, while the most downregulated genes were MYBPC3, CCKAR, PCK1, and CPT1A...
  11. Koefoed P, Woldbye D, Hansen T, Hansen E, Knudsen G, Bolwig T, et al. Gene variations in the cholecystokinin system in patients with panic disorder. Psychiatr Genet. 2010;20:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the promoter, exon, and exon-intron boundaries of the genes encoding CCK and its receptors (CCKAR and CCKBR) for variations in 187 patients with PD and 277 screened control individuals...
  12. Miyasaka K, Hosoya H, Sekime A, Ohta M, Amono H, Matsushita S, et al. Association of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism with bulimia nervosa in a Japanese population. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006;113:1279-85 pubmed
    ..The distribution of neither beta3 adrenergic receptor gene nor CCK-AR polymorphism differed between EDs and control subjects. Therefore, the CC type of GHSR gene polymorphism (171T/C) is a risk factor for BN, but not for AN. ..
  13. Desai A, Harikumar K, Miller L. A type 1 cholecystokinin receptor mutant that mimics the dysfunction observed for wild type receptor in a high cholesterol environment. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18314-26 pubmed publisher
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the type 1 CCK receptor (CCK1R) to elicit satiety after a meal...
  14. de Bari O, Wang H, Portincasa P, Liu M, Wang D. The deletion of the estrogen receptor ? gene reduces susceptibility to estrogen-induced cholesterol cholelithiasis in female mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852:2161-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Huang B, Lin C, Chen Y, Kao S. Expression of cholecystokinin receptors in colon cancer and the clinical correlation in Taiwan. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:4579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined the expression of cholecystokinin-1 and cholecystokinin-2 receptor, CCK1R and CCK2R, in colon carcinomas and investigated their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and 1-..
  16. Kazmi H, Chandra A, Nigam J, Baghel K, Srivastava M, Maurya S, et al. Polymorphism and Expression Profile of Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor in Relation to Gallstone Disease Susceptibility. Biochem Genet. 2016;54:665-75 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we investigated expression pattern of Cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) in relation to its commonly studied polymorphism (rs1800857, T/C) in gallstone disease (GSD) patients and controls...
  17. Blevins J, Overduin J, Fuller J, Cummings D, Matsumoto K, Moralejo D. Normal feeding and body weight in Fischer 344 rats lacking the cholecystokinin-1 receptor gene. Brain Res. 2009;1255:98-112 pubmed publisher
    ..that one mechanism by which cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits food intake through activation of CCK1 receptors (CCK1R) on vagal afferent neurons that innervate the gastrointestinal tract and project to the hindbrain...
  18. Liou A, Lu X, Sei Y, Zhao X, Pechhold S, Carrero R, et al. The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 directly mediates long-chain fatty acid-induced secretion of cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..7-fold in GPR40(+/+) mice and 3.1-fold in GPR40(-/-) mice. Long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR40 induces secretion of CCK by I cells in response to dietary fat. ..
  19. Surakka I, Isaacs A, Karssen L, Laurila P, Middelberg R, Tikkanen E, et al. A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002333 pubmed publisher
    ..79×10(-9). There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue...
  20. Xu Z, Ji C, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Nie Q, Xu J, et al. Combination analysis of genome-wide association and transcriptome sequencing of residual feed intake in quality chickens. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:594 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these genes were relevant to appetite, cell activities, and fat metabolism, such as CCKAR, HSP90B1, and PCK1...
  21. Zhou Y, Ru Y, Shi H, Wang Y, Wu B, Upur H, et al. Cholecystokinin receptors regulate sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation via uptake of HCO3-. Reproduction. 2015;150:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present results suggest that CCK and its receptors may regulate sperm capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation by modulating the uptake of HCO3-. ..
  22. Ocklenburg S, Arning L, Gerding W, Epplen J, Güntürkün O, Beste C. Cholecystokinin A receptor (CCKAR) gene variation is associated with language lateralization. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53643 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a significant association of the cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCKAR) gene variation rs1800857 and language lateralization assessed using the dichotic listening task...
