Gene Symbol: Caspase-9
Description: caspase 9
Alias: APAF-3, APAF3, ICE-LAP6, MCH6, PPP1R56, caspase-9, ICE-like apoptotic protease 6, apoptotic protease MCH-6, apoptotic protease activating factor 3, caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 56
Species: human
Products:     Caspase-9

Top Publications

  1. Cohen G. Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis. Biochem J. 1997;326 ( Pt 1):1-16 pubmed
    ..Cells undergoing apoptosis following triggering of death receptors execute the death programme by activating a hierarchy of caspases, with caspase-8 and possibly caspase-10 being at or near the apex of this apoptotic cascade. ..
  2. Mei Y, Yong J, Liu H, Shi Y, Meinkoth J, Dreyfuss G, et al. tRNA binds to cytochrome c and inhibits caspase activation. Mol Cell. 2010;37:668-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that tRNA, in addition to its well-established role in gene expression, may determine cellular responsiveness to apoptotic stimuli. ..
  3. Theodoropoulos G, Michalopoulos N, Panoussopoulos S, Taka S, Gazouli M. Effects of caspase-9 and survivin gene polymorphisms in pancreatic cancer risk and tumor characteristics. Pancreas. 2010;39:976-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The caspase-9 G allele confers increased susceptibility to pancreatic cancer development, and the survivin C carriage status may be related to aggressive features of this malignancy. ..
  4. Andreoli V, Trecroci F, La Russa A, Valentino P, Condino F, Latorre V, et al. CASP-9: A susceptibility locus for multiple sclerosis in Italy. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;210:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the presence of the G/G genotype represents a higher risk factor in our MS population and a differential production of CASP-9 might be a contributory factor in determining the severity of MS. ..
  5. Chandra D, Choy G, Deng X, Bhatia B, Daniel P, Tang D. Association of active caspase 8 with the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis: potential roles in cleaving BAP31 and caspase 3 and mediating mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum cross talk in etoposide-induced cell death. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6592-607 pubmed
    It was recently demonstrated that during apoptosis, active caspase 9 and caspase 3 rapidly accumulate in the mitochondrion-enriched membrane fraction (D. Chandra and D. G. Tang, J. Biol. Chem.278:17408-17420, 2003)...
  6. Manns J, Daubrawa M, Driessen S, Paasch F, Hoffmann N, Löffler A, et al. Triggering of a novel intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine: activation of caspase-9 in the absence of Apaf-1. FASEB J. 2011;25:3250-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Since staurosporine derivatives have proven efficacy in clinical trials, activation of this novel pathway might represent a powerful target to induce apoptosis in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. ..
  7. Lan Q, Zheng T, Chanock S, Zhang Y, Shen M, Wang S, et al. Genetic variants in caspase genes and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:823-7 pubmed
    ..The striking protective associations observed for polymorphisms in all four genes for NHL and/or one or more subtypes suggest that genetic variation in CASP genes may play an important role in the etiology of NHL. ..
  8. Liamarkopoulos E, Gazouli M, Aravantinos G, Tzanakis N, Theodoropoulos G, Rizos S, et al. Caspase 8 and caspase 9 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2011;14:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The CASP8 -652 6N ins/del and the CASP9 -1263 A>G polymorphisms were observed to play a protective role in GC predisposition. ..
  9. Kesarwani P, Mandal R, Maheshwari R, Mittal R. Influence of caspases 8 and 9 gene promoter polymorphism on prostate cancer susceptibility and early development of hormone refractory prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2011;107:471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CASP8 polymorphism may influence the progression of prostate cancer disease to a hormone refractory state. ..

More Information


  1. Adams S, Aksenova M, Aksenov M, Mactutus C, Booze R. ER-? mediates 17?-estradiol attenuation of HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling. Synapse. 2010;64:829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..182780 reversed estrogen downregulation of Bax and caspase 3, while estrogen effects on Tat-induced Bcl-2 and caspase 9 expression were maintained...
  2. Zou H, Li Y, Liu X, Wang X. An APAF-1.cytochrome c multimeric complex is a functional apoptosome that activates procaspase-9. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:11549-56 pubmed
    ..The stoichiometric ratio of procaspase-9 to APAF-1 is approximately 1 to 1 in the complex. Once activated, caspase-9 disassociates from the complex and becomes available to cleave and activate downstream caspases such as caspase-3. ..
  3. Bratton S, Walker G, Srinivasula S, Sun X, Butterworth M, Alnemri E, et al. Recruitment, activation and retention of caspases-9 and -3 by Apaf-1 apoptosome and associated XIAP complexes. EMBO J. 2001;20:998-1009 pubmed
    ..Thus, XIAP may regulate cell death by inhibiting the activation of caspase-3 within the apoptosome and by preventing release of active caspase-3 from the complex. ..
  4. Cardone M, Roy N, Stennicke H, Salvesen G, Franke T, Stanbridge E, et al. Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation. Science. 1998;282:1318-21 pubmed
    ..Mutant pro-Casp9(Ser196Ala) was resistant to Akt-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition in vitro and in cells, resulting in Akt-resistant induction of apoptosis. Thus, caspases can be directly regulated by protein phosphorylation. ..
  5. Srinivasula S, Ahmad M, Fernandes Alnemri T, Alnemri E. Autoactivation of procaspase-9 by Apaf-1-mediated oligomerization. Mol Cell. 1998;1:949-57 pubmed
    ..Once activated, caspase-9 can initiate a caspase cascade involving the downstream executioners caspase-3, -6, and -7. ..
  6. Park J, Park J, Jang J, Choi J, Kim K, Cha S, et al. Caspase 9 promoter polymorphisms and risk of primary lung cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1963-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CASP-9 promoter polymorphisms affect CASP-9 expression and contribute to genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. ..
  7. Muthumani K, Hwang D, Desai B, Zhang D, Dayes N, Green D, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37820-31 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we observed that with both vectors, caspase 9, but not caspase 8, was activated following infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell with either Vpr-..
  8. Deveraux Q, Roy N, Stennicke H, Van Arsdale T, Zhou Q, Srinivasula S, et al. IAPs block apoptotic events induced by caspase-8 and cytochrome c by direct inhibition of distinct caspases. EMBO J. 1998;17:2215-23 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that IAPs can suppress different apoptotic pathways by inhibiting distinct caspases and identify pro-caspase-9 as a new target for IAP-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. ..
  9. Hu Y, Benedict M, Wu D, Inohara N, Nunez G. Bcl-XL interacts with Apaf-1 and inhibits Apaf-1-dependent caspase-9 activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4386-91 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that Bcl-XL associates with caspase-9 and Apaf-1, and show that Bcl-XL inhibits the maturation of caspase-9 mediated by Apaf-1, a process that is evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. ..
  10. Li P, Nijhawan D, Budihardjo I, Srinivasula S, Ahmad M, Alnemri E, et al. Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade. Cell. 1997;91:479-89 pubmed
  11. Deveraux Q, Reed J. IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:239-52 pubmed
  12. Roggero R, Robert Hebmann V, Harrington S, Roland J, Vergne L, Jaleco S, et al. Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 to CXCR4 induces mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis independently of Fas signaling. J Virol. 2001;75:7637-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, this gp120-mediated apoptotic pathway may contribute to CD4(+) T-cell depletion in AIDS. ..
  13. Gangwar R, Mandhani A, Mittal R. Caspase 9 and caspase 8 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to bladder cancer in north Indian population. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2028-34 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of apoptosis plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the association of Caspase 9 and Caspase 8 gene polymorphism with bladder cancer (BC) susceptibility...
  14. Nie Z, Phenix B, Lum J, Alam A, Lynch D, Beckett B, et al. HIV-1 protease processes procaspase 8 to cause mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase cleavage and nuclear fragmentation. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:1172-84 pubmed
    ..The effect of HIV-1 protease is not seen in T cell extracts which have undetectable levels of procaspase 8, indicating a specificity and requirement for procaspase 8. ..
  15. Azuma A, Matsuo A, Suzuki T, Kurosawa T, Zhang X, Aida Y. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase and apoptosis via disruption of mitochondrial function in rodent cells. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:670-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it appears that Vpr acts species-specifically with respect to induction of cell cycle arrest but not of apoptosis. ..
  16. Kuwahara D, Tsutsumi K, Kobayashi T, Hyoudou M, Koizuka I. [Inhibition of caspase-9 activity in cisplatin-resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2002;105:152-7 pubmed
    ..This inhibition mechanism may be independent of the release of Cyt c into the cytoplasm. ..
  17. Xu W, Jiang S, Xu Y, Chen B, Li Y, Zong F, et al. A meta-analysis of caspase 9 polymorphisms in promoter and exon sequence on cancer susceptibility. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37443 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in promoter and exon of caspase 9 were shown to confer genetic susceptibility to multiple cancers, but the results were inconsistent...
  18. Pan G, O Rourke K, Dixit V. Caspase-9, Bcl-XL, and Apaf-1 form a ternary complex. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5841-5 pubmed
    ..Consistent with a central role for caspase-9, a dominant negative form effectively inhibited cell death initiated by a wide variety of inducers. ..
  19. Hadano S, Nasir J, Nichol K, Rasper D, Vaillancourt J, Sherer S, et al. Genomic organization of the human caspase-9 gene on Chromosome 1p36. 1-p36.3. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:757-60 pubmed
  20. Shostak L, Ludlow J, Fisk J, Pursell S, Rimel B, Nguyen D, et al. Roles of p53 and caspases in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by HIV-1 vpr. Exp Cell Res. 1999;251:156-65 pubmed
    ..Boc-D-FMK significantly reduced the numbers of apoptotic cells induced by vpr. Therefore, we conclude that vpr-induced apoptosis is effected via the activation of caspases. ..
  21. Stewart S, Poon B, Song J, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr induces apoptosis through caspase activation. J Virol. 2000;74:3105-11 pubmed
    ..Finally, inhibition of caspase activity and subsequent inhibition of apoptosis results in increased viral expression, suggesting that therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing Vpr-induced apoptosis in vivo require careful consideration. ..
  22. Lee S, Choi Y, Choi J, Kim M, Kim J, Jung D, et al. Polymorphisms in the caspase genes and the risk of lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..54, 95% confidence interval = 1.28-5.02, p = 0.008, respectively). These results suggest that a combined analysis of these three CASP gene polymorphisms might better predict the risk of lung cancer than analysis of a single polymorphism. ..
  23. Srinivasula S, Hegde R, Saleh A, Datta P, Shiozaki E, Chai J, et al. A conserved XIAP-interaction motif in caspase-9 and Smac/DIABLO regulates caspase activity and apoptosis. Nature. 2001;410:112-6 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal a mechanism in which binding to the BIR3 domain by two conserved peptides, one from Smac and the other one from caspase-9, has opposing effects on caspase activity and apoptosis. ..
  24. Theodoropoulos G, Gazouli M, Vaiopoulou A, Leandrou M, Nikouli S, Vassou E, et al. Polymorphisms of caspase 8 and caspase 9 gene and colorectal cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011;26:1113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The CASP9 -1263 A>G polymorphism was observed to play a protective role in CRC predisposition, while the CASP9 -1263 GG genotype may confer a better prognosis at CRC patients. ..
  25. Le Rouzic E, Benichou S. The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle. Retrovirology. 2005;2:11 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will mainly focus on vpr from HIV-1 and discuss the most recent developments in our understanding of Vpr functions and its role during the virus replication cycle. ..
  26. Muthumani K, Zhang D, Hwang D, Kudchodkar S, Dayes N, Desai B, et al. Adenovirus encoding HIV-1 Vpr activates caspase 9 and induces apoptotic cell death in both p53 positive and negative human tumor cell lines. Oncogene. 2002;21:4613-25 pubmed
    ..was induced through the mitochondrial pathway as we observed changes in the cytochrome c content accompanied by caspase 9 activation...
  27. Hirano A, Nagai H, Harada H, Haga S, Kajiwara T, Emi M. Two novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the Caspase-9 (CASP9) gene in the Japanese population. Genes Immun. 2001;2:117-8 pubmed
    ..As the gene is implicated in apoptotic cascade, the polymorphic sites will serve as useful markers for genetic studying of disorders affecting immune response and cancer susceptibility in humans. ..
  28. Lou Y, Fang C, Li J. [A study on the expression of CASP9 gene and its polymorphism distribution in non-small cell lung cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2007;24:59-62 pubmed
    To explore the expression of caspase 9(CASP9) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution of CASP9 in NSCLC patients and normal people...
  29. Hosgood H, Baris D, Zhang Y, Zhu Y, Zheng T, Yeager M, et al. Caspase polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma. Hematol Oncol. 2008;26:148-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective associations observed in two key caspase genes suggest that genetic variation in CASP genes may play an important role in the aetiology of multiple myeloma. ..
  30. Riedl S, Li W, Chao Y, Schwarzenbacher R, Shi Y. Structure of the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 bound to ADP. Nature. 2005;434:926-33 pubmed
    ..Apaf-1 binds to and hydrolyses ATP/dATP and their analogues. The binding and hydrolysis of nucleotides seem to drive conformational changes that are essential for the formation of the apoptosome and the activation of caspase-9. ..
  31. Malladi S, Challa Malladi M, Fearnhead H, Bratton S. The Apaf-1*procaspase-9 apoptosome complex functions as a proteolytic-based molecular timer. EMBO J. 2009;28:1916-25 pubmed publisher
  32. Shiozaki E, Chai J, Rigotti D, Riedl S, Li P, Srinivasula S, et al. Mechanism of XIAP-mediated inhibition of caspase-9. Mol Cell. 2003;11:519-27 pubmed
    ..Thus, XIAP sequesters caspase-9 in a monomeric state, which serves to prevent catalytic activity. These studies, in conjunction with other observations, define a unified mechanism for the activation of all caspases. ..
  33. Srinivasula S, Fernandes Alnemri T, Zangrilli J, Robertson N, Armstrong R, Wang L, et al. The Ced-3/interleukin 1beta converting enzyme-like homolog Mch6 and the lamin-cleaving enzyme Mch2alpha are substrates for the apoptotic mediator CPP32. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27099-106 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the identification and cloning of a novel human ASCP named Mch6 from Jurkat T lymphocytes...
  34. Hu Y, Li K, Asaduzzaman M, Cuella R, Shi H, Raguz S, et al. MiR-106b~25 cluster regulates multidrug resistance in an ABC transporter-independent manner via downregulation of EP300. Oncol Rep. 2016;35:1170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, miR-106b~25 cluster controls transporter-independent MDR by apoptosis evasion via downregulation of EP300. ..
  35. Felix L, Serafim C, Valentim A, Antunes L, Matos M, Coimbra A. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish. Toxicol Lett. 2017;279:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. ..
  36. Sankhe S, Manousakidi S, Antigny F, Arthur Ataam J, Bentebbal S, Ruchon Y, et al. T-type Ca2+ channels elicit pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic responses through impaired PP2A/Akt1 signaling in PASMCs from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1631-1641 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in iPAH cells, Akt1 is no longer able to regulate caspase 9 activation, whereas T-type channel overexpression reverses PP2A defect in iPAH cells but reinforces the ..
