Gene Symbol: caspase-3
Description: caspase 3
Alias: CPP32, CPP32B, SCA-1, caspase-3, CASP-3, CPP-32, PARP cleavage protease, SREBP cleavage activity 1, apopain, caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine protease, cysteine protease CPP32, procaspase3, protein Yama
Species: human
Products:     caspase-3

Top Publications

  1. Lane J, Lucocq J, Pryde J, Barr F, Woodman P, Allan V, et al. Caspase-mediated cleavage of the stacking protein GRASP65 is required for Golgi fragmentation during apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:495-509 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that GRASP65 is an important structural component required for maintenance of Golgi apparatus integrity. ..
  2. Thieu K, Morrow M, Shedlock D, Schoenly K, Mallilankaraman K, Choo A, et al. HIV-1 Vpr: regulator of viral survival. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:153-62 pubmed
    ..Vpr may therefore be considered among the most important accessory proteins encoded by HIV. ..
  3. Li G, Bukrinsky M, Zhao R. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) and its interactions with host cell. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:178-83 pubmed
  4. Adams S, Aksenova M, Aksenov M, Mactutus C, Booze R. ER-? mediates 17?-estradiol attenuation of HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling. Synapse. 2010;64:829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..ER) activation, as the addition of ER antagonist ICI 182780 reversed estrogen downregulation of Bax and caspase 3, while estrogen effects on Tat-induced Bcl-2 and caspase 9 expression were maintained...
  5. Walsh J, Cullen S, Sheridan C, Lüthi A, Gerner C, Martin S. Executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7 are functionally distinct proteases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12815-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide a molecular basis for the different phenotypes seen in mice lacking either caspase and indicate that these proteases occupy nonredundant roles within the cell death machinery. ..
  6. Louneva N, Cohen J, Han L, Talbot K, Wilson R, Bennett D, et al. Caspase-3 is enriched in postsynaptic densities and increased in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine the anatomical, subcellular, and subsynaptic expression patterns of caspase 3 in both the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of control and AD patients...
  7. Walters J, Pop C, Scott F, Drag M, Swartz P, Mattos C, et al. A constitutively active and uninhibitable caspase-3 zymogen efficiently induces apoptosis. Biochem J. 2009;424:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct activation of procaspase-3 through a conformational switch rather than by chain cleavage may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death. ..
  8. Yoo S, Choi J, Lee W, Choi Y, Kam S, Kim M, et al. Polymorphisms in the CASPASE genes and survival in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:5823-9 pubmed publisher
    ..66; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.26; P = .001). The CASP7 rs2227310 and CASP9 rs4645981 polymorphisms may affect survival in early-stage NSCLC. The analysis of these polymorphisms can help identify patients at high risk for a poor disease outcome. ..
  9. Onouchi Y, Ozaki K, Buns J, Shimizu C, Hamada H, Honda T, et al. Common variants in CASP3 confer susceptibility to Kawasaki disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2898-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that altered CASP3 expression in immune effecter cells influences susceptibility to KD. ..

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Joshi A, Nyakeriga A, Ravi R, Garg H. HIV ENV glycoprotein-mediated bystander apoptosis depends on expression of the CCR5 co-receptor at the cell surface and ENV fusogenic activity. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36404-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that R5 HIV-1-mediated bystander apoptosis is dependent on both CCR5 expression levels as well as fusogenic activity of the Env glycoprotein. ..
  2. Onouchi Y, Suzuki Y, Suzuki H, Terai M, Yasukawa K, Hamada H, et al. ITPKC and CASP3 polymorphisms and risks for IVIG unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion formation in Kawasaki disease. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013;13:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0031). Our findings strongly suggest the existence of genetic factors affecting patients' responses to treatment and the risk for cardiac complications, and provide clues toward understanding the pathophysiology of KD inflammation. ..
  3. Huang S, Bao B, Hour T, Huang C, Yu C, Liu C, et al. Genetic variants in CASP3, BMP5, and IRS2 genes may influence survival in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41219 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that CASP3 rs4862396, BMP5 rs3734444 and IRS2 rs7986346 may affect the survival in patients after ADT for prostate cancer, and the analysis of these SNPs can help identify patients at higher risk of poor outcome. ..
  4. Yao H, Allen J, Zhu X, Callen S, Buch S. Cocaine and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 mediate neurotoxicity through overlapping signaling pathways. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thus underscore the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial and MAPK signal pathways in cocaine and HIV gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. ..
  5. Lan Q, Morton L, Armstrong B, Hartge P, Menashe I, Zheng T, et al. Genetic variation in caspase genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis of 3 population-based case-control studies. Blood. 2009;114:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is noteworthy that genetic variants in CASP8 were associated with risk of all major NHL subtypes. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in caspases may play an important role in lymphomagenesis. ..
  6. Laplante P, Sirois I, Raymond M, Kokta V, Beliveau A, Prat A, et al. Caspase-3-mediated secretion of connective tissue growth factor by apoptotic endothelial cells promotes fibrosis. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..CTGF-immunodepleted SSC failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and skin fibrosis in vivo. These results identify caspase-3 activation in ECs as a novel inducer of CTGF release and fibrogenesis. ..
  7. Würstle M, Laussmann M, Rehm M. The caspase-8 dimerization/dissociation balance is a highly potent regulator of caspase-8, -3, -6 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore highlights a central and so far underappreciated role of caspase-8 dimerization/dissociation in avoiding unwanted cell death by lethal amplification of caspase responses via the caspase-8, -3, -6 loop. ..
  8. Hörnle M, Peters N, Thayaparasingham B, Vörsmann H, Kashkar H, Kulms D. Caspase-3 cleaves XIAP in a positive feedback loop to sensitize melanoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Oncogene. 2011;30:575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular mechanism discovered here appears to have broader implications, because cleavage of XIAP was also shown to accompany cisplatin-induced sensitization of melanoma cells to TRAIL. ..
  9. Kuo H, Yu H, Juo S, Yang K, Wang Y, Liang C, et al. CASP3 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs72689236) and Kawasaki disease in Taiwanese children. J Hum Genet. 2011;56:161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..that G to A substitution of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 5'-untranslated region of caspase 3 (CASP3) (rs72689236), which was associated with nuclear factor of activated T cell-mediated T-cell activation, ..
  10. Gu S, Wu Q, Zhao X, Wu W, Gao Z, Tan X, et al. Association of CASP3 polymorphism with hematologic toxicity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:1451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No other association was found. In conclusion, for the first time, our study suggests that CASP3 rs6948 might influence CASP3 expression and be associated with severe hematologic toxicity risk. ..
  11. Arokium H, Kamata M, Chen I. Virion-associated Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 triggers activation of apoptotic events and enhances fas-induced apoptosis in human T cells. J Virol. 2009;83:11283-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that virion-associated Vpr can contribute to the depletion of CD4(+) lymphocytes either directly or by enhancing Fas-mediated apoptosis during acute HIV-1 infection and in AIDS. ..
  12. Wu N, Lee T, Tsai T, Lin W. TRAIL-induced keratinocyte differentiation requires caspase activation and p63 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:874-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a new role of apoptotic caspases for terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and further elucidates the molecular pathways involved in this unique model of cell death. ..
  13. Rodriguez Berriguete G, Galvis L, Fraile B, de Bethencourt F, Martínez Onsurbe P, Olmedilla G, et al. Immunoreactivity to caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 forms is frequently lost in human prostate tumors. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of caspase expression could constitute a useful marker for prostate cancer diagnosis. Therapeutic approaches aimed to recover or enhance caspase expression might be effective against prostate cancer. ..
  14. D Amelio M, Sheng M, Cecconi F. Caspase-3 in the central nervous system: beyond apoptosis. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:700-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the need for further research into the mechanism of action and functions of caspase-3 that may prove useful in the development of novel pharmacological treatments for a diverse range of neurological disorders. ..