  23. Gigoux V, Escrieut C, Fehrentz J, Poirot S, Maigret B, Moroder L, et al. Arginine 336 and asparagine 333 of the human cholecystokinin-A receptor binding site interact with the penultimate aspartic acid and the C-terminal amide of cholecystokinin. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:20457-64 pubmed
    ..These data will be used to obtain an integrated dynamic view of the molecular processes that link agonist binding to receptor activation. ..
  24. Inoue H, Iannotti C, Welling C, Veile R, Donis Keller H, Permutt M. Human cholecystokinin type A receptor gene: cytogenetic localization, physical mapping, and identification of two missense variants in patients with obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Genomics. 1997;42:331-5 pubmed
    The human CCKAR gene was previously mapped to chromosome 4 using a panel of human/hamster somatic cell hybrids. We now report the cytogenetic and physical localization of the CCKAR gene...
  25. Plaza A, Merino B, Sánchez Pernaute A, Torres García A, Rubio Herrera M, Ruiz Gayo M. Expression analysis of a cholecystokinin system in human and rat white adipose tissue. Life Sci. 2018;206:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..In rats, CCK-1R (Cckar) and CCK-2R (Cckbr) gene expression was detected in the two types of WAT analyzed as well as in isolated ..
  26. Tiwari A, Rodgers J, Sicard M, Zai C, Likhodi O, Freeman N, et al. Association study of polymorphisms in cholecystokinin gene and its receptors with antipsychotic induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:1484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CCKB receptor gene may play a role in antipsychotic induced weight gain. However, these observations need to be replicated in a larger and independent sample set. ..
  27. Sugeta S, Hirai Y, Maezawa H, Inoue N, Yamazaki Y, Funahashi M. Presynaptically mediated effects of cholecystokinin-8 on the excitability of area postrema neurons in rat brain slices. Brain Res. 2015;1618:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CCK-8 exerts its action via presynaptic CCK-A receptors to facilitate glutamate release onto Ih-negative area postrema cells. ..
  28. Duraisamy A, Bayen S, Saini S, Sharma A, Vats P, Singh S. Changes in ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in a hypoxia-induced anorexia rat model. Endokrynol Pol. 2015;66:334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Stomach cholecystokinin receptor (CCKAR), PPARα, and PPARδ decreased...
  29. Hsu L, Hung K, Wu H, Liu W, She M, Lee T, et al. Gut-derived cholecystokinin contributes to visceral hypersensitivity via nerve growth factor-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;31:1594-603 pubmed publisher
    ..This new model successfully recapitulates intestinal hypernociception induced by stress or Giardia. Colonic CCK contributes to visceral hypersensitivity caused by stress, but not by Giardia, partly via NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth. ..
  30. Weis K, Raetzman L. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016;313:204-214 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene...
  31. Liang T, Dolai S, Xie L, Winter E, Orabi A, Karimian N, et al. Ex vivo human pancreatic slice preparations offer a valuable model for studying pancreatic exocrine biology. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:5957-5969 pubmed publisher
    ..Human pancreas slices represent excellent preparations to examine pancreatic cell biology and pathobiology and could help screen for potential treatments for human pancreatitis. ..
  32. Hara H, Ohyama S, Hira T. Luminal dietary protein, not amino acids, induces pancreatic protease via CCK in pancreaticobiliary-diverted rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;278:G937-45 pubmed
    ..The induction was found to be dependent on the direct action of CCK on the pancreas. Pancreatic growth induced by high-protein feeding in PBD rats may depend at least partly on absorbed amino acids...
  33. Varga G, Balint A, Burghardt B, D Amato M. Involvement of endogenous CCK and CCK1 receptors in colonic motor function. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;141:1275-84 pubmed
    ..These drugs are therefore potentially of great value in the treatment of motility disorders such as constipation and constipation-predominant IBS. ..
