Gene Symbol: caspase-1
Description: caspase 1
Alias: ICE, IL1BC, P45, caspase-1, CASP1 nirs variant 1, IL-1 beta-converting enzyme, IL1B-convertase, caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, interleukin 1, beta, convertase, interleukin 1-B converting enzyme
Species: human
Products:     caspase-1

Top Publications

  1. Blankenberg S, Godefroy T, Poirier O, Rupprecht H, Barbaux S, Bickel C, et al. Haplotypes of the caspase-1 gene, plasma caspase-1 levels, and cardiovascular risk. Circ Res. 2006;99:102-8 pubmed
    ..The role of CASP1 genetic variations in the susceptibility to myocardial infarction requires further investigation. ..
  2. Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:479-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. ..
  3. Wilson K, Black J, Thomson J, Kim E, Griffith J, Navia M, et al. Structure and mechanism of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Nature. 1994;370:270-5 pubmed
    Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) processes an inactive precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta, and may regulate programmed cell death in neuronal cells...
  4. Shao W, Yeretssian G, Doiron K, Hussain S, Saleh M. The caspase-1 digestome identifies the glycolysis pathway as a target during infection and septic shock. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36321-9 pubmed
    ..The systematic characterization of caspase-1 substrates identifies the glycolysis pathway as a caspase-1 target and provides new insights into its function during pyroptosis and septic shock. ..
  5. Okamoto M, Liu W, Luo Y, Tanaka A, Cai X, Norris D, et al. Constitutively active inflammasome in human melanoma cells mediating autoinflammation via caspase-1 processing and secretion of interleukin-1beta. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6477-88 pubmed publisher
  6. Agostini L, Martinon F, Burns K, McDermott M, Hawkins P, Tschopp J. NALP3 forms an IL-1beta-processing inflammasome with increased activity in Muckle-Wells autoinflammatory disorder. Immunity. 2004;20:319-25 pubmed
    ..Macrophages from Muckle-Wells patients spontaneously secrete active IL-1beta. Increased inflammasome activity is therefore likely to be the molecular basis of the symptoms associated with NALP3-dependent autoinflammatory disorders. ..
  7. Lee S, Stehlik C, Reed J. Cop, a caspase recruitment domain-containing protein and inhibitor of caspase-1 activation processing. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34495-500 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that COP can regulate IL-1beta secretion, implying that COP may play a role in down-regulating inflammatory responses analogous to the CARD protein ICEBERG. ..
  8. Wang L, Manji G, Grenier J, Al Garawi A, Merriam S, Lora J, et al. PYPAF7, a novel PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like protein that regulates activation of NF-kappa B and caspase-1-dependent cytokine processing. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29874-80 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that PYPAF family members participate in inflammatory signaling by regulating the activation of NF-kappa B and cytokine processing. ..
  9. Keller M, Rüegg A, Werner S, Beer H. Active caspase-1 is a regulator of unconventional protein secretion. Cell. 2008;132:818-31 pubmed publisher
    ..By this mechanism, stress-induced activation of caspase-1 directly links inflammation to cytoprotection, cell survival, and regenerative processes. ..

More Information


  1. Trompet S, de Craen A, Slagboom P, Shepherd J, Blauw G, Murphy M, et al. Genetic variation in the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme associates with cognitive function. The PROSPER study. Brain. 2008;131:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding for interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) is likely to influence IL-1 beta levels...
  2. Druilhe A, Srinivasula S, Razmara M, Ahmad M, Alnemri E. Regulation of IL-1beta generation by Pseudo-ICE and ICEBERG, two dominant negative caspase recruitment domain proteins. Cell Death Differ. 2001;8:649-57 pubmed
    ..of two new human caspase recruitment domain (CARD) molecules, termed Pseudo-interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) and ICEBERG...
  3. Miggin S, Palsson McDermott E, Dunne A, Jefferies C, Pinteaux E, Banahan K, et al. NF-kappaB activation by the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain protein MyD88 adapter-like is regulated by caspase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3372-7 pubmed
    ..This functional interaction reveals an important aspect of the coordination between TLRs and caspase-1 during the innate response to pathogens. ..
  4. Lamkanfi M, Denecker G, Kalai M, D hondt K, Meeus A, Declercq W, et al. INCA, a novel human caspase recruitment domain protein that inhibits interleukin-1beta generation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51729-38 pubmed
    ..The INCA gene is located on chromosome 11q22 between the genes of COP/Pseudo-ICE and ICEBERG, two other CARD proteins that arose from caspase-1 gene duplications...
  5. Fahy R, Exline M, Gavrilin M, Bhatt N, BESECKER B, Sarkar A, et al. Inflammasome mRNA expression in human monocytes during early septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..63). These data suggest that monocyte deactivation occurs during the earliest stages of the systemic inflammatory response and that changes in inflammasome mRNA expression are part of this process. ..
  6. Martinon F, Burns K, Tschopp J. The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta. Mol Cell. 2002;10:417-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the inflammasome constitutes an important arm of the innate immunity. ..
  7. Elliott J, Rouge L, Wiesmann C, Scheer J. Crystal structure of procaspase-1 zymogen domain reveals insight into inflammatory caspase autoactivation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Dimer stabilization is concurrent with a 130-fold increase in kcat, the sole contributing kinetic factor to an activated and efficient mediator of inflammation. ..
  8. Luo X, Budihardjo I, Zou H, Slaughter C, Wang X. Bid, a Bcl2 interacting protein, mediates cytochrome c release from mitochondria in response to activation of cell surface death receptors. Cell. 1998;94:481-90 pubmed
    ..The cytochrome c releasing activity of Bid was antagonized by Bcl2. A mutation at the BH3 domain diminished its cytochrome c releasing activity. Bid, therefore, relays an apoptotic signal from the cell surface to mitochondria. ..
  9. Sarkar A, Mitra S, Mehta S, Raices R, Wewers M. Monocyte derived microvesicles deliver a cell death message via encapsulated caspase-1. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7140 pubmed publisher
    ..This transcellular apoptosis induction pathway describes a novel pathway for inflammation induced programmed cell death. ..
  10. Srinivasula S, Ahmad M, Fernandes Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri E. Molecular ordering of the Fas-apoptotic pathway: the Fas/APO-1 protease Mch5 is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that activates multiple Ced-3/ICE-like cysteine proteases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14486-91 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that recombinant Mch5 is able to process/activate all known ICE/Ced-3-like cysteine proteases and is potently inhibited by CrmA...
  11. Alnemri E, Livingston D, Nicholson D, Salvesen G, Thornberry N, Wong W, et al. Human ICE/CED-3 protease nomenclature. Cell. 1996;87:171 pubmed
  12. Doitsh G, Galloway N, Geng X, Yang Z, Monroe K, Zepeda O, et al. Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection. Nature. 2014;505:509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of 'anti-AIDS' therapeutics ..
  13. Thornberry N, Bull H, Calaycay J, Chapman K, Howard A, Kostura M, et al. A novel heterodimeric cysteine protease is required for interleukin-1 beta processing in monocytes. Nature. 1992;356:768-74 pubmed
    ..Selective inhibition of the enzyme in human blood monocytes blocks production of mature IL-1 beta, indicating that it is a potential therapeutic target...
  14. Weigert A, Cremer S, Schmidt M, von Knethen A, Angioni C, Geisslinger G, et al. Cleavage of sphingosine kinase 2 by caspase-1 provokes its release from apoptotic cells. Blood. 2010;115:3531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data link signaling events during apoptosis to the extracellular production of a lipid mediator that affects immune cell attraction and activation. ..
  15. Walsh J, Logue S, Lüthi A, Martin S. Caspase-1 promiscuity is counterbalanced by rapid inactivation of processed enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32513-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the high degree of substrate specificity displayed by caspase-1 is maintained through rapid spontaneous inactivation of this protease. ..
  16. Chinnaiyan A, O Rourke K, Lane B, Dixit V. Interaction of CED-4 with CED-3 and CED-9: a molecular framework for cell death. Science. 1997;275:1122-6 pubmed
    ..CED-4 can simultaneously interact with CED-3 and its mammalian counterparts interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and FLICE...
  17. Gu Y, Kuida K, Tsutsui H, Ku G, Hsiao K, Fleming M, et al. Activation of interferon-gamma inducing factor mediated by interleukin-1beta converting enzyme. Science. 1997;275:206-9 pubmed
    The interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE) processes the inactive IL-1beta precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine...
  18. Netea M, Azam T, Ferwerda G, Girardin S, Walsh M, Park J, et al. IL-32 synergizes with nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2 ligands for IL-1beta and IL-6 production through a caspase 1-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16309-14 pubmed
    ..specific caspase inhibitors were used, the synergism between IL-32 and MDP/NOD2 depended on the activation of caspase 1. Only additive effects of IL-32 and muropeptides were observed for TNF-alpha production...
  19. Yu J, Wu J, Zhang Z, Datta P, Ibrahimi I, Taniguchi S, et al. Cryopyrin and pyrin activate caspase-1, but not NF-kappaB, via ASC oligomerization. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:236-49 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that pyrin could function as a proinflammatory molecule. ..
  20. Kahns S, Kalai M, Jakobsen L, Clark B, Vandenabeele P, Jensen P. Caspase-1 and caspase-8 cleave and inactivate cellular parkin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23376-80 pubmed
  21. Razmara M, Srinivasula S, Wang L, Poyet J, Geddes B, DiStefano P, et al. CARD-8 protein, a new CARD family member that regulates caspase-1 activation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13952-8 pubmed
    ..human protein, CARD-8, which contains a C-terminal CARD domain with high similarity to the CARD domain of caspase-1/ICE. We demonstrate that CARD-8 interacts physically with caspase-1 and negatively regulates caspase-1-dependent IL-..
  22. Fernandes Alnemri T, Yu J, Datta P, Wu J, Alnemri E. AIM2 activates the inflammasome and cell death in response to cytoplasmic DNA. Nature. 2009;458:509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies AIM2 as an important inflammasome component that senses potentially dangerous cytoplasmic DNA, leading to activation of the ASC pyroptosome and caspase-1. ..
  23. Wang Y, He Y, Abraham B, Rouhani F, Brantly M, Scott D, et al. Cytosolic, autocrine alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) inhibits caspase-1 and blocks IL-1? dependent cytokine release in monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51078 pubmed publisher with caspase-1 in gel-filtered cytoplasmic THP-1 preparations, and was co-immunoprecipitated with caspase 1 from nigericin-stimulated THP-1 cell lysate...
  24. Howard A, Kostura M, Thornberry N, Ding G, Limjuco G, Weidner J, et al. IL-1-converting enzyme requires aspartic acid residues for processing of the IL-1 beta precursor at two distinct sites and does not cleave 31-kDa IL-1 alpha. J Immunol. 1991;147:2964-9 pubmed
    IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE) specifically cleaves the human IL-1 beta precursor at two sequence-related sites: Asp27-Gly28 (site 1) and Asp116-Ala117 (site 2)...
  25. Labbe K, McIntire C, Doiron K, LeBlanc P, Saleh M. Cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins cIAP1 and cIAP2 are required for efficient caspase-1 activation by the inflammasome. Immunity. 2011;35:897-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results describe a role for the cIAPs in innate immunity and further demonstrate the evolutionary conservation between cell death and inflammation mechanisms. ..
  26. Srinivasula S, Poyet J, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri E. The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor for caspase-1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21119-22 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ASC is involved in the caspase-1 signaling pathway by mediating the assembly of a caspase-1-inflammasome signaling complex in response to pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation. ..
  27. Hilbi H, Moss J, Hersh D, Chen Y, Arondel J, Banerjee S, et al. Shigella-induced apoptosis is dependent on caspase-1 which binds to IpaB. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32895-900 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data indicate that Shigella-induced apoptosis is distinct from other forms of apoptosis and seems uniquely dependent on Casp-1. ..
  28. Cerretti D, Kozlosky C, Mosley B, Nelson N, Van Ness K, Greenstreet T, et al. Molecular cloning of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Science. 1992;256:97-100 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis indicated that the enzyme itself may undergo proteolytic processing. The gene encoding the protease was mapped to chromosomal band 11q23, a site frequently involved in rearrangement in human cancers. ..
  29. Hussein M, El Gizawy H, Gobba N, Mosaad Y. Synthesis of Cinnamyl and Caffeoyl Derivatives of Cucurbitacin-Eglycoside Isolated from Citrullus colocynthis Fruits and their Structures Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities Relationship. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2017;18:677-693 pubmed publisher
    ..E glucoside with cinnamic and/or caffeic acid in the presence of CHCl2 and K2CO3 with constant stirring with an ice-cooling state for 24h. Mass analyses of the isolated and purified compounds were determined...
  30. Han Y, Qiu H, Pei X, Fan Y, Tian H, Geng J. Low-dose Sinapic Acid Abates the Pyroptosis of Macrophages by Downregulation of lncRNA-MALAT1 in Rats With Diabetic Atherosclerosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2018;71:104-112 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, low-dose SA can abate the pyroptosis of macrophages by downregulation of lncRNA-MALAT1 in rats with DA. ..
  31. Shi H, Murray A, Beutler B. Reconstruction of the Mouse Inflammasome System in HEK293T Cells. Bio Protoc. 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe how to co-transfect the NLRP3 inflammasome components into HEK293T cells, which enables inflammasome activation and the production of IL-1? upon stimulation with nigericin. ..
  32. Chen Y, Pouillot R, S Burall L, Strain E, Van Doren J, De Jesús A, et al. Comparative evaluation of direct plating and most probable number for enumeration of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated ice cream products. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;241:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes was conducted on a total of 1730 outbreak-associated ice cream samples that were naturally contaminated with low level of L. monocytogenes...
  33. Zhang S, Yu N, Zhang R, Zhang S, Wu J. Interleukin-17A Induces IL-1β Secretion From RPE Cells Via the NLRP3 Inflammasome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IL-17A triggers a key inflammatory mediator, IL-1β, from RPE cells, via NLRP3 inflammasome activation, holding therapeutic potential for AMD. ..
  34. Osman H, Salvadó M, Pertierra P, Engelkemier J, Fredrickson D, Recio J. Chemical Pressure Maps of Molecules and Materials: Merging the Visual and Physical in Bonding Analysis. J Chem Theory Comput. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..H2, CO2, and S8), extended structures (graphene and diamond), systems exhibiting intermolecular interactions (ice and graphite), as well as simple representatives of metallic and ionic bonding (Na and NaH, respectively), we show ..
  35. Shao A, Wu H, Hong Y, Tu S, Sun X, Wu Q, et al. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuated Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Early Brain Injury in Rats by Suppressing Inflammatory Response: Possible Involvement of NF-κB Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:3462-3476 pubmed publisher
  36. Tregidgo D, Barlow J, Pompeu P, de Almeida Rocha M, Parry L. Rainforest metropolis casts 1,000-km defaunation shadow. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:8655-8659 pubmed publisher
    ..findings link these declines to city-based boats that provide rural fishers with reliable access to fish buyers and ice and likely impact rural fisher livelihoods and flooded forest biodiversity...
  37. Hu Z, Kang S, Yan F, Zhang Y, Li Y, Chen P, et al. Dissolved organic carbon fractionation accelerates glacier-melting: A case study in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Sci Total Environ. 2018;627:579-585 pubmed publisher
    ..12 (LHG glacier) in western Qilian Mts., northern TP. DOC concentrations in fresh snow, snowpit and surface ice samples were 0.38 ± 0.06, 0.22 ± 0.11 and 0.60 ± 0...
  38. Bergheanu S, Pons D, van der Hoeven B, Liem S, Siegerink B, Schalij M, et al. The 5352 A allele of the pro-inflammatory caspase-1 gene predicts late-acquired stent malapposition in STEMI patients treated with sirolimus stents. Heart Vessels. 2011;26:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..If this is confirmed in larger studies, then screening for this polymorphism in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions could eventually help cardiologists to better select between commercially available stents. ..
  39. He Y, Hara H, Núñez G. Mechanism and Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation. Trends Biochem Sci. 2016;41:1012-1021 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we summarize current understanding of the mechanism and regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as recent advances in the noncanonical and alternative inflammasome pathways. ..
  40. Eichholz K, Bru T, Tran T, Fernandes P, Welles H, Mennechet F, et al. Immune-Complexed Adenovirus Induce AIM2-Mediated Pyroptosis in Human Dendritic Cells. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005871 pubmed publisher
    ..speck protein containing a caspase activation/recruitment domain) aggregation, inflammasome formation, caspase 1 activation, and IL-1β and gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage...
  41. Stevens C, Thoseby B, Sculley D, Callister R, Taylor L, Dascombe B. Running performance and thermal sensation in the heat are improved with menthol mouth rinse but not ice slurry ingestion. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The trials included ice slurry ingestion before exercise (ICE), menthol mouth rinse during exercise (MEN), and no intervention (CON)...
  42. Gong Z, Zhou J, Zhao S, Tian C, Wang P, Xu C, et al. Chenodeoxycholic acid activates NLRP3 inflammasome and contributes to cholestatic liver fibrosis. Oncotarget. 2016;7:83951-83963 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding offers a mechanistic basis to ameliorate cholestatic liver fibrosis by targeting inflammasome activation. ..
  43. Fujimori Y, Bouike Y, Nollet K, Miki H. Blood supply during Japan's 1995 Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Transfus Apher Sci. 2016;55:201-204 pubmed publisher
    ..RBCs and FFP in refrigerated and frozen storage, respectively, remained in temperature control with the help of dry ice imported from non-affected areas...
  44. Biswas M, Mano J. Reactive Carbonyl Species Activate Caspase-3-Like Protease to Initiate Programmed Cell Death in Plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:1432-1442 pubmed
    ..Thus the activation of caspase-like proteases, particularly C3LP, by RCS is an initial biochemical event in oxidative signal-stimulated PCD in plants. ..
  45. Schell U, Simon S, Hilbi H. Inflammasome Recognition and Regulation of the Legionella Flagellum. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2016;397:161-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the small molecule LAI-1 coordinates L. pneumophila flagellin production and motility, inflammasome activation, and virulence. ..
  46. Gisladottir M, Svavarsdottir E. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire. J Fam Nurs. 2016;22:321-38 pubmed publisher
    ..potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual's beliefs about illness...
  47. Morrison M, Mulder P, Salic K, Verheij J, Liang W, van Duyvenvoorde W, et al. Intervention with a caspase-1 inhibitor reduces obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in LDLR-/-.Leiden mice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:1416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the importance of inflammasome/caspase-1 in the development of NASH and demonstrate that therapeutic intervention in the already ongoing disease process is feasible. ..
  48. Bučková M, PuÅ¡kárová A, ŽeniÅ¡ová K, Kraková L, Piknová Ä, Kuchta T, et al. Novel insights into microbial community dynamics during the fermentation of Central European ice wine. Int J Food Microbiol. 2018;266:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..strategies were applied to investigate the microbiota of autumn undamaged and damaged berries, winter berries and ice wine must samples of Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínske zelené) from Small Carpathian wine-producing region...
  49. Wu D, Han R, Deng S, Liu T, Zhang T, Xie H, et al. Protective Effects of Flagellin A N/C Against Radiation-Induced NLR Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome-Dependent Pyroptosis in Intestinal Cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018;101:107-117 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and FlaAN/C might be a potential preventive therapy for radiation-induced intestinal injury in patients with cancer. ..
  50. Shaffer G, Lambert F. In and out of glacial extremes by way of dust-climate feedbacks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:2026-2031 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use dust deposition data and temperature reconstructions from ice sheet, ocean sediment, and land archives to construct dust-climate relationships...
  51. Marinho F, Fahel J, Scanga C, Gomes M, Guimarães G, Carvalho G, et al. Lack of IL-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-4 Leads to Defective Th1 Cell Responses and Renders Mice Susceptible to Mycobacterial Infection. J Immunol. 2016;197:1852-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data demonstrate that IRAK-4 is essential for innate and adaptive immunity and necessary for efficient control of mycobacterial infections. ..
  52. Smith I, Putzig N, Holt J, Phillips R. An ice age recorded in the polar deposits of Mars. Science. 2016;352:1075-8 pubmed publisher
    Layered ice deposits at the poles of Mars record a detailed history of accumulation and erosion related to climate processes...
  53. Kingslake J, Ely J, Das I, Bell R. Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves. Nature. 2017;544:349-352 pubmed publisher
    Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise...
  54. Trofa D, Park C, Noticewala M, Lynch T, Ahmad C, Popkin C. The Impact of Body Checking on Youth Ice Hockey Injuries. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017;5:2325967117741647 pubmed publisher
    Body checking is a common cause of youth ice hockey injuries. Consequently, USA Hockey raised the minimum age at which body checking is permitted from the Pee Wee level (11-12 years old) to the Bantam level (13-14 years old) in 2011.
  55. Zakus P, Arzola C, Bittencourt R, Downey K, Ye X, Carvalho J. Determination of the optimal programmed intermittent epidural bolus volume of bupivacaine 0.0625% with fentanyl 2 ? at a fixed interval of forty minutes: a biased coin up-and-down sequential allocation trial. Anaesthesia. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..analgesia boluses in 90% of women during the first stage of labour, although with a rate of sensory block to ice above T6 in 34% of women...
  56. Wang L, Fu H, Nanayakkara G, Li Y, Shao Y, Johnson C, et al. Novel extracellular and nuclear caspase-1 and inflammasomes propagate inflammation and regulate gene expression: a comprehensive database mining study. J Hematol Oncol. 2016;9:122 pubmed
  57. McGeough M, Wree A, Inzaugarat M, Haimovich A, Johnson C, Pena C, et al. TNF regulates transcription of NLRP3 inflammasome components and inflammatory molecules in cryopyrinopathies. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4488-4497 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these results may have therapeutic implications for CAPS patients with partial responses to IL-1-targeted therapies. ..
  58. Pelegrin P, Surprenant A. Pannexin-1 mediates large pore formation and interleukin-1beta release by the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor. EMBO J. 2006;25:5071-82 pubmed
  59. Xu H, Gong C, He L, Rao S, Liu X, Nie Y, et al. Purinergic P2X7 receptor functional genetic polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. Purinergic Signal. 2017;13:339-346 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that the P2X7R rs3751143 functional polymorphism might contribute to OP susceptibility in Chinese postmenopausal women. ..
  60. Wu Y, Ni J, Qi M, Cao C, Shao Y, Xu L, et al. Associations of genetic variation in CASP3 gene with noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population: a case-control study. Environ Health. 2017;16:78 pubmed publisher
    ..There were joint effects of working time and CASP3 polymorphisms on NIHL risk (P < 0.05). Genetic variations in the CASP3 gene and the joint effects of working time and CASP3 polymorphisms may modify the risk of developing NIHL. ..
  61. Bhambri R, Hewitt K, Kawishwar P, Pratap B. Surge-type and surge-modified glaciers in the Karakoram. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15391 pubmed publisher
    ..Terminus fluctuations of individual glaciers lack consistency and, unlike other parts of the Himalaya, total ice mass remained stable or slightly increased since the 1970s...
  62. Krankenberg H, Zeller T, Ingwersen M, Schmalstieg J, Gissler H, Nikol S, et al. Self-Expanding Versus Balloon-Expandable Stents for Iliac Artery Occlusive Disease: The Randomized ICE Trial. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2017;10:1694-1704 pubmed publisher
    ..No safety concerns arose in both groups. (Iliac, Common and External [ICE] Artery Stent Trial; NCT01305174).
  63. Cury J, Touchon M, Rocha E. Integrative and conjugative elements and their hosts: composition, distribution and organization. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8943-8956 pubmed publisher
    ..The organization and function of integrative and conjugative elements (ICE), even if they are more abundant, was only studied in a few model systems...
  64. Gu Y, Sarnecki C, Aldape R, Livingston D, Su M. Cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme and its homologs TX and Nedd-2. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18715-8 pubmed
    ..cleavage can be mediated by a novel cytosolic protease (prICE) that resembles interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), but cannot be mediated by ICE itself (Lazebnik, Y.A., Kaufmann, S.H., Desnoyers, S., Poirier, G.G...
  65. Guspiel A, Menk J, Streifel A, Messinger K, Wagner J, Ferrieri P, et al. Management of Risks From Water and Ice From Ice Machines for the Very Immunocompromised Host: A Process Improvement Project Prompted by an Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria on a Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (Hsct) Unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017;38:792-800 pubmed publisher
    ..METHODS Water samples were collected from water entering the hospital and from drinking water and ice machines (DWIMs) from the old and new hospitals...
  66. Kilbride P, Morris G. Viscosities encountered during the cryopreservation of dimethyl sulphoxide systems. Cryobiology. 2017;76:92-97 pubmed publisher determined the viscous conditions experienced by cells in the unfrozen freeze concentrated channels between ice crystals in slow cooling protocols...
  67. Wang B, Zhu J, Li D, Wang Y, Zhan Y, Tan L, et al. Newcastle disease virus infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Virology. 2016;496:90-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an innate cellular response to NDV infection and offers insights into the oncolytic specificity of NDV. ..
  68. Rozhnov V, Platonov N, Naidenko S, Mordvintsev I, Ivanov E. Movement of a female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in the Kara Sea during the summer sea-ice break-up. Dokl Biol Sci. 2017;472:17-20 pubmed publisher
    The polar bear movement trajectory in relation to onset date of the sea-ice break-up was studied in the coastal zone of the Taimyr Peninsula, eastern part of the Kara Sea, using as an example a female polar bear tagged by a radio collar ..
  69. Coward W, Marei A, Yang A, Vasa Nicotera M, Chow S. Statin-induced proinflammatory response in mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells through the activation of caspase-1 and IL-18 secretion in monocytes. J Immunol. 2006;176:5284-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the proinflammatory response mediated by statins in activated PBMCs is mediated mainly via the activation of caspase-1 and IL-18 secretion in the monocytes and to a lesser extent by IL-12. ..
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