  15. Samali A, Cai J, Zhivotovsky B, Jones D, Orrenius S. Presence of a pre-apoptotic complex of pro-caspase-3, Hsp60 and Hsp10 in the mitochondrial fraction of jurkat cells. EMBO J. 1999;18:2040-8 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that the release of mitochondrial Hsps may also accelerate caspase activation in the cytoplasm of intact cells. ..
  16. Carlile G, Smith D, Wiedmann M. Caspase-3 has a nonapoptotic function in erythroid maturation. Blood. 2004;103:4310-6 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that caspase-3 is required for efficient erythropoiesis in this model system. ..
  17. Lauber K, Bohn E, Krober S, Xiao Y, Blumenthal S, Lindemann R, et al. Apoptotic cells induce migration of phagocytes via caspase-3-mediated release of a lipid attraction signal. Cell. 2003;113:717-30 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in addition to eat-me signals, apoptotic cells display attraction signals to ensure the efficient removal of apoptotic cells and prevent postapoptotic necrosis. ..
  18. Adrain C, Murphy B, Martin S. Molecular ordering of the caspase activation cascade initiated by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte/natural killer (CTL/NK) protease granzyme B. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4663-73 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that granzyme B targets a highly restricted range of substrates and orchestrates cellular demolition largely through activation of caspase-3. ..
  19. Liu X, Zou H, Slaughter C, Wang X. DFF, a heterodimeric protein that functions downstream of caspase-3 to trigger DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. Cell. 1997;89:175-84 pubmed
    ..In cells undergoing apoptosis, the 45 kDa subunit is cleaved in the same pattern as it is cleaved by caspase-3 in vitro. These data delineate a direct signal transduction pathway during apoptosis: caspase-3 to DFF to DNA fragmentation. ..
  20. Suzuki Y, Nakabayashi Y, Takahashi R. Ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein promotes proteasomal degradation of caspase-3 and enhances its anti-apoptotic effect in Fas-induced cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8662-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of XIAP promotes the degradation of caspase-3, which enhances its anti-apoptotic effect. ..
  21. Sahara S, Aoto M, Eguchi Y, Imamoto N, Yoneda Y, Tsujimoto Y. Acinus is a caspase-3-activated protein required for apoptotic chromatin condensation. Nature. 1999;401:168-73 pubmed
    ..Immunodepletion experiments showed that Acinus is essential for apoptotic chromatin condensation in vitro, and an antisense study revealed that Acinus is also important in the induction of apoptotic chromatin condensation in cells. ..
  22. Lane J, Vergnolle M, Woodman P, Allan V. Apoptotic cleavage of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain and p150(Glued) stops dynein-dependent membrane motility. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:1415-26 pubmed
  23. Riedl S, Renatus M, Schwarzenbacher R, Zhou Q, Sun C, Fesik S, et al. Structural basis for the inhibition of caspase-3 by XIAP. Cell. 2001;104:791-800 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of inhibition is due to a steric blockade prohibitive of substrate binding, and is distinct from the mechanism utilized by synthetic substrate analog inhibitors. ..
  24. Dusek R, Getsios S, Chen F, Park J, Amargo E, Cryns V, et al. The differentiation-dependent desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 1 is a novel caspase-3 target that regulates apoptosis in keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3614-24 pubmed
  25. Cheng E, Kirsch D, Clem R, Ravi R, Kastan M, Bedi A, et al. Conversion of Bcl-2 to a Bax-like death effector by caspases. Science. 1997;278:1966-8 pubmed
    ..The loop domain of Bcl-2 is cleaved at Asp34 by caspase-3 (CPP32) in vitro, in cells overexpressing caspase-3, and after induction of apoptosis by Fas ligation and interleukin-3 ..
  26. Waterhouse N, Finucane D, Green D, Elce J, Kumar S, Alnemri E, et al. Calpain activation is upstream of caspases in radiation-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 1998;5:1051-61 pubmed
    ..These results support a role for calpain in the early phases of the radiation-induced apoptosis pathway, upstream of the caspases. ..
  27. Mannick J, Schonhoff C, Papeta N, Ghafourifar P, Szibor M, Fang K, et al. S-Nitrosylation of mitochondrial caspases. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:1111-6 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that S-nitrosylation plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial caspase function and that the S-nitrosylation state of a given protein depends on its subcellular localization. ..
  28. Roumier T, Castedo M, Perfettini J, Andreau K, Metivier D, Zamzami N, et al. Mitochondrion-dependent caspase activation by the HIV-1 envelope. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66:1321-9 pubmed
    ..Conversely, inhibition of caspases did not prevent MMP. These results indicate that Env-elicited syncytial apoptosis involves the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. ..
  29. Srinivasula S, Ahmad M, Fernandes Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri E. Molecular ordering of the Fas-apoptotic pathway: the Fas/APO-1 protease Mch5 is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that activates multiple Ced-3/ICE-like cysteine proteases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14486-91 pubmed
    ..protease cascade that leads to activation of ICE-like proteases (TX, ICE, and ICE-relIII), Ced-3-like proteases (CPP32, Mch2, Mch3, Mch4, and Mch6), and the ICH-1 protease...
  30. Na S, Chuang T, Cunningham A, Turi T, Hanke J, Bokoch G, et al. D4-GDI, a substrate of CPP32, is proteolyzed during Fas-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11209-13 pubmed
    ..inhibitor for the Ras-related Rho family GTPases, is a substrate of the apoptosis protease CPP32/Yama/Apopain. D4-GDI was rapidly truncated to a 23-kDa fragment in Jurkat cells with kinetics that parallel the onset of ..
  31. Liu X, Kim C, Yang J, Jemmerson R, Wang X. Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: requirement for dATP and cytochrome c. Cell. 1996;86:147-57 pubmed
    ..Cells undergoing apoptosis in vivo showed increased release of cytochrome c to their cytosol, suggesting that mitochondria may function in apoptosis by releasing cytochrome c. ..
  32. Srinivasula S, Fernandes Alnemri T, Zangrilli J, Robertson N, Armstrong R, Wang L, et al. The Ced-3/interleukin 1beta converting enzyme-like homolog Mch6 and the lamin-cleaving enzyme Mch2alpha are substrates for the apoptotic mediator CPP32. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27099-106 pubmed
    Recent evidence suggests that CPP32 is an essential component of an aspartate-specific cysteine protease (ASCP) cascade responsible for apoptosis execution in mammalian cells...
  33. Tan M, Gallegos J, Gu Q, Huang Y, Li J, Jin Y, et al. SAG/ROC-SCF beta-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes pro-caspase-3 degradation as a mechanism of apoptosis protection. Neoplasia. 2006;8:1042-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, pro-caspase-3 appears to be a substrate of SAG/ROC-SCF(beta-TrCP) E3 Ub ligase, which protects cells from apoptosis through increased apoptosis threshold by reducing the basal level of pro-caspase-3. ..
  34. Kruman I, Nath A, Mattson M. HIV-1 protein Tat induces apoptosis of hippocampal neurons by a mechanism involving caspase activation, calcium overload, and oxidative stress. Exp Neurol. 1998;154:276-88 pubmed
    ..Agents that interupt this apoptotic cascade may prove beneficial in preventing neuronal degeneration and associated dementia in AIDS patients. ..
  35. Kagawa S, Gu J, Honda T, McDonnell T, Swisher S, Roth J, et al. Deficiency of caspase-3 in MCF7 cells blocks Bax-mediated nuclear fragmentation but not cell death. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:1474-80 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that a deficit in caspase-3 is not sufficient to block Bax-induced cell death. ..
  36. Devarajan E, Sahin A, Chen J, Krishnamurthy R, Aggarwal N, Brun A, et al. Down-regulation of caspase 3 in breast cancer: a possible mechanism for chemoresistance. Oncogene. 2002;21:8843-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the loss of caspases-3 expression may represent an important cell survival mechanism in breast cancer patients. ..
  37. Chen J, Mehta J, Haider N, Zhang X, Narula J, Li D. Role of caspases in Ox-LDL-induced apoptotic cascade in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2004;94:370-6 pubmed
    ..This is followed by activation of apoptotic signaling pathway, involving release of cytochrome c and Smac and activation of caspase-9 and then caspase-3. ..
  38. Acheampong E, Parveen Z, Muthoga L, Kalayeh M, Mukhtar M, Pomerantz R. Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef potently induces apoptosis in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells via the activation of caspases. J Virol. 2005;79:4257-69 pubmed
    ..The results of this study demonstrate that Nef likely contributes to the neuroinvasion and neuropathogenesis of HIV-1, through its effects on select cellular processes, including various apoptotic cascades. ..
  39. Ribeil J, Zermati Y, Vandekerckhove J, Cathelin S, Kersual J, Dussiot M, et al. Hsp70 regulates erythropoiesis by preventing caspase-3-mediated cleavage of GATA-1. Nature. 2007;445:102-5 pubmed
    ..These effects are abrogated by the transduction of a caspase-resistant GATA-1 mutant. Thus, in erythroid precursors undergoing terminal differentiation, Hsp70 prevents active caspase-3 from cleaving GATA-1 and inducing apoptosis. ..
  40. Chai J, Shiozaki E, Srinivasula S, Wu Q, Datta P, Alnemri E, et al. Structural basis of caspase-7 inhibition by XIAP. Cell. 2001;104:769-80 pubmed
    ..Our biochemical and structural analyses reveal that the BIR domains are dispensable for the inhibition of caspase-3 and -7. This study provides a structural basis for the design of the next-generation caspase inhibitors. ..
  41. Qiu X, Goldberg A. The membrane-associated inhibitor of apoptosis protein, BRUCE/Apollon, antagonizes both the precursor and mature forms of Smac and caspase-9. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:174-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the ability of BRUCE to antagonize both the precursor and mature forms of Smac and caspase-9 is an important mechanism for the prevention of apoptosis under normal conditions. ..
  42. Wu W, Misra R, Russell J, Flavell R, Rincon M, Budd R. Proteolytic regulation of nuclear factor of activated T (NFAT) c2 cells and NFAT activity by caspase-3. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10682-90 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a new post-transcriptional regulation of NFATc2 that operates, not only during apoptosis, but also in non-apoptotic effector T cells. ..
  43. Roy N, Deveraux Q, Takahashi R, Salvesen G, Reed J. The c-IAP-1 and c-IAP-2 proteins are direct inhibitors of specific caspases. EMBO J. 1997;16:6914-25 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that c-IAP-1 and c-IAP-2 function similarly to XIAP by inhibiting the distal cell death proteases, caspases-3 and -7, whereas NAIP presumably inhibits apoptosis via other targets. ..
  44. Bossy Wetzel E, Green D. Caspases induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria by activating cytosolic factors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17484-90 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that cytochrome c release, initiated by the action of caspases on a cytosolic substrates, may act to amplify a caspase cascade during apoptosis. ..
  45. Stewart S, Poon B, Song J, Chen I. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpr induces apoptosis through caspase activation. J Virol. 2000;74:3105-11 pubmed
    ..Finally, inhibition of caspase activity and subsequent inhibition of apoptosis results in increased viral expression, suggesting that therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing Vpr-induced apoptosis in vivo require careful consideration. ..
  46. Bartke T, Pohl C, Pyrowolakis G, Jentsch S. Dual role of BRUCE as an antiapoptotic IAP and a chimeric E2/E3 ubiquitin ligase. Mol Cell. 2004;14:801-11 pubmed
    ..Our work suggests that, owing to its two activities and its localization, BRUCE may function as a specialized regulator of cell death pathways. ..
  47. Mishra M, Vetrivel S, Siddappa N, Ranga U, Seth P. Clade-specific differences in neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 B and C Tat of human neurons: significance of dicysteine C30C31 motif. Ann Neurol. 2008;63:366-76 pubmed
    ..Additional studies with patient samples are necessary to validate these findings. ..
  48. Ng F, Nguyen M, Kwan T, Branton P, Nicholson D, Cromlish J, et al. p28 Bap31, a Bcl-2/Bcl-XL- and procaspase-8-associated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:327-38 pubmed
    ..Purified caspase-8 (FLICE/MACH/Mch5) and caspase-1(ICE), but not caspase-3 (CPP32/apopain/ Yama), efficiently catalyze this reaction in vitro...
  49. Chaudhary P, Eby M, Jasmin A, Kumar A, Liu L, Hood L. Activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by caspase 8 and its homologs. Oncogene. 2000;19:4451-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, DEDs-containing caspases and caspase homolog(s) may have functions beyond their known role in the mediation of cell death. Oncogene (2000) 19, 4451 - 4460. ..
  50. Steinhusen U, Weiske J, Badock V, Tauber R, Bommert K, Huber O. Cleavage and shedding of E-cadherin after induction of apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:4972-80 pubmed
  51. Lum J, Cohen O, Nie Z, Weaver J, Gomez T, Yao X, et al. Vpr R77Q is associated with long-term nonprogressive HIV infection and impaired induction of apoptosis. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1547-54 pubmed
    ..These data highlight the pathophysiologic role of Vpr in HIV-induced immune disease and suggest a novel mechanism of LTNP. ..
  52. Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H. Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10491-500 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that removal of N-terminal domains of Bid by caspase-8 and Mcl-1 by caspase-3 enabled the maximal mitochondrial perturbation that potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. ..
  53. Garg H, Blumenthal R. HIV gp41-induced apoptosis is mediated by caspase-3-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, which is inhibited by HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:351-62 pubmed
    ..We also show that virion-induced apoptosis is gp41-dependent. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism via which HIV gp41 mediates apoptosis in bystander cells. ..
  54. Fernandes Alnemri T, Armstrong R, Krebs J, Srinivasula S, Wang L, Bullrich F, et al. In vitro activation of CPP32 and Mch3 by Mch4, a novel human apoptotic cysteine protease containing two FADD-like domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7464-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that CPP32 and Mch3 are targets of mature Mch4 protease in apoptotic cells...
  55. Cohen G. Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis. Biochem J. 1997;326 ( Pt 1):1-16 pubmed
    ..Cells undergoing apoptosis following triggering of death receptors execute the death programme by activating a hierarchy of caspases, with caspase-8 and possibly caspase-10 being at or near the apex of this apoptotic cascade. ..
  56. Rossig L, Fichtlscherer B, Breitschopf K, Haendeler J, Zeiher A, Mülsch A, et al. Nitric oxide inhibits caspase-3 by S-nitrosation in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6823-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, NO supplied by exogenous NO donors serves in vivo as an antiapoptotic regulator of caspase activity via S-nitrosation of the Cys-163 residue of caspase-3. ..
  57. Bratton S, Walker G, Srinivasula S, Sun X, Butterworth M, Alnemri E, et al. Recruitment, activation and retention of caspases-9 and -3 by Apaf-1 apoptosome and associated XIAP complexes. EMBO J. 2001;20:998-1009 pubmed
    ..Thus, XIAP may regulate cell death by inhibiting the activation of caspase-3 within the apoptosome and by preventing release of active caspase-3 from the complex. ..
  58. Morishima N. Changes in nuclear morphology during apoptosis correlate with vimentin cleavage by different caspases located either upstream or downstream of Bcl-2 action. Genes Cells. 1999;4:401-14 pubmed
    ..Apoptotic cleavage of vimentin most likely results in disruption of its filamentous structure, which may facilitate nuclear condensation and subsequent fragmentation through disruption of the cytoskeletal network. ..
  59. Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis R. Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the neuronal protein JIP3. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1030-43 pubmed
    ..JIP3 is a member of a novel class of putative MAPK scaffold proteins that may regulate signal transduction by the JNK pathway. ..
  60. Mejillano M, Yamamoto M, Rozelle A, Sun H, Wang X, Yin H. Regulation of apoptosis by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate inhibition of caspases, and caspase inactivation of phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1865-72 pubmed
    ..4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a direct inhibitor of initiator caspases 8 and 9, and their common effector caspase 3. PIP2 inhibited procaspase 9 processing in cell extracts and in a reconstituted procaspase 9/Apaf1 apoptosome ..
  61. Rosado J, Lopez J, Gomez Arteta E, Redondo P, Salido G, Pariente J. Early caspase-3 activation independent of apoptosis is required for cellular function. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:142-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, early activation of caspase-3 seems to be a non-apoptotic event required for cellular function. ..
  62. Zhao X, Wang D, Zhao Z, Xiao Y, Sengupta S, Xiao Y, et al. Caspase-3-dependent activation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 enhances cell migration in non-apoptotic ovarian cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29357-68 pubmed
    ..Importantly, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of endogenous iPLA(2) expression in ovarian carcinoma HEY cells results in decreased migration toward laminin, suggesting that our findings are pathophysiologically important. ..
  63. Takahashi R, Deveraux Q, Tamm I, Welsh K, Assa Munt N, Salvesen G, et al. A single BIR domain of XIAP sufficient for inhibiting caspases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:7787-90 pubmed
    ..These findings identify BIR2 as the minimal caspase-inhibitory domain of XIAP and indicate that a single BIR domain can be sufficient for binding and inhibiting caspases. ..
  64. Mancini M, Machamer C, Roy S, Nicholson D, Thornberry N, Casciola Rosen L, et al. Caspase-2 is localized at the Golgi complex and cleaves golgin-160 during apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:603-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that the Golgi complex, like mitochondria, senses and integrates unique local conditions, and transduces pro-apoptotic signals through local caspases, which regulate local effectors. ..
  65. Muthumani K, Hwang D, Desai B, Zhang D, Dayes N, Green D, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37820-31 pubmed
    ..Activation of the caspase 9 pathway resulted in caspase 3 activation and apoptosis in human primary cells...
  66. Voss O, Batra S, Kolattukudy S, Gonzalez Mejia M, Smith J, Doseff A. Binding of caspase-3 prodomain to heat shock protein 27 regulates monocyte apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 proteolytic activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25088-99 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism of caspase-3 regulation and underscore a novel and fundamental role of Hsp27 in the regulation of monocyte life span. ..
  67. Wang X, Zelenski N, Yang J, Sakai J, Brown M, Goldstein J. Cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) by CPP32 during apoptosis. EMBO J. 1996;15:1012-20 pubmed
    ..b>CPP32, a cysteine protease, was shown previously to cleave SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 in vitro at an aspartic acid between the ..
  68. Deveraux Q, Takahashi R, Salvesen G, Reed J. X-linked IAP is a direct inhibitor of cell-death proteases. Nature. 1997;388:300-4 pubmed
  69. Kwon K, Park E, Ryu D, Park B. D4-GDI is cleaved by caspase-3 during daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Exp Mol Med. 2002;34:32-7 pubmed
    ..drug, is known to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner through the activation of caspase-3 (CPP32)...
  70. Rasola A, Gramaglia D, Boccaccio C, Comoglio P. Apoptosis enhancement by the HIV-1 Nef protein. J Immunol. 2001;166:81-8 pubmed
    ..These data show that Nef enhances programmed cell death in different cell types by affecting multiple critical components of the apoptotic machinery independently from the Fas pathway. ..
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