  34. Christoforou A, Le Hellard S, Thomson P, Morris S, Tenesa A, Pickard B, et al. Association analysis of the chromosome 4p15-p16 candidate region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:1011-25 pubmed
    ..KIAA0746, PPARGC1A, GPR125, CCKAR and DKFZp761B107 overlapped with these regions...
  35. Liu J, Gao L, Wen S, Lu H, Zhang J, Sun J, et al. Responses of human sling and clasp fibers to cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin through CCK receptors. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1608-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the final sentence of the abstract 'CCKA'was corrected to 'CCK-A'. In the article title '(CKK)' was corrected to '(CCK)'.]. ..
  36. Washington M, Williams K, Sayegh A. The feeding responses evoked by endogenous cholecystokinin are regulated by different gastrointestinal sites. Horm Behav. 2016;78:79-85 pubmed publisher
    The current study tested the hypothesis that cholecystokinin (CCK) A receptor (CCKAR) in areas supplied by the celiac artery (CA), stomach and upper duodenum, and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), small and parts of the large ..
  37. Norden Krichmar T, Gizer I, Phillips E, Wilhelmsen K, Schork N, Ehlers C. Variants Near CCK Receptors are Associated With Electrophysiological Responses to Pre-pulse Startle Stimuli in a Mexican American Cohort. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015;18:727-37 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA was genotyped using an Affymetrix Axiom Exome1A chip. An association analysis revealed that the CCKAR and CCKBR (cholecystokinin A and B receptor) genes each had a nearby variant that showed suggestive significance ..
  38. Agersnap M, Zhang M, Harkany T, Hokfelt T, Rehfeld J. Nonsulfated cholecystokinins in cerebral neurons. Neuropeptides. 2016;60:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that only a small fraction of neuronal CCK is nonsulfated. The intracellular distribution of nonsulfated CCK in neurons suggests that they contribute only modestly to the CCK transmitter activity. ..
  39. Iwasaki Y, Dezaki K, Kumari P, Kakei M, Yada T. Ghrelin counteracts insulin-induced activation of vagal afferent neurons via growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Neuropeptides. 2015;52:55-60 pubmed publisher
  40. Wang E, Li W, Yan X, Chen X, Liu Q, Feng C, et al. Vagal afferent-dependent cholecystokinin modulation of visceral pain requires central amygdala NMDA-NR2B receptors in rats. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27:1333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The pronociception induced by systemic CCK, which is vagal afferent-dependent, requires activation of CeA NMDA-NR2B receptors. ..
  41. Singh R, Mittal B, Ghoshal U. Functional dyspepsia is associated with GNβ3 C825T and CCK-AR T/C polymorphism. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;28:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, CCK-AR polymorphism is protective against FD. ..
  42. Takahashi Iwanaga H, Kimura S, Konno K, Watanabe M, Iwanaga T. Intrarenal signaling mediated by CCK plays a role in salt intake-induced natriuresis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F20-F29 pubmed publisher
    ..the CCK peptide, 3) an in situ hybridization method and immunohistochemistry for the CCK-specific receptor CCKAR; 4) confocal image analysis of receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in isolated renal tubules; and <..
  43. Sankoda A, Harada N, Iwasaki K, Yamane S, Murata Y, Shibue K, et al. Long-Chain Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 Mediates Oil-Induced GIP Secretion Through CCK in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1172-1180 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that corn oil-induced GIP secretion from K cells involves both GPR120 and GPR40 signaling pathways, and GPR120-induced GIP secretion is indirectly mediated by CCK. ..
  44. Zhang Y, Zhu J, Guo L, Zou Y, Wang F, Shao H, et al. Cholecystokinin protects mouse liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;48:180-186 pubmed publisher
    ..A murine model of 60min partial hepatic ischemia followed by 6h of reperfusion was used in this study. CCK and CCKAR Levels in blood and liver were detected at 3h, 6h, 12h and 24h after reperfusion...
  45. Tinoco A, Valenciano A, Gómez Boronat M, Blanco A, Nisembaum L, De Pedro N, et al. Two cholecystokinin receptor subtypes are identified in goldfish, being the CCKAR involved in the regulation of intestinal motility. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015;187:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial-length mRNAs encoding two CCK receptor isoforms (CCKAR and CCKBR...
  46. Vanakoski J, Virkkunen M, Naukkarinen H, Goldman D. No association of CCK and CCK(B) receptor polymorphisms with alcohol dependence. Psychiatry Res. 2001;102:1-7 pubmed
    ..The role of the CCK(A) the receptor in alcohol dependence remains open until additional DNA sequence variants for this gene become available. ..
  47. Shimokata H, Ando F, Niino N, Miyasaka K, Funakoshi A. Cholecystokinin A receptor gene promoter polymorphism and intelligence. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15:196-201 pubmed
    To study the association between Cholecystokinin A receptor (CCKAR) genotypes and intelligence in community-living men and women. Subjects were 2251 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged 40 to 79 years...
  48. Bi S, Ladenheim E, Schwartz G, Moran T. A role for NPY overexpression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus in hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R254-60 pubmed
    ..A similar DMH NPY overexpression was evident in 5-wk-old preobese OLETF rats. These findings suggest a role for DMH NPY upregulation in the etiology of OLETF hyperphagia and obesity...
  49. Giragossian C, Mierke D. Determination of ligand-receptor interactions of cholecystokinin by nuclear magnetic resonance. Life Sci. 2003;73:705-13 pubmed
  50. Goldman J, Goetz C, Berry Kravis E, Leurgans S, Zhou L. Genetic polymorphisms in Parkinson disease subjects with and without hallucinations: an analysis of the cholecystokinin system. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:1280-4 pubmed
    ..presence of the -45 C/T locus in the cholecystokinin (CCK) gene, particularly when combined with the CCK receptor, CCKAR (cholecystokinin A receptor), C polymorphism, was associated with increased hallucination risk...
  51. Archer Lahlou E, Escrieut C, Clerc P, Martinez J, Moroder L, Logsdon C, et al. Molecular mechanism underlying partial and full agonism mediated by the human cholecystokinin-1 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10664-74 pubmed
    The cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that regulates important physiological functions. As for other GPCRs, the molecular basis of full and partial agonism is still far from clearly understood...
  52. Jordan J, Greenway F, Leiter L, Li Z, Jacobson P, Murphy K, et al. Stimulation of cholecystokinin-A receptors with GI181771X does not cause weight loss in overweight or obese patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83:281-7 pubmed
    ..Gastrointestinal side effects were more common with GI181771X than with placebo treatment, whereas hepatobiliary or pancreatic abnormalities did not occur. CCK-A by itself does not have a central role in long-term energy balance. ..
  53. Potter R, Harikumar K, Wu S, Miller L. Differential sensitivity of types 1 and 2 cholecystokinin receptors to membrane cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of membrane cholesterol affects ligand binding and signal transduction of the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor (CCK1R), a Class A GPCR...
  54. Demenis C, McLaughlin J, Smith C. Sulfated Cholecystokinin-8 Promotes CD36-Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake into Primary Mouse Duodenal Enterocytes. Front Physiol. 2017;8:660 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 ?M) completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake...
  55. Yoshida R, Shin M, Yasumatsu K, Takai S, Inoue M, Shigemura N, et al. The Role of Cholecystokinin in Peripheral Taste Signaling in Mice. Front Physiol. 2017;8:866 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, CCK may be a functionally important neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to activate bitter nerve fibers in peripheral taste tissues...
  56. De Weerth A, Pisegna J, Wank S. Guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas possess identical CCK-A receptor subtypes: receptor cloning and expression. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:G1116-21 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that the CCK-A receptors in guinea pig pancreas and gallbladder are identical and do not support previous proposals that they may represent different receptor subtypes...
  57. Delvalle J, Chiba T, Park J, Yamada T. Distinct receptors for cholecystokinin and gastrin on canine fundic D-cells. Am J Physiol. 1993;264:G811-5 pubmed
    ..These studies delineate the presence of distinct CCK-A and CCK-B/gastrin receptors on canine fundic D-cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  58. Funakoshi A, Miyasaka K, Matsumoto H, Yamamori S, Takiguchi S, Kataoka K, et al. Gene structure of human cholecystokinin (CCK) type-A receptor: body fat content is related to CCK type-A receptor gene promoter polymorphism. FEBS Lett. 2000;466:264-6 pubmed
    ..Our study provided the possibility that polymorphism in the promoter region of the CCK-A receptor gene may be one of genetic factors affecting fat deposition. ..
  59. Tachikawa H, Harada S, Kawanishi Y, Okubo T, Shiraishi H. Novel polymorphisms of the human cholecystokinin A receptor gene: an association analysis with schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96:141-5 pubmed
    ..Am J. Med Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:141-145, 2000. ..
  60. Okubo T, Harada S, Higuchi S, Matsushita S. Investigation of quantitative trait loci in the CCKAR gene with susceptibility to alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:2S-5S pubmed
    ..We previously reported genetic variations in the promoter and coding regions of the CCKA receptor (CCKAR), CCKBR, and CCK genes and a possible association between polymorphisms of the CCKAR gene and alcoholism...
  61. Reubi J, Waser B, Gugger M, Friess H, Kleeff J, Kayed H, et al. Distribution of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in normal and diseased human pancreatic tissue. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:98-106 pubmed
    ..Pancreatic acini and ductal pancreatic tumor cells very rarely express CCK2 receptors. These observations suggest that CCK analogues may not be of clinical use to target most of these cancers. ..
  62. Koda M, Ando F, Niino N, Shimokata H, Miyasaka K, Funakoshi A. Association of cholecystokinin 1 receptor and beta3-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms with midlife weight gain. Obes Res. 2004;12:1212-6 pubmed
    We investigated the relationship of polymorphisms in the cholecystokinin 1 receptor [CCK1R; G to T (n-128), A to G (n-81)] and the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR; Trp64Arg) with midlife weight gain...
  63. Park S, Rew J, Lee S, Ki H, Lee K, Cheo J, et al. Association of CCK(1) Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Korean. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;16:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the CCK(1) receptor intron 1 779 T > C polymorphic type was associated with 'IBS-C and IBS-M'. Further studies are needed in larger number of patients with an even distribution of IBS subtypes. ..
  64. Cong P, Pricolo V, Biancani P, Behar J. Effects of cholesterol on CCK-1 receptors and caveolin-3 proteins recycling in human gallbladder muscle. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G742-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Caveolar cholesterol increases the caveolar sequestration of CAV-3 and CCK-1R caused by their reduced recycling to the PM. ..
  65. Wang M, Xie R, Liu R, Jia X, Bao Y, Liu X. Expression of cholecystokinin-1 receptor is correlated with proteinuria in human diabetic nephropathy. Endocrine. 2012;42:329-34 pubmed
    ..Increased CCK-1R expression could be demonstrated in the tubules and the CCK-1R might be implicated in the development of proteinuria in human DN. ..
  66. Zheng C, Fu Q, Shen Y, Xu Q. Investigation of allelic heterogeneity of the CCK-A receptor gene in paranoid schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2012;159B:741-7 pubmed publisher
    The cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) gene has been found to be associated with positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but the results reported to date are inconsistent...
  67. Kennedy K, Gigoux V, Escrieut C, Maigret B, Martinez J, Moroder L, et al. Identification of two amino acids of the human cholecystokinin-A receptor that interact with the N-terminal moiety of cholecystokinin. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2920-6 pubmed
  68. Giragossian C, Mierke D. Intermolecular interactions between cholecystokinin-8 and the third extracellular loop of the cholecystokinin A receptor. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3804-9 pubmed
    ..The results provide unique insight into the molecular interactions and forces important for the binding of CCK-8 to CCK(A)-R. ..
  69. Li Y, Wu X, Zhu J, Owyang C. Intestinal serotonin acts as paracrine substance to mediate pancreatic secretion stimulated by luminal factors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G916-23 pubmed
    ..In this manner, 5-HT acts as a paracrine substance to stimulate pancreatic secretion via a vagal cholinergic pathway...
  70. Schmitz F, Göke M, Otte J, Schrader H, Reimann B, Kruse M, et al. Cellular expression of CCK-A and CCK-B/gastrin receptors in human gastric mucosa. Regul Pept. 2001;102:101-10 pubmed
  71. Cheng Z, Harikumar K, Holicky E, Miller L. Heterodimerization of type A and B cholecystokinin receptors enhance signaling and promote cell growth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52972-9 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the first evidence that heterodimerization of G protein-coupled receptors can form a more "powerful" signaling unit, which has potential clinical significance in promoting cell growth. ..
  72. Xu H, Hsing A, Vogtmann E, Chu L, Cheng J, Gao J, et al. Variants in CCK and CCKAR genes to susceptibility to biliary tract cancers and stones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28:1476-81 pubmed publisher
    ..CCK) is an important modulator of gallbladder motility which functions by activating CCK type-A receptor (CCKAR)...
  73. Kazmi H, Chandra A, Baghel K, Singh A, Nigam J, Parmar D, et al. Differential expression of cholecystokinin A receptor in gallbladder cancer in the young and elderly suggests two subsets of the same disease?. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:625695 pubmed publisher
    b>Cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) is known to be overexpressed in variety of human malignancies but information regarding its expression in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is limited...
  74. Nakajima S, Hira T, Iwaya H, Hara H. Zinc directly stimulates cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells and reduces gastric emptying in rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;430:108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that zinc is a novel stimulant for CCK secretion through the activation of TRPA1 related to intracellular Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) mobilization. ..
  75. Ulrich C, Ferber I, Holicky E, Hadac E, Buell G, Miller L. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the human gallbladder cholecystokinin A receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;193:204-11 pubmed
    ..This should provide an important resource for the analysis of the role of this receptor in human physiology and pathophysiology. ..
  76. Morisset J, Wong H, Walsh J, Laine J, Bourassa J. Pancreatic CCK(B) receptors: their potential roles in somatostatin release and delta-cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G148-56 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the CCK(B) receptors are present in pancreas of four species with exclusive location in islet delta-cells. In such a location, they could be indirectly involved in the control of enzyme secretion...
  77. Lloyd K, Wang J, Solomon T. Acid inhibition by intestinal nutrients mediated by CCK-A receptors but not plasma CCK. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G924-30 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 3.6 pM), lipid (12.3 +/- 2.2 pM), and dextrose (11.9 +/- 1.5 pM). Lipid and carbohydrate inhibit acid secretion by activating CCK-A receptors but not by altering plasma CCK concentrations...
  78. Wang J, Si Y, Liu Z, Yu L. Cholecystokinin, cholecystokinin-A receptor and cholecystokinin-B receptor gene polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:365-9 pubmed
  79. Sanjuan J, Toirac I, Gonzalez J, Leal C, Molto M, Najera C, et al. A possible association between the CCK-AR gene and persistent auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry. 2004;19:349-53 pubmed
    ..The persistent AH group showed an excess of the A1 allele when was compared with episodic or control groups. Our data support the possible role of the CCK-AR gene in the development of persistent AH in schizophrenic patients. ..
  80. Koks S, Nikopensius T, Koido K, Maron E, Altmäe S, Heinaste E, et al. Analysis of SNP profiles in patients with major depressive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;9:167-74 pubmed
    ..SNPs in CCKAR, DRD1, DRD2, and HTR2C genes showed nominally significant associations with MDD...
  81. Liu J, Zhang J, Liu X, Drew P. Investigation of cholecystokinin receptors in the human lower esophageal sphincter. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:6554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01). CCK binding modulates the contractile function of the lower esophageal sphincter through differential binding to the CCK-A receptor on the sling and clasp fibers. ..
  82. Rai R, Kim J, Tewari M, Shukla H. Heterogeneous expression of cholecystokinin and gastrin receptor in stomach and pancreatic cancer: An immunohistochemical study. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12:411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Though, the exact characterization of CCK and Gs receptors subtype (cholecystokinin type A receptor [CCKAR] and cholecystokinin type B receptor/gastrin receptor [CCKBR/GR]) in stomach cancer (SC) and ..
  83. De Weerth A, Pisegna J, Huppi K, Wank S. Molecular cloning, functional expression and chromosomal localization of the human cholecystokinin type A receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:811-8 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the localization, pharmacology and function of CCKA receptors (CCKAR) in humans...
  84. Gigoux V, Escrieut C, Silvente Poirot S, Maigret B, Gouilleux L, Fehrentz J, et al. Met-195 of the cholecystokinin-A receptor interacts with the sulfated tyrosine of cholecystokinin and is crucial for receptor transition to high affinity state. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:14380-6 pubmed
  85. Schmitz F, Schrader H, Otte J, Schmitz H, Stuber E, Herzig K, et al. Identification of CCK-B/gastrin receptor splice variants in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regul Pept. 2001;101:25-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that wild-type transcripts of both CCK receptor subtypes and splice variants of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor are expressed in nontransformed human mononuclear cells and that gastrin exhibits antiproliferative effects. ..
  86. Tachikawa H, Harada S, Kawanishi Y, Okubo T, Suzuki T. Linked polymorphisms (-333G>T and -286A>G) in the promoter region of the CCK-A receptor gene may be associated with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2001;103:147-55 pubmed
    Cholecystokinin A receptors (CCKAR) modulate CCK-stimulated dopamine release, and mutations in the CCKAR gene may predispose affected individuals to schizophrenia...
  87. Ise K, Akiyoshi J, Horinouchi Y, Tsutsumi T, Isogawa K, Nagayama H. Association between the CCK-A receptor gene and panic disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;118B:29-31 pubmed
    ..Recently, we reported that lack of CCKAR had a significant anxiogenic-like effect in rats...
  88. Archer Lahlou E, Tikhonova I, Escrieut C, Dufresne M, Seva C, Pradayrol L, et al. Modeled structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor: the cholecystokinin-1 receptor. J Med Chem. 2005;48:180-91 pubmed
    The Cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK1R) mediates actions of CCK in areas of the central nervous system and of the gut. It is a potential target to treat a number of diseases...
  89. Takimoto T, Terayama H, Waga C, Okayama T, Ikeda K, Fukunishi I, et al. Cholecystokinin (CCK) and the CCKA receptor gene polymorphism, and smoking behavior. Psychiatry Res. 2005;133:123-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that polymorphisms of the CCK gene may be one of the risk factors for smoking behavior. ..
  90. Zhu J, Han T, Chen S, Jiang Y, Zhang S. Gallbladder motor function, plasma cholecystokinin and cholecystokinin receptor of gallbladder in cholesterol stone patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:1685-9 pubmed
  91. Wu S, Harikumar K, Burgess R, Reeve J, Miller L. Effects of cholecystokinin-58 on type 1 cholecystokinin receptor function and regulation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G641-7 pubmed publisher
  92. Ping J, Gu Z, Gao F, Cong B, Ling Y. [The expression of cholecystokinin-octapeptide receptor in vascular endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2009;21:548-51 pubmed
    ..05), but showed no significant difference compared with the control group (both P>0.05). Both CCK-AR mRNA and CCK-BR mRNA are expressed in ECV-304. LPS can up-regulate the expression of CCK-AR mRNA and CCK-BR mRNA. ..