  37. Lin Q, Que F, Gu C, Zhong D, Zhou D, Kong Y, et al. ABT-263 induces G1/G0-phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human esophageal cancer cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017;38:1632-1641 pubmed publisher
    ..evidenced by increased the Annexin V-positive cell population and elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9 and PARP...
  38. Sun H, Liu L, Lu J, Qiu S, Yang C, Yi H, et al. Cyclopeptide Smac mimetics as antagonists of IAP proteins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:3043-6 pubmed
    ..Compound 2 potently inhibits cancer cell growth and is 5-8 times more potent than the initial lead compound...
  39. Ma S, Zhong D, Ma P, Li G, Hua W, Sun Y, et al. Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Decline by Regulating the Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway and IL-23/IL-17 Expression in db/db Mice. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1838-1850 pubmed publisher
    ..H2S treatment may help prevent the progression of apoptotic hippocampal neurons in db/db mice and inform the development of a new therapeutic target. ..
  40. Akiyama H, Endo M, Matsui T, Katsuda I, Emi N, Kawamoto Y, et al. Agaritine from Agaricus blazei Murrill induces apoptosis in the leukemic cell line U937. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report suggesting that the anti-tumor effect of agaritine is mediated through apoptosis. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of anti-tumor drugs toward leukemia patients. ..
  41. Chaudhry C, Davis J, Zhang Y, Posy S, Lei M, Shen H, et al. Building homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays for characterization of bivalent inhibitors of an inhibitor of apoptosis protein target. Anal Biochem. 2016;497:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also explores how increased inhibitor valency can lead to enhanced potency at multimeric proteins such as IAP. ..
  42. Long H, Sun L. Molecular characterization reveals involvement of four caspases in the antibacterial immunity of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;57:340-349 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an involvement of fish caspases in bacteria-induced immune response and demonstrate for the first time that caspase-1, 2, 3, and 9 are essential to the optimal defense against bacterial infection in fish. ..
  43. Xu X, He Y, Miao X, Wu Y, Han J, Wang Q, et al. Cell adhesion induces overexpression of chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene (CHD1L) and contributes to cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in multiple myeloma cells. Leuk Res. 2016;47:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we will propose strategies for developing a CHD1L inhibitor for potential treatment of MM. ..
  44. Dandash F, Leger D, Fidanzi Dugas C, Nasri S, Brégier F, Granet R, et al. In vitro anticancer activity of new gold(III) porphyrin complexes in colon cancer cells. J Inorg Biochem. 2017;177:27-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, SN1 and SN2 induced apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, since they lead to the cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and up-regulating Bax...
  45. Shen K, Zhang Y, Lv X, Chen X, Zhou R, Nguyen L, et al. Molecular Mechanisms Involving Sigma-1 Receptor in Cell Apoptosis of BV-2 Microglial Cells Induced by Methamphetamine. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2016;15:857-65 pubmed
    ..Understanding the link between ? -1R and apoptosis will lead to development of therapeutic strategies targeting methamphetamine-mediated microglial death/dysfunction. ..
  46. Fernando P, Piao M, Hewage S, Kang H, Yoo E, Koh Y, et al. Photo-protective effect of sargachromenol against UVB radiation-induced damage through modulating cellular antioxidant systems and apoptosis in human keratinocytes. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;43:112-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Pecháčková S, Burdova K, Benada J, Kleiblova P, Jenikova G, Macurek L. Inhibition of WIP1 phosphatase sensitizes breast cancer cells to genotoxic stress and to MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3. Oncotarget. 2016;7:14458-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and doxorubicin or nutlin-3 potentiated cell death through a strong induction of p53 pathway and activation of caspase 9. We conclude that efficient inhibition of WIP1 by GSK2830371 sensitizes breast cancer cells with amplified PPM1D ..
  48. Ha K, Kim B, Kim K, Oh I, Seo J. Apoptosis in the sequestrated nucleus pulposus compared to the remaining nucleus pulposus in the same patient. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathways involved in chondrocyte apoptosis of the SNP and the RNP differed among individuals and included intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways. ..
  49. Dossa R, Cunningham T, Sommermeyer D, Medina Rodriguez I, Biernacki M, Foster K, et al. Development of T cell immunotherapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients at risk of leukemia relapse. Blood. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..a CD8 co-receptor to promote function of the class I-restricted TCR in CD4+ T cells; 3) an inducible caspase 9 safety switch, to enable elimination of the HA-1 TCR T cells in case of toxicity, and; 4) a CD34-CD20 epitope to ..
  50. Xu W, Yu H, Ma R, Ma L, Liu Q, Shan H, et al. Apelin protects against myocardial ischemic injury by inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1. Oncotarget. 2017;8:100034-100044 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the inhibition of Drp-1 activation by Apelin is a novel mechanism of cardioprotection against MI injury. ..
  51. Kang H, Wang B, Zhang J, Liu M, Li Y. Combination of temsirolimus and adriamycin exhibits an enhanced antitumor effect in hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017;41:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies are warranted to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regimen in the future. ..
  52. Han T, Tian K, Pan H, Liu Y, Xu F, Li Z, et al. Novel hybrids of brefeldin A and nitrogen mustards with improved antiproliferative selectivity: Design, synthesis and antitumor biological evaluation. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;150:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The caspase-9 and -3 levels were also up-regulated. ..
  53. Chang C, Korivi M, Huang H, Thiyagarajan V, Lin K, Huang P, et al. Inhibition of ROS production, autophagy or apoptosis signaling reversed the anticancer properties of Antrodia salmonea in triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;103:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, AS crucially involved in execution/propagation of autophagic- or apoptotic-death of MDA-MB-231 cells, and decreased tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. ..
  54. Gonzalez D, Espino J, Bejarano I, Lopez J, Rodriguez A, Pariente J. Caspase-3 and -9 are activated in human myeloid HL-60 cells by calcium signal. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;333:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that UTP- and thapsigargin-induced caspase-3 and -9 activation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization is dependent on rises in [Ca(2+)](c) in human myeloid HL-60 cells. ..
  55. Chauhan D, Tian Z, Zhou B, Kuhn D, Orlowski R, Raje N, et al. In vitro and in vivo selective antitumor activity of a novel orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 against multiple myeloma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:5311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our preclinical study supports clinical evaluation of MLN9708, alone or in combination, as a potential MM therapy. ..
  56. Hu W, Dong H, Li Y, Ojcius D, Li S, Yan J. Bid-Induced Release of AIF/EndoG from Mitochondria Causes Apoptosis of Macrophages during Infection with Leptospira interrogans. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:471 pubmed publisher
  57. Wang Y, Xia C, Lun Z, Lv Y, Chen W, Li T. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK and caspase-9 regulates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by tetra-?-(4-carboxyphenoxy) phthalocyanine zinc photodynamic therapy in LoVo cells. Oncol Rep. 2018;39:61-70 pubmed publisher
  58. Wang X, Yi Y, Lv Q, Zhang J, Wu K, Wu W, et al. Novel 1,3,5-triazine derivatives exert potent anti-cervical cancer effects by modulating Bax, Bcl2 and Caspases expression. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 7p also increased the proportions of HeLa cells in G0/G1 and S-phase and significantly decreased that of G2/M-phase. The effects of 7p on C-caspase-3, C-caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax expression in HeLa cells were also determined...
  59. Costantini P, Bruey J, Castedo M, Metivier D, Loeffler M, Susin S, et al. Pre-processed caspase-9 contained in mitochondria participates in apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:82-8 pubmed
    ..Bcl-2-mediated regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization may contribute to apoptosis control by preventing mitochondrial, pre-processed caspase-9 from interacting with its cytosolic activators. ..
  60. Martin M, Allan L, Lickrish M, Sampson C, Morrice N, Clarke P. Protein kinase A regulates caspase-9 activation by Apaf-1 downstream of cytochrome c. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15449-55 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that extracellular signals that elevate cyclic AMP and activate protein kinase A may suppress apoptosis by inhibiting apoptosome formation downstream of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. ..
  61. Kim Y, Sung S, Tang Y, Choi E, Choi Y, Hwang Y, et al. Protective Effect of Taurine on Mice with Doxorubicin-induced Acute Kidney Injury. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;975 Pt 2:1191-1201 pubmed publisher
    ..model displayed a significant increase in the renal expression of apoptosis-related proteins (p53, phospho-p53, caspase 9, and caspase 3), whereas in the taurine-treated mice, the augmented expression of renal inflammation-related ..
  62. Ho F, Tsang W, Kong S, Kwok T. The critical role of caspases activation in hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:1131-7 pubmed
    ..Addition of catalase during reoxygenation was found to attenuate reoxygenation induced apoptosis and caspase activation. ..
  63. Denault J, Eckelman B, Shin H, Pop C, Salvesen G. Caspase 3 attenuates XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein)-mediated inhibition of caspase 9. Biochem J. 2007;405:11-9 pubmed
    During apoptosis, the initiator caspase 9 is activated at the apoptosome after which it activates the executioner caspases 3 and 7 by proteolysis...
  64. Martin M, Allan L, Mancini E, Clarke P. The docking interaction of caspase-9 with ERK2 provides a mechanism for the selective inhibitory phosphorylation of caspase-9 at threonine 125. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3854-65 pubmed
    ..This selectivity may be important for the antiapoptotic role of classical MAPKs in contrast to the proapoptotic roles of stress-activated MAPKs. ..
  65. Du Y, Liu G, Wang J, Zhao Y, Li S, Chen J, et al. Caspase-dependent molecular mechanisms of anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody mDRA-6 inducing apoptosis of human leukemia Jurkat cells. Ai Zheng. 2009;28:112-6 pubmed
    ..mDRA-6 can induce apoptosis of Jurkat cells via the Caspase-dependent and mitochondrial pathways. ..
  66. Wu Y, Ni J, Qi M, Cao C, Shao Y, Xu L, et al. Associations of genetic variation in CASP3 gene with noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population: a case-control study. Environ Health. 2017;16:78 pubmed publisher
    ..There were joint effects of working time and CASP3 polymorphisms on NIHL risk (P < 0.05). Genetic variations in the CASP3 gene and the joint effects of working time and CASP3 polymorphisms may modify the risk of developing NIHL. ..
  67. Zhang X, Lan L, Niu L, Lu J, Li C, Guo M, et al. Oxidative stress regulates cellular bioenergetics in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..that H2O2 induces apoptosis in TE-1 cells through the activation of PARP, Caspase 3, and Caspase 9. Therefore, our findings indicate that CoCl2 and H2O2 could cause mitochondrial ..
  68. Gondi C, Dinh D, Gujrati M, Rao J. Simultaneous downregulation of uPAR and MMP-9 induces overexpression of the FADD-associated protein RIP and activates caspase 9-mediated apoptosis in gliomas. Int J Oncol. 2008;33:783-90 pubmed
    ..An increase in caspase 9 expression was observed in cells transfected with pUM whereas no change in the level of caspase 9 was observed ..
  69. Safarzadeh E, Delazar A, Kazemi T, Orangi M, Shanehbandi D, Esnaashari S, et al. The Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Scrophularia Atropatana Extracts on Human Breast Cancer Cells. Adv Pharm Bull. 2017;7:381-389 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that dichloromethane extract of Scrophularia atropatana has an apoptotic effects and it can be developed as anticancer agents...
  70. Wang R, Chen Z, Wu J, Xia F, Sun Q, Sun A, et al. Preconditioning with carbon monoxide inhalation promotes retinal ganglion cell survival against optic nerve crush via inhibition of the apoptotic pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
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