Gene Symbol: CAMK2B
Description: calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta
Alias: CAM2, CAMK2, CAMKB, MRD54, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta, CaM kinase II beta subunit, CaM-kinase II beta chain, caMK-II subunit beta, proline rich calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
Species: human
Products:     CAMK2B

Top Publications

  1. Rose A, Hargreaves M. Exercise increases Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2003;553:303-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, exercise increases the activity of CaMKII in skeletal muscle, suggesting that it may have a role in regulating skeletal muscle function and metabolism during exercise in humans. ..
  2. Kwok S, Lee C, Sanchez S, Hazlett T, Gratton E, Hayashi Y. Genetically encoded probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging of CaMKII activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These FLIM versions of Camui could be useful for elucidating the function of CaMKII both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  3. Schworer C, Colbran R, Keefer J, Soderling T. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Identification of a regulatory autophosphorylation site adjacent to the inhibitory and calmodulin-binding domains. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:13486-9 pubmed
    ..e. His-Arg-Gln-Glu-Thr(PO4)-. These findings indicate that autophosphorylation of Thr286 (alpha subunit) and Thr287 (beta subunit) is responsible for transition of CaM-kinase II to the Ca2+-independent form. ..
  4. Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T. Increased expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in frontal cortex in schizophrenia and depression. Synapse. 2006;59:61-8 pubmed
    ..Because CaMKIIbeta influences the expression of many neuroreceptors and influences neural outgrowth and pruning, its altered expression in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia or depression may contribute to these diseases. ..
  5. Gaertner T, Kolodziej S, Wang D, Kobayashi R, Koomen J, Stoops J, et al. Comparative analyses of the three-dimensional structures and enzymatic properties of alpha, beta, gamma and delta isoforms of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12484-94 pubmed
    ..Simulations utilizing this data revealed that the measured differences in CaM binding affinities play a minor role in the autophosphorylation of the enzyme, which is largely dictated by the rate of autophosphorylation for each isoform. ..
  6. Freire P, Fernández G, Cury S, de Moraes D, Oliveira J, de Oliveira G, et al. The Pathway to Cancer Cachexia: MicroRNA-Regulated Networks in Muscle Wasting Based on Integrative Meta-Analysis. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found drugs targeting MSTN, CXCL12, and CAMK2B, which may be considered for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer cachexia...
  7. Rong J, Pool B, Zhu M, Munro J, Cornish J, McCarthy G, et al. Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Induce Osteoarthritis-Associated Changes in Phenotype Markers in Primary Human Chondrocytes by a Calcium/Calmodulin Kinase 2-Dependent Mechanism. Calcif Tissue Int. 2019;104:331-343 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular calcium and levels of phosphorylated and total calcium/calmodulin kinase 2 (CaMK2) were elevated following BCP treatment due to BCP-induced release of calcium from intracellular stores...
  8. Proietti Onori M, Koopal B, Everman D, Worthington J, Jones J, Ploeg M, et al. The intellectual disability-associated CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation acts as a pathogenic gain-of-function. Hum Mutat. 2018;39:2008-2024 pubmed publisher
    The abundantly expressed calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), alpha (CAMK2A), and beta (CAMK2B) isoforms are essential for learning and memory formation. Recently, a de novo candidate mutation (p...
  9. Cui P, Ma T, Tamadon A, Han S, Li B, Chen Z, et al. Hypothalamic DNA methylation in rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of low-frequency electro-acupuncture. Exp Physiol. 2018;103:1618-1632 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, pyrosequencing showed that the DNA methylation of certain CpG sites in targeted genes (Plcg1, Camk2b, Esr2 and Pgr) was increased in the PCOS group, but the DNA methylation of Camk2b and Ar was decreased after EA ..

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Long S, Brown K, Drewry L, Anthony B, Phan I, Sibley L. Calmodulin-like proteins localized to the conoid regulate motility and cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006379 pubmed publisher
    ..CaM1 and CaM2 were individually dispensable, but loss of both resulted in a synthetic lethal phenotype...
  2. Parra C, Dorta F, Jiménez E, Henríquez R, Ramírez C, Rojas R, et al. A nanomolecular approach to decrease adhesion of biofouling-producing bacteria to graphene-coated material. J Nanobiotechnology. 2015;13:82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CAM2 by introducing single layer graphene coatings...
  3. Kang S, Hong J, Lee J, Moon H, Jeon B, Choi J, et al. Trifluoperazine, a Well-Known Antipsychotic, Inhibits Glioblastoma Invasion by Binding to Calmodulin and Disinhibiting Calcium Release Channel IP3R. Mol Cancer Ther. 2017;16:217-227 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 2 by directly interacting at the TFP-binding site of a Ca2+-binding protein, calmodulin subtype 2 (CaM2). TFP binding to CaM2 causes a dissociation of CaM2 from IP3R and subsequent opening of IP3R...
  4. Workalemahu T, Enquobahrie D, Gelaye B, Thornton T, Tekola Ayele F, Sanchez S, et al. Abruptio placentae risk and genetic variations in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation: replication of a candidate gene association study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;219:617.e1-617.e17 pubmed publisher
    ..alleles of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 9 mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation genes (CAMK2B, NR1H3, PPARG, PRKCA, THRB, COX5A, NDUFA10, NDUFA12, and NDUFC2), which previously was reported in the Peruvian ..
  5. Nasir A, Le Bail A, Daiker V, Klima J, Richter P, Lebert M. Identification of a flagellar protein implicated in the gravitaxis in the flagellate Euglena gracilis. Sci Rep. 2018;8:7605 pubmed publisher
    ..Euglena gracilis is an emerging flagellated model organism. The current study reports that a specific calmodulin (CaM2) involved in gravitaxis of E. gracilis interacts with an evolutionary conserved flagellar protein, EgPCDUF4201...
  6. Liu H, Li J, Yang Y, Liu L, Yu L, Tu M, et al. Alterations of 63 hub genes during lingual carcinogenesis in C57BL/6J mice. Sci Rep. 2018;8:12626 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant alterations in promoter methylation were confirmed at Tbp, Smad1, Smad4, Pdpk1, Camk2, Atxn3, and Cdh2...
  7. Chia P, Zhong F, Niwa S, Bonnard C, Utami K, Zeng R, et al. A homozygous loss-of-function CAMK2A mutation causes growth delay, frequent seizures and severe intellectual disability. elife. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) plays fundamental roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory...
  8. Xie Q, Wu Q, Horbinski C, Flavahan W, Yang K, Zhou W, et al. Mitochondrial control by DRP1 in brain tumor initiating cells. Nat Neurosci. 2015;18:501-10 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylated DRP1 to increase its activity in BTICs, whereas Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2) inhibited DRP1 in non-BTIC tumor cells, suggesting that tumor cell differentiation induces a regulatory switch in ..
  9. Yao X, Xu X, Wang G, Lei M, Quan L, Cheng Y, et al. BBT improves glucose homeostasis by ameliorating β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. J Endocrinol. 2015;224:327-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of further studies revealed that cAMP/PKA and long-lasting (L-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2) (+) channel/CaMK2 pathways were involved in the action of BBT against GSIS, and that the cAMP/PKA pathway was essential for the ..
  10. Simats A, García Berrocoso T, Ramiro L, Giralt D, Gill N, Penalba A, et al. Characterization of the rat cerebrospinal fluid proteome following acute cerebral ischemia using an aptamer-based proteomic technology. Sci Rep. 2018;8:7899 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven promising candidates were further evaluated in rat plasma and brain (CKB, CaMK2A, CaMK2B, CaMK2D, PDXP, AREG, CMPK)...
  11. Doroudi M, Plaisance M, Boyan B, Schwartz Z. Membrane actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in bone and cartilage cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;145:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Camk2a-silenced but not Camk2b-silenced osteoblasts showed comparable effects...
  12. Lee E, Kaneko S, Jutabha P, Zhang X, Seino S, Jomori T, et al. Distinct action of the α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol on SGLT3, enteroendocrine cells, and GLP1 secretion. J Endocrinol. 2015;224:205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..enterochromaffin (EC) cells as assessed by immunostaining of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin kinase 2 (phospho-CaMK2)...
  13. Cao J, Wu Y, Liu G, Li Z. [Over-expression of BDNF inhibits angiotensin II-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in SD rats]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2018;34:218-224 pubmed
    ..Western blot assay was used to observe the changes of BDNF, ANP and BNP, calmodulin kinase 2 (CaMK2) and phosphorylated calmodulin kinase 2 (p-CaMK2), calcineurin (CaN), p-CaN, nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 ..
  14. Huang J, Wu Z, Wang J, Zhang X. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals GTBP-1 regulating C.elegans lifespan at different environmental temperatures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503:1962-1967 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results uncovered those kinases CK2, MAPK and CAMK2 might play important roles in aging regulation...
  15. Yuasa K, Okubo K, Yoda M, Otsu K, Ishii Y, Nakamura M, et al. Targeted ablation of p38? MAPK suppresses denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Sci Rep. 2018;8:9037 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified CAMK2B as a potential downstream target of p38? MAPK and found that the pharmacological inhibition of CAMK2B activity ..
  16. Gu J, Law A, Yeung B, Wong C. Activation of gill Ca2+-sensing receptor as a protective pathway to reduce Ca2+-induced cytotoxicity. J Mol Endocrinol. 2014;53:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..followed by activation of ERK and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-Ca(2) (+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2) signaling pathways...
  17. Sadler A, Suliman B, Yu L, Yuan X, Wang D, Irving A, et al. The acetyltransferase HAT1 moderates the NF-κB response by regulating the transcription factor PLZF. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6795 pubmed publisher
    ..that signalling from Toll-like or TNF-α receptors triggers the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK2) to activate histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), which then acetylates the transcriptional regulator PLZF...
  18. Culver C, Sundqvist A, Mudie S, Melvin A, Xirodimas D, Rocha S. Mechanism of hypoxia-induced NF-kappaB. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4901-21 pubmed publisher
    ..under hypoxic conditions, IκB kinase (IKK) activity is induced through a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 2 (CaMK2)-dependent pathway distinct from that for other common inducers of NF-κB...
  19. Monahan D, Wang J, Lee O, Revesz E, Taft N, Ivancic D, et al. Cytologic atypia in the contralateral unaffected breast is related to parity and estrogen-related genes. Surg Oncol. 2016;25:449-456 pubmed publisher
    ..005), including TFF1, AGT, PDZK1, PGR, GREB1, PRLR, CAMK2B, and CCND1...
  20. Chi M, Evans H, Gilchrist J, Mayhew J, Hoffman A, Pearsall E, et al. Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II at T286 enhances invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:33132 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylation at T286 is increased in breast cancer when compared to normal breast tissue, and that increased CAMK2 mRNA is associated with poor breast cancer patient prognosis (worse overall and distant metastasis free survival)...
  21. Waggener C, Dupree J, Elgersma Y, Fuss B. CaMKIIβ regulates oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Camk2b knock-out and Camk2b(A303R) mutant mice, our data revealed an in vivo functional role of CaMKIIβ in regulating ..
  22. Locke J, Hysenaj G, Wood A, Weedon M, Harries L. Targeted allelic expression profiling in human islets identifies cis-regulatory effects for multiple variants identified by type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies. Diabetes. 2015;64:1484-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant allelic expression imbalance (AEI) was identified for 7/14 (50%) genes tested (ANPEP, CAMK2B, HMG20A, KCNJ11, NOTCH2, SLC30A8, and WFS1), with significant AEI confirmed for five of these genes using other ..
  23. Yang C, Raghuram V, Emamian M, Sandoval P, Knepper M. Deep proteomic profiling of vasopressin-sensitive collecting duct cells. II. Bioinformatic analysis of vasopressin signaling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015;309:C799-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Bayes' rule was used to integrate the new colocalization data with prior data to identify protein kinases most likely to phosphorylate aquaporin-2 at Ser(256) (Camk2b > Camk2d > Prkaca) and Ser(261) (Mapk1 = Mapk3 > Mapk14).
  24. Wang Q, Guo W, Hao B, Shi X, Lu Y, Wong C, et al. Mechanistic study of TRPM2-Ca(2+)-CAMK2-BECN1 signaling in oxidative stress-induced autophagy inhibition. Autophagy. 2016;12:1340-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in response to oxidative stress, TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx activated CAMK2 (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II) at levels of both phosphorylation and oxidation, and the ..
  25. Williams G, Bethard J, Berkaw M, Nagel A, Luttrell L, Ball L. Exploring G protein-coupled receptor signaling networks using SILAC-based phosphoproteomics. Methods. 2016;92:36-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinase substrate motif enrichment demonstrated that consensus motifs for PKA and CAMK2 were the most heavily upregulated within the phosphoproteome, while consensus motifs for mitogen-activated protein ..
  26. Hamilton D, Zhang A, Li S, Cao T, Smith J, Vedula I, et al. Combination of angiotensin II and l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to cause heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H667-80 pubmed publisher
    ..hypertrophy, oxidative stress, increased expression of Nppa and Nppb, and decreased expression of Atp2a2 and Camk2b. l-NAME + AngII-treated mice exhibited robust deterioration of cardiac mitochondrial function, as observed by ..
  27. Wingo A, Velasco E, Florido A, Lori A, Choi D, Jovanovic T, et al. Expression of the PPM1F Gene Is Regulated by Stress and Associated With Anxiety and Depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2018;83:284-295 pubmed publisher
    ..Given prior reported mechanistic links between PPM1F and CAMK2 (CAMKII), we examined blood messenger RNA level of CAMK2G in humans and found it to be lower in cases with ..
  28. Li C, Li L, Lin B, Fang Y, Yang H, Liu H, et al. Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate induces toxicity by stimulating CaMK2 in PC12 cells. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32:1784-1791 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellular [Ca2+ ]i levels and the activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated ..
  29. Watanabe Y, Nunokawa A, Shibuya M, Ikeda M, Hishimoto A, Kondo K, et al. Rare truncating variations and risk of schizophrenia: Whole-exome sequencing in three families with affected siblings and a three-stage follow-up study in a Japanese population. Psychiatry Res. 2016;235:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the follow-up study, four variations (NWD1 W169X, LCORL R7fsX53, CAMK2B L497fsX497, and C9orf89 Q102X) had a higher mutant allele frequency in patients compared with controls, although ..
  30. Yu H, You X, Li J, Liu H, Meng Z, Xiao L, et al. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq). Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:501 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and ..
  31. Alli Shaik A, Wee S, Lim L, Gunaratne J. Phosphoproteomics reveals network rewiring to a pro-adhesion state in annexin-1-deficient mammary epithelial cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2017;19:132 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinase prediction analysis suggested activity modulation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), P21-activated kinase (PAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and I?B kinase (IKK) upon loss of ANXA1...
  32. Cai R, Zhang C, Zhao Y, Zhu K, Wang Y, Jiang H, et al. Genome-wide analysis of the IQD gene family in maize. Mol Genet Genomics. 2016;291:543-58 pubmed publisher
    ..that ZmIQD2 and ZmIQD15 can interact with ZmCaM2 and IQ or I in IQ motif is required for ZmIQD15 to combine with CaM2. Our results present a comprehensive overview of the maize IQD gene family and lay an important foundation for ..
  33. Martinez Pena y Valenzuela I, Aittaleb M, Chen P, Akaaboune M. The knockdown of αkap alters the postsynaptic apparatus of neuromuscular junctions in living mice. J Neurosci. 2015;35:5118-27 pubmed publisher
    A muscle-specific nonkinase anchoring protein (αkap), encoded within the calcium/calmodulin kinase II (camk2) α gene, was recently found to control the stability of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters on the surface of cultured ..
  34. Tatsuki F, Sunagawa G, Shi S, Susaki E, Yukinaga H, Perrin D, et al. Involvement of Ca(2+)-Dependent Hyperpolarization in Sleep Duration in Mammals. Neuron. 2016;90:70-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Kcnn3), voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (Cacna1g and Cacna1h), or Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases (Camk2a and Camk2b) decrease sleep duration, while impaired plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (Atp2b3) increases sleep duration...
  35. Aguiar P, Magalhães S, Fonseca I, da Costa Santos V, de Matos M, Peixoto M, et al. Post-exercise cold water immersion does not alter high intensity interval training-induced exercise performance and Hsp72 responses, but enhances mitochondrial markers. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2016;21:793-804 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 2 (NRF1 and 2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2) and enzymes citrate synthase (CS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (..
  36. Noda García L, Juárez Vázquez A, Ávila Arcos M, Verduzco Castro E, Montero Morán G, Gaytán P, et al. Insights into the evolution of enzyme substrate promiscuity after the discovery of (βα)₈ isomerase evolutionary intermediates from a diverse metagenome. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15:107 pubmed publisher
    ..A truncated version of this enzyme (CAM2) predicted to adopt a (βα)6-fold, and thus entirely lacking a C-terminus phosphate-binding site, was ..
  37. Coenen Stass A, McClorey G, Manzano R, Betts C, Blain A, Saleh A, et al. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17014 pubmed publisher
    ..Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples...
  38. Kool M, van de Bree J, Bodde H, Elgersma Y, van Woerden G. The molecular, temporal and region-specific requirements of the beta isoform of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 2 (CAMK2B) in mouse locomotion. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26989 pubmed publisher
    ..However, for locomotion such extensive studies are still scarce. Previous studies demonstrated that Camk2b(-/-) mice, which lack the β isoform of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2B), show very severe ..
  39. Marek Bukowiec K, Aguado E, Miazek A. Phorbol ester-mediated re-expression of endogenous LAT adapter in J.CaM2 cells: a model for dissecting drivers and blockers of LAT transcription. Genes Immun. 2016;17:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that a Jurkat subline J.CaM2, initially characterized as LAT deficient, conditionally re-expressed LAT upon the treatment with a protein kinase ..
  40. Hung T, Lee W, Chen K, Huang H, Chan Y, Lee C, et al. Possible inhibitor from traditional Chinese medicine for the ? form of calcium-dependent protein kinase type II in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:761849 pubmed publisher
    ..However labiatic acid may be a stronger inhibitor of ?-CaMKII based on the larger RMSD and variation. ..
  41. Tombes R, Krystal G. Identification of novel human tumor cell-specific CaMK-II variants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1355:281-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results provide insight into both splice variant switching and variable domain structural similarities among all CaMK-II isozymes. ..
  42. Wang P, Wu Y, Zhou T, Sun Y, Pei G. Identification of alternative splicing variants of the beta subunit of human Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with different activities. FEBS Lett. 2000;475:107-10 pubmed
  43. Wu X, McMurray C. Calmodulin kinase II attenuation of gene transcription by preventing cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) dimerization and binding of the CREB-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1735-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, CamKII confers a dominant inhibitory effect on transcription by preventing dimerization of CREB, and this mechanism may account for the attenuation of gene expression. ..
  44. Singh P, Salih M, Leddy J, Tuana B. The muscle-specific calmodulin-dependent protein kinase assembles with the glycolytic enzyme complex at the sarcoplasmic reticulum and modulates the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35176-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, the activation of CaMKIIbeta(M) in response to calcium signaling would serve to modulate GAPDH and thereby ATP and NADH levels at the SR membrane, which in turn will regulate calcium transport processes. ..
  45. Singh P, Leddy J, Chatzis G, Salih M, Tuana B. Alternative splicing generates a CaM kinase IIbeta isoform in myocardium that targets the sarcoplasmic reticulum through a putative alphaKAP and regulates GAPDH. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;270:215-21 pubmed
    ..The presence of a CaMKIIbeta isoform that can target the SR presumably via its membrane anchor alphaKAP defines a previously unrecognized Ca2+/CaM regulatory system in myocardium. ..
  46. David Dufilho M, Millanvoye Van Brussel E, Topal G, Walch L, Brunet A, Rendu F. Endothelial thrombomodulin induces Ca2+ signals and nitric oxide synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calmodulin kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35999-6006 pubmed
    ..This signaling may contribute to thrombomodulin function in thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. ..
  47. Mukherjee S, Sheng W, Sun R, Janssen L. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ and IIδ mediate TGFβ-induced transduction of fibronectin and collagen in human pulmonary fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L510-L519 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that TGFβ induces the expression of CamK IIβ and CamK IIδ, which in turn are activated by TGFβ-evoked Ca2+ waves in a frequency-dependent manner, leading to increased expression of ECM proteins. ..
  48. Wollmuth L, Kuner T, Sakmann B. Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+. J Physiol. 1998;506 ( Pt 1):13-32 pubmed
    ..The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues. ..
  49. Krapivinsky G, Krapivinsky L, Manasian Y, Ivanov A, Tyzio R, Pellegrino C, et al. The NMDA receptor is coupled to the ERK pathway by a direct interaction between NR2B and RasGRF1. Neuron. 2003;40:775-84 pubmed
    ..The specific association of RasGRF1 with the NR2B subunit and study of ERK activation in neurons with varied content of NR2B suggests that NR2B-containing channels are the dominant activators of the NMDA-dependent ERK pathway. ..
  50. Correia S, Bassani S, Brown T, