Gene Symbol: CAPN2
Description: calpain 2
Alias: CANP2, CANPL2, CANPml, mCANP, calpain-2 catalytic subunit, CANP 2, M-calpain, calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2, calpain 2, (m/II) large subunit, calpain 2, large [catalytic] subunit, calpain 2, large subunit, calpain M-type, calpain, large polypeptide L2, millimolar-calpain
Species: human
Products:     CAPN2

Top Publications

  1. Su Y, Cui Z, Li Z, Block E. Calpain-2 regulation of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. FASEB J. 2006;20:1443-51 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of calpastatin also inhibits vessel formation in subcutaneous (s.c.) matrigel plugs in mice. These results indicate that calpain mediates VEGF-induced angiogenic effects by modulating actin cytoskeletal organization. ..
  2. Hood J, Brooks W, Roszman T. Differential compartmentalization of the calpain/calpastatin network with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43126-35 pubmed
    ..These results provide a new and novel explanation for how the calpain/calpastatin network is organized in the cell. ..
  3. Xu L, Deng X. Protein kinase Ciota promotes nicotine-induced migration and invasion of cancer cells via phosphorylation of micro- and m-calpains. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4457-66 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a novel role for PKCiota as a nicotine-activated, physiological calpain kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates calpains, leading to enhanced migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells. ..
  4. Su L, Agapito M, Li M, Simonson W, Huttenlocher A, Habas R, et al. TRPM7 regulates cell adhesion by controlling the calcium-dependent protease calpain. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11260-70 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that the ion channel TRPM7 regulates cell adhesion through m-calpain by mediating the local influx of calcium into peripheral adhesion complexes. ..
  5. Carragher N, Walker S, Scott Carragher L, Harris F, Sawyer T, Brunton V, et al. Calpain 2 and Src dependence distinguishes mesenchymal and amoeboid modes of tumour cell invasion: a link to integrin function. Oncogene. 2006;25:5726-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, the need for a major pathway that controls integrin adhesion turnover defines and distinguishes cancer cell invasion strategies. ..
  6. Roumes H, Leloup L, Dargelos E, Brustis J, Daury L, Cottin P. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1587-99 pubmed publisher
  7. Jang H, Lal S, Greenwood J. Calpain 2 is required for glioblastoma cell invasion: regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1796-804 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report demonstrating that calpain 2 is required for glioblastoma cell invasion. ..
  8. Hood J, Logan B, Sinai A, Brooks W, Roszman T. Association of the calpain/calpastatin network with subcellular organelles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;310:1200-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, calpain II associates with membrane lipid rafts. These results provide new insights into how the calpain/calpastatin network is spatially and temporally regulated in cells binding to the extracellular matrix. ..
  9. Nuzzi P, Senetar M, Huttenlocher A. Asymmetric localization of calpain 2 during neutrophil chemotaxis. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:795-805 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings identify calpain 2 as a novel component of the frontness signal that promotes polarization during chemotaxis. ..

More Information

Publications149 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chan K, Bennin D, Huttenlocher A. Regulation of adhesion dynamics by calpain-mediated proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of wild-type but not calpain-resistant FAK rescues talin dynamics in FAK-deficient cells. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel role for calpain proteolysis of FAK in regulating adhesion dynamics in motile cells. ..
  2. Li T, Lin T, Hsu S, Wu C, Su Y, Kao S, et al. The novel benzimidazole derivative, MPTB, induces cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:791-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, animal studies have revealed a dramatic 44% reduction in tumor volume after 21?d of treatment. This study demonstrates novel anti-cancer activity of MPTB against human chondrosarcoma cells and in murine tumor models...
  3. Xia M, Zhang Q, Luo M, Li P, Wang Y, Lei Q, et al. Regulatory network analysis reveals the oncogenesis roles of feed-forward loops and therapeutic target in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. BMC Med Genomics. 2019;12:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Drug-specific analyses showed that GSK-J4 may be an effective drug, and CDC25A/CAPN2/MCM2 could serve as potential therapeutic targets for T-ALL...
  4. Maddirala Y, Tobwala S, Karacal H, Ercal N. Prevention and reversal of selenite-induced cataracts by N-acetylcysteine amide in Wistar rats. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:54 pubmed publisher
    ..This brings a paradigm shift from expensive surgical treatment of cataracts to relatively inexpensive prevention of vision loss. ..
  5. Chen B, Tang J, Guo Y, Li Y, Chen Z, Jiang J. Calpains are required for invasive and metastatic potentials of human HCC cells. Cell Biol Int. 2013;37:643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus µ- and m-calpain may play important roles in the invasion and metastasis of human hepatoma cells, and calpains may be drug targets for preventing HCC metastasis. ..
  6. Malheiros J, Enriquez Valencia C, da Silva Duran B, de Paula T, Curi R, de Vasconcelos Silva J, et al. Association of CAST2, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes with meat tenderness in Nellore cattle. Meat Sci. 2018;138:49-52 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of expression of CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes with meat tenderness in Nellore cattle...
  7. Jeon K, Yu H, Kwon Y. Hyperactivated m-calpain affects acquisition of doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2018;1862:1126-1133 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a new mechanism of doxorubicin resistance and suggest a novel strategy for overcoming drug resistance in topoisomerase II?-targeting therapy. ..
  8. Honda S, Marumoto T, Hirota T, Nitta M, Arima Y, Ogawa M, et al. Activation of m-calpain is required for chromosome alignment on the metaphase plate during mitosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10615-23 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that activation of m-calpain during mitosis is required for cells to establish the chromosome alignment by regulating some molecules that generate polar ejection force. ..
  9. Shao H, Wang A, Lauffenburger D, Wells A. Tyro3-mediated phosphorylation of ACTN4 at tyrosines is FAK-dependent and decreases susceptibility to cleavage by m-Calpain. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018;95:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Tyro3-mediated phosphorylation of ACTN4 is involved in invasion of melanoma cells. ..
  10. Ma H, Nakajima E, Shih M, Azuma M, Shearer T. Expression of calpain small subunit 2 in mammalian tissues. Curr Eye Res. 2004;29:337-47 pubmed
    ..Further studies at the protein level will indicate if css2 has unique functions apart from css1. ..
  11. Hammers D, Sleeper M, Forbes S, Shima A, Walter G, Sweeney H. Tadalafil Treatment Delays the Onset of Cardiomyopathy in Dystrophin-Deficient Hearts. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition is a candidate therapy for slowing the development of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. ..
  12. Chen Y, Yu Y, Sun S, Wang Z, Liu P, Liu S, et al. Bradykinin promotes migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through TRPM7 and MMP2. Exp Cell Res. 2016;349:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Some clinical specimens of HCC also indicated that BDKRB2 and MMP2 were overexpressed. In conclusion, BK promoted migration and invasion of HCC cells through TRPM7 and MMP2. ..
  13. S M, T P, Goli D. Effect of wedelolactone and gallic acid on quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity and impaired motor function: significance to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurotoxicology. 2018;68:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that WL and GA could ameliorate the toxic events triggered by QUIN and might be effective in the prevention and progression of several cascades which lead to the development of sALS. ..
  14. Kerbiriou M, Teng L, Benz N, Trouvé P, Ferec C. The calpain, caspase 12, caspase 3 cascade leading to apoptosis is altered in F508del-CFTR expressing cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8436 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the calcium-calpain-caspase-12-caspase-3 cascade is altered in F508del-CFTR expressing cells. We propose that this alteration is involved in the altered apoptosis triggering observed in CF. ..
  15. Kakurina G, Kondakova I, Spirina L, Kolegova E, Shashova E, Cheremisina O, et al. Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Motility Proteins during Progression of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2018;166:250-252 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of SNAIL1 and CAPN2 mRNA in HNSCC tissue was higher than in specimens of dysplastic epithelium of the larynx and hypopharynx, which ..
  16. Ma L, Zheng J. Single-cell gene expression analysis reveals β-cell dysfunction and deficit mechanisms in type 2 diabetes. BMC Bioinformatics. 2018;19:515 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, by analyzing the genes related to apoptosis, we found that the TNFR1-, BAX-, CAPN1- and CAPN2-dependent pathways may be crucial for β-cell apoptosis in T2D...
  17. Ueyama H, Kumamoto T, Fujimoto S, Murakami T, Tsuda T. Expression of three calpain isoform genes in human skeletal muscles. J Neurol Sci. 1998;155:163-9 pubmed
  18. Nguyen H, Varadi M, Tompa P, Pauwels K. Affinity purification of human m-calpain through an intrinsically disordered inhibitor, calpastatin. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174125 pubmed publisher
  19. Zuo S, Kong D, Wang C, Liu J, Wang Y, Wan Q, et al. CRTH2 promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through m-calpain. EMBO Mol Med. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings revealed an unexpected role of CRTH2 in promoting ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, suggesting that CRTH2 inhibition has therapeutic potential for ischemic cardiomyopathy. ..
  20. Tikhomirova M, Karpenko M, Kirik O, Sukhorukova E, KorzhevskiÄ­ D, Klimenko V. [GAP-43 and its proteolytic fragment in spinal cord cells of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2015;101:74-84 pubmed
    ..The immunoreactive staining enabled the observation of the accumulation of GAP-43-3 predominantly in microglial cells. ..
  21. Biswas A, Tandon S, Beura C. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures. Food Chem. 2016;200:315-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. ..
  22. Cai P, Kovacs L, Dong S, Wu G, Su Y. BMP4 inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis via PKA-mediated inhibition of calpain-2 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L638-L648 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effects of BMP4 on PDGF-induced cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and calpain-2 activation are impaired in PASMCs from PAH patients, which may contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. ..
  23. Baek K, Yu H, Kim E, Na Y, Kwon Y. Calcium influx-mediated translocation of m-calpain induces Ku80 cleavage and enhances the Ku80-related DNA repair pathway. Oncotarget. 2016;7:30831-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the present study, m-calpain in DNA repair pathways might be a novel anticancer drug target, or its mechanism might be a possible route for resistance acquisition of DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics. ..
  24. Kim K, Min A, Lee Y, Shin M. Degradation of the transcription factors NF-κB, STAT3, and STAT5 is involved in Entamoeba histolytica-induced cell death in Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Korean J Parasitol. 2014;52:459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that calpain plays an important role in E. histolytica-induced degradation of NF-κB and STATs in colonic epithelial cells, which ultimately accelerates cell death. ..
  25. Thompson V, Saldana S, Cong J, Luedke D, Goll D. The calpain system in human placenta. Life Sci. 2002;70:2493-508 pubmed
    ..Human placenta extracts likely contain two different calpastatin isoforms, a 48-51 kDa "placenta calpastatin" and a 70 kDa erythrocyte calpastatin. ..
  26. Perry S, Barbieri J, Tong N, Polesskaya O, Pudasaini S, Stout A, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat activates calpain proteases via the ryanodine receptor to enhance surface dopamine transporter levels and increase transporter-specific uptake and Vmax. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide key translational relevance for these findings by highlighting published human data of increased DAT levels in striata of HAND patients and by demonstrating similar findings in Tat-expressing transgenic mice. ..
  27. D Adamo C, Dawson V, Ryan K, Yerges Armstrong L, Semba R, Steinle N, et al. The CAPN2/CAPN8 Locus on Chromosome 1q Is Associated with Variation in Serum Alpha-Carotene Concentrations. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2016;9:254-264 pubmed publisher
    ..associations with ?-carotene concentrations were observed for loci on chromosome 1q41 between the genes CAPN2 and CAPN8 (rs12137025, p = 3.55 × 10-8), chromosome 2p21 in PRKCE (rs2594495, p = 1...
  28. Su B, Guan Q, Wang M, Liu N, Wei X, Wang S, et al. Calpeptin is neuroprotective against acrylamide-induced neuropathy in rats. Toxicology. 2018;400-401:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The calpain's overactivation causes the degrading of MAP2 and eventually leads to the destruction of microtubules (MTs), which may be one of the mechanisms of cytoskeletal damage induced by ACR. ..
  29. Maehara H, Suzuki K, Sasaki T, Oshita H, Wada E, Inoue T, et al. G1-G2 aggrecan product that can be generated by M-calpain on truncation at Ala709-Ala710 is present abundantly in human articular cartilage. J Biochem. 2007;141:469-77 pubmed
    ..M-calpain is the major candidate of the proteinase to generate this aggrecan product during the intracellular aggrecan processing. ..
  30. Wang C, Huang Y. Calpain 2 activated through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor signaling cleaves CPEB3 and abrogates CPEB3-repressed translation in neurons. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the calpain 2-cleaved CPEB3 fragment binds to RNA but fails to repress translation. Therefore, the cleavage of CPEB3 by NMDA-activated calpain 2 accounts for the activity-related translation of CPEB3-targeted RNAs. ..
  31. Travers T, Shao H, Joughin B, Lauffenburger D, Wells A, Camacho C. Tandem phosphorylation within an intrinsically disordered region regulates ACTN4 function. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that tandem-site phosphorylation within intrinsically disordered regions provides a mechanism for a site to function as a switch to reveal a nearby function-regulating site. ..
  32. Chen G, Chen Y, Lin L. Different expression of calpains in the anterior vaginal wall of women with and without uterovaginal prolapse. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2004;11:113-7 pubmed
    ..Calpain expression may be compromised in the anterior vaginal wall of women with uterovaginal prolapse who have abnormal histologic changes in the vaginal connective tissues or have anterior vaginal laxity. ..
  33. Mo X, Chen Q, Li X, Zheng M, Ke D, Deng W, et al. Suppression of NHE1 by small interfering RNA inhibits HIF-1?-induced angiogenesis in vitro via modulation of calpain activity. Microvasc Res. 2011;81:160-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Shao H, Travers T, Camacho C, Wells A. The carboxyl tail of alpha-actinin-4 regulates its susceptibility to m-calpain and thus functions in cell migration and spreading. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:1051-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the C-terminal tail of alpha-actinin-4 is essential for its function in cell migration and adhesion to substratum. ..
  35. Saraiva N, Prole D, Carrara G, Johnson B, Taylor C, Parsons M, et al. hGAAP promotes cell adhesion and migration via the stimulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry and calpain 2. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:699-713 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that hGAAP is a novel regulator of focal adhesion dynamics, cell adhesion, and migration by controlling localized Ca(2+)-dependent activation of calpain. ..
  36. Zhao Q, Guo Z, Deng W, Fu S, Zhang C, Chen M, et al. Calpain 2-mediated autophagy defect increases susceptibility of fatty livers to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2186 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing autophagy may ameliorate fatty liver damage and represent a valuable method to expand the liver donor pool. ..
  37. Podbielska M, Das A, Smith A, Chauhan A, Ray S, Inoue J, et al. Neuron-microglia interaction induced bi-directional cytotoxicity associated with calpain activation. J Neurochem. 2016;139:440-455 pubmed publisher
  38. Jiang C, Fang X, Zhang H, Wang X, Li M, Jiang W, et al. AMD3100 combined with triptolide inhibit proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induce apoptosis of human U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;86:677-685 pubmed publisher
    ..AMD3100 combined with triptolide can reduce proliferation and metastasis, and induce apoptosis of U2OS cells, which may be related to the Erk1/2, Akt, STAT3 and NF-?B pathways. ..
  39. Kopp S. Reproducibility of response to a questionnaire on symptoms of masticatory dysfunction. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1976;4:205-9 pubmed
    ..The comparison between the questionnaire data and clinical findings showed the best agreement for joint sounds. The reported pain symptoms and palpatory tenderness seem to be different entities. ..
  40. Imajoh S, Aoki K, Ohno S, Emori Y, Kawasaki H, Sugihara H, et al. Molecular cloning of the cDNA for the large subunit of the high-Ca2+-requiring form of human Ca2+-activated neutral protease. Biochemistry. 1988;27:8122-8 pubmed
    A nearly full-length cDNA clone for the large subunit of high-Ca2+-requiring Ca2+-activated neutral protease (mCANP) from human tissues has been isolated...
  41. Li P, Miao C, Liang C, Shao P, Wang Z, Li J. Silencing CAPN2 Expression Inhibited Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells Proliferation and Invasion via AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2593674 pubmed publisher
    The mRNA expression of CAPN2 was upregulated in CRPC cells (DU145 and PC3) than that in non-CRPC cells. Silencing CAPN2 expression could inhibit DU145 and PC3 cells proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase...
  42. Zuo J, Hu Z, Liu T, Chen C, Tao Z, Chen S, et al. Calpeptin attenuates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation via suppressing calpain/IκBα signaling in mice and BEAS-2B cells. Pathol Res Pract. 2018;214:1199-1209 pubmed publisher
    ..Calpeptin might have a potential for prevention of the development of inflammatory pulmonary diseases and warrant further pharmaceutical investigation. ..
  43. Ben Aharon I, Ben Yosef D, Amit A, Shalgi R. Expression and immunolocalization of the calpain-calpastatin system in the human oocyte. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1807-13 pubmed
    ..A complete calpain-calpastatin system is expressed in the human oocyte and might play a role in the various calcium-mediated processes occurring during activation of human oocytes. ..
  44. Leloup L, Shao H, Bae Y, Deasy B, Stolz D, Roy P, et al. m-Calpain activation is regulated by its membrane localization and by its binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33549-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphorylation of m-calpain by ERK and PKA by growth factors and chemokines, respectively, act in cells to regulate the enzyme only indirectly by controlling its redistribution. ..
  45. Wang Y, White M, Akay C, Chodroff R, Robinson J, Lindl K, et al. Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 by calpains contributes to human immunodeficiency virus-induced neurotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2007;103:439-55 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest calpain activation of CDK5, a pathway activated in HIV-infected individuals, can mediate neuronal damage and death in a model of HIV-induced neurotoxicity. ..
  46. Cortesio C, Chan K, Perrin B, Burton N, Zhang S, Zhang Z, et al. Calpain 2 and PTP1B function in a novel pathway with Src to regulate invadopodia dynamics and breast cancer cell invasion. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:957-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our experiments implicate a novel signaling pathway involving calpain 2, PTP1B, and Src in the regulation of invadopodia and breast cancer invasion. ..
  47. Wang H, Huang Y, Ho C, Jeng J, Shih H. SUMO modification modulates the activity of calpain-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;384:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only identify calpain-2 as a substrate for sumoylation but also provide an important role of sumoylation in regulating cell migration. ..
  48. Shen C, Yu Y, Li H, Yan G, Liu M, Shen H, et al. Global profiling of proteolytically modified proteins in human metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines reveals CAPN2 centered network. Proteomics. 2012;12:1917-27 pubmed publisher
    ..A proteolysis network was also built up, of which the CAPN2 centered subnetwork, including SPTBN1, ATP5B, and VIM, was more active in highly metastatic HCC cell line...
  49. Choi H, Myung K. Vitamin D₃ regulation of body fat, cytokines, and calpain gene expression. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:632-7 pubmed
    ..Vitamin D₃ amplified muscle u- and m-calpain protein content and suppressed muscle calpastatin protein content. These findings suggest that vitamin D3 can be used as a fat synthesizer and meat tenderizer in meat-producing animals. ..
  50. Shintani Ishida K, Yoshida K. Mitochondrial m-calpain opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in ischemia-reperfusion. Int J Cardiol. 2015;197:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated for the first time the presence of mitochondrial matrix m-calpain, and its contribution to complex I inactivation and mPTP opening after postischemic reperfusion in the rat heart. ..
  51. Maya S, Prakash T, Goli D. Evaluation of neuroprotective effects of wedelolactone and gallic acid on aluminium-induced neurodegeneration: Relevance to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;835:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..WL and GA prevent the neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal damage. The study concluded that the WL and GA were dose-dependently effective in managing the AlCl3-induced neurodegeneration. ..
  52. Strobl S, Fernandez Catalan C, Braun M, Huber R, Masumoto H, Nakagawa K, et al. The crystal structure of calcium-free human m-calpain suggests an electrostatic switch mechanism for activation by calcium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:588-92 pubmed
    ..The activity status at the catalytic center might be further modulated by calcium binding to the calmodulin domains via the N-terminal linkers. ..
  53. Huang J, Huang M, Wang P, Zhao L, Xu X, Zhou G, et al. Effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle. J Anim Sci. 2014;92:5749-56 pubmed publisher
    ..05) breast muscle redness, energy metabolism, and autolysis of μ/m-calpain and decreased (P<0.05) meat shear values. Physical restraint and electrical stunning decreased (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone level. ..
  54. Mikosik A, Henc I, Rückemann Dziurdzińska K, Frackowiak J, Płoszynska A, Balcerska A, et al. Increased μ-Calpain Activity in Blasts of Common B-Precursor Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Correlates with Their Lower Susceptibility to Apoptosis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136615 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings make the CCS a potential new predictive tool and therapeutic target in childhood ALL. ..
  55. MUFSON E, He B, Ginsberg S, Carper B, Bieler G, Crawford F, et al. Gene Profiling of Nucleus Basalis Tau Containing Neurons in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Study. J Neurotrauma. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, upregulation of calpain 2 (Capn2) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) transcript levels was found in stage IV CTE patients...
  56. Ishiguro H, Higashiyama S, Namikawa C, Kunimatsu M, Takano E, Tanaka K, et al. Interaction of human calpains I and II with high molecular weight and low molecular weight kininogens and their heavy chain: mechanism of interaction and the role of divalent cations. Biochemistry. 1987;26:2863-70 pubmed
    ..Some other divalent cations such as Mn2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ were also able to induce the complex formation between calpains and kininogens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  57. Lee M, Kwon Y, Li M, Peng J, Friedlander R, Tsai L. Neurotoxicity induces cleavage of p35 to p25 by calpain. Nature. 2000;405:360-4 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, inhibition of cdk5 or calpain activity reduces cell death in A beta-treated cortical neurons. These observations indicate that cleavage of p35 to p25 by calpain may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  58. Svensson L, McDowall A, Giles K, Stanley P, Feske S, Hogg N. Calpain 2 controls turnover of LFA-1 adhesions on migrating T lymphocytes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15090 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby Ca2+ influx, potentially through stretch activated channels, is sufficient to activate calpain 2 at the trailing edge of a migrating T cell and this activity is essential for the turnover of LFA-1 adhesions. ..
  59. Ma H, Azuma M, Shearer T. Degradation of human aquaporin 0 by m-calpain. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:6745-8 pubmed
    ..Because the cause(s) of 17 other cleavage sites was unknown, the data also suggested that other, as yet unknown, proteases or non-enzymatic mechanisms are more active than calpain in human lens. ..
  60. Ma J, Cui W, He S, Duan Y, Heng L, Wang L, et al. Human U87 astrocytoma cell invasion induced by interaction of ?ig-h3 with integrin ?5?1 involves calpain-2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37297 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed that ?ig-h3 co-localized with integrin ?5?1 to enhance the invasion of U87 cells, and that calpain-2, is involved in this process, acting as a downstream molecule. ..
  61. Elgheznawy A, Shi L, Hu J, Wittig I, Laban H, Pircher J, et al. Dicer cleavage by calpain determines platelet microRNA levels and function in diabetes. Circ Res. 2015;117:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, calpain inhibition may be one means of normalizing platelet miRNA processing as well as platelet function in diabetes mellitus. ..
  62. Nakashima K, Ishida A, Ijiri D, Ohtsuka A. Effect of dexamethasone on the expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in chick skeletal muscle. Anim Sci J. 2016;87:405-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that dexamethasone enhances atrogin-1/MAFbx expression in chick skeletal muscle, resulting in increased muscle atrophy. ..
  63. Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, Lewy Trenda I, Danilewicz M, Stasikowska Kanicka O, et al. Gene/protein expression of CAPN1/2-CAST system members is associated with ERK1/2 kinases activity as well as progression and clinical outcome in human laryngeal cancer. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:13185-13203 pubmed
    ..05) and was found to promote worse prognosis. This is the first study to show that activity of CAPN1/2- CAST-ERK1/2 axis may be an indicator of tumor phenotype and unfavorable outcome in SCLC. ..
  64. Sun L, Zhou H, Liu H, Ge Y, Zhang X, Ma W, et al. GAS2-Calpain2 axis contributes to the growth of leukemic cells. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2015;47:795-804 pubmed publisher
  65. Huang J, Yang J, Huang F, Huang M, Chen K, Xu X, et al. Effect of fast pH decline during the early postmortem period on calpain activity and cytoskeletal protein degradation of broiler M. pectoralis major. Poult Sci. 2016;95:2455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that the fast pH decline experienced an earlier activation of calpains that resulted in earlier protein degradation and ultimately lower shear force. ..
  66. Schad E, Farkas A, Jekely G, Tompa P, Friedrich P. A novel human small subunit of calpains. Biochem J. 2002;362:383-8 pubmed
    ..The expression of this protein in vivo, as assessed from its appearance in expressed sequence tag clones, is rather limited, making it an example of a tissue-specific, rather than ubiquitous, small subunit. ..
  67. Suzuki K, Sorimachi H, Yoshizawa T, Kinbara K, Ishiura S. Calpain: novel family members, activation, and physiologic function. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1995;376:523-9 pubmed
    ..This dissociation corresponds to the activation of calpain. (iii) Some powerful clues have been obtained that will be helpful for analyzing the physiological function. ..
  68. Chen C, Liao J, Hu O, Pao L. Blockade of KCa3.1 potassium channels protects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:2249-2260 pubmed publisher
    ..1 blockade protects against cisplatin-induced AKI through the attenuation of apoptosis by interference with intrinsic apoptotic and ER stress-related mediators, providing a potential target for the prevention of cisplatin-induced AKI. ..
  69. Han X, Liu C, Zhang K, Guo M, Shen Z, Liu Y, et al. Calpain and JNK pathways participate in isoflurane - induced nucleus translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor in the brain of neonatal rats. Toxicol Lett. 2018;285:60-73 pubmed publisher
    ..JNK inhibition reversed isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and subsequent long-term neurocognitive impairment, acting via inhibiting activation of both AIF and caspase-3 pathways. ..
  70. Sanchez Sanchez F, Martínez Redondo F, Aroca Aguilar J, Coca Prados M, Escribano J. Characterization of the intracellular proteolytic cleavage of myocilin and identification of calpain II as a myocilin-processing protease. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27810-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that this cleavage might regulate extracellular interactions of myocilin, contributing to the control of intraocular pressure. ..
  71. Inoue T, Suzuki K, Maehara H, Shimizu K. Human growth plate contains aggrecan fragments that can be generated by m-calpain. Connect Tissue Res. 2011;52:235-41 pubmed publisher
  72. Zhao Y, Cui G, Zhou N, Li C, Zhang Q, Sun H, et al. Calpain-Calcineurin-Nuclear Factor Signaling and the Development of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Valvular Heart Disease and Diabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:4639654 pubmed publisher
    ..We thereby concluded that CaN together with its upstream molecule, calpain 2, and its downstream effector, NFAT-c3, might contribute to the development of AF in patients with VHD and diabetes. ..
  73. Zhao L, Xing T, Huang J, Qiao Y, Chen Y, Huang M. Involvement of ?/m-calpain in the proteolysis and meat quality changes during postmortem storage of chicken breast muscle. Anim Sci J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
  74. Courdier Fruh I, Briguet A. Utrophin is a calpain substrate in muscle cells. Muscle Nerve. 2006;33:753-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that, beside its known effect on general muscle protein degradation, calpain contributes to DMD pathology by specifically degrading the compensatory protein utrophin. ..
  75. Medana I, Day N, Hien T, Mai N, Bethell D, Phu N, et al. Cerebral calpain in fatal falciparum malaria. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007;33:179-92 pubmed
    ..Our findings implicate a role for calpains in the modulation of disease progression in CM. ..
  76. Fujitani K, Kambayashi J, Sakon M, Ohmi S, Kawashima S, Yukawa M, et al. Identification of mu-, m-calpains and calpastatin and capture of mu-calpain activation in endothelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 1997;66:197-209 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the calpain-calpastatin system is present in human endothelial cells and that mu-calpain may be involved in endothelial cell function mediated by Ca2+ via the limited proteolysis of various proteins. ..
  77. Xu L, Deng X. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induces phosphorylation of mu- and m-calpain in association with increased secretion, cell migration, and invasion. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53683-90 pubmed
  78. Yang W, Qi Y, Fu J. Genetic signals of high-altitude adaptation in amphibians: a comparative transcriptome analysis. BMC Genet. 2016;17:134 pubmed
    ..tested 89 other nutrient metabolism related genes for signatures of natural selection, and found that two genes, CAPN2 and ITPR1, were likely under balancing selection...
  79. Nguyen H, Volkov A, Vandenbussche G, Tompa P, Pauwels K. In vivo biotinylated calpastatin improves the affinity purification of human m-calpain. Protein Expr Purif. 2018;145:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach is generally applicable through the in vivo biotinylation of any IDP of interest, and its practical implementation will showcase the power to exploit the properties of IDPs in affinity capture strategies. ..
  80. Lussier J, Diouf M, Lévesque V, Sirois J, Ndiaye K. Gene expression profiling of upregulated mRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine ovulatory follicles following stimulation with hCG. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2017;15:88 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNAs in GC of OF 24 h after hCG-injection compared with those of DF for the following genes: ADAMTS9, ARAF, CAPN2, CRISPLD2, FKBP5, GFPT2, KIT, KITLG, L3MBLT3, MRO, NUDT10, NUDT11, P4HA3, POSTN, PSAP, RBP1, SAT1, SDC4, TIMP2, ..
  81. Ohno S, Minoshima S, Kudoh J, Fukuyama R, Shimizu Y, Ohmi Imajoh S, et al. Four genes for the calpain family locate on four distinct human chromosomes. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;53:225-9 pubmed
    ..The genes for calpain L1 (CAPN1, large subunit of calpain I), L2 (CAPN2, large subunit of calpain II), L3 (CAPN3, a protein related to the large subunits), and S (CAPN4, a small subunit ..
  82. Miyazaki T, Honda K, Ohata H. Requirement of Ca2+ influx- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated m-calpain activity for shear stress-induced endothelial cell polarity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1216-25 pubmed
    ..This activity is facilitated primarily through the PI3K pathway; furthermore, it is essential for subsequent FA reorganization and cell alignment under shear conditions. ..
  83. Yamaguchi T, Yoneyama M, Ogita K. Calpain inhibitor alleviates permanent hearing loss induced by intense noise by preventing disruption of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in the cochlear spiral ligament. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;803:187-194 pubmed publisher
    ..The intense noise temporarily enhanced the gene expression of calpain subtypes Capn1 and Capn2 immediately after exposure...
  84. Corasaniti M, Navarra M, Catani M, Melino G, Nistico G, Finazzi Agro A. NMDA and HIV-1 coat protein, GP120, produce necrotic but not apoptotic cell death in human CHP100 neuroblastoma cultures via a mechanism involving calpain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229:299-304 pubmed
    ..Altogether the data indicate that neuroblastoma cell death induced by NMDA and gp120 is of the necrotic type and this implicates calpain protease. ..
  85. Chua B, Guo K, Li P. Direct cleavage by the calcium-activated protease calpain can lead to inactivation of caspases. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5131-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore our results suggest that calpains may act as negative regulators of caspase processing and apoptosis by effectively inactivating upstream caspases. ..
  86. Reverter D, Sorimachi H, Bode W. The structure of calcium-free human m-calpain: implications for calcium activation and function. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2001;11:222-9 pubmed
    ..Current evidence points to a cooperative interaction of several sites, which, upon calcium binding, trigger the reformation of a papain-similar catalytic domain. ..
  87. Yousefi S, Perozzo R, Schmid I, Ziemiecki A, Schaffner T, Scapozza L, et al. Calpain-mediated cleavage of Atg5 switches autophagy to apoptosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1124-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, calpain-mediated Atg5 cleavage provokes apoptotic cell death, therefore, represents a molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis--a finding with potential importance for clinical anticancer therapies. ..
  88. Karpe Y, Pingale K, Kanade G. Activities of proteasome and m-calpain are essential for Chikungunya virus replication. Virus Genes. 2016;52:716-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, it was seen that the virus replication was dependent on the activities of proteasomes and m-calpain. Proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and earlier visualization of UPR. ..
  89. Reverter D, Strobl S, Fernandez Catalan C, Sorimachi H, Suzuki K, Bode W. Structural basis for possible calcium-induced activation mechanisms of calpains. Biol Chem. 2001;382:753-66 pubmed
  90. Adamec E, Mohan P, Vonsattel J, Nixon R. Calpain activation in neurodegenerative diseases: confocal immunofluorescence study with antibodies specifically recognizing the active form of calpain 2. Acta Neuropathol. 2002;104:92-104 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results provide evidence of the important role of the calpain proteolytic system in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases with tau neurofibrillary pathology. ..
  91. Kiss R, Bozoky Z, Kovacs D, Róna G, Friedrich P, Dvortsak P, et al. Calcium-induced tripartite binding of intrinsically disordered calpastatin to its cognate enzyme, calpain. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This unprecedented binding mode permits a unique combination of specificity, speed and binding strength in regulation. ..
  92. Storr S, Safuan S, Woolston C, Abdel Fatah T, Deen S, Chan S, et al. Calpain-2 expression is associated with response to platinum based chemotherapy, progression-free and overall survival in ovarian cancer. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:2422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study warrant validation in a larger clinical cohort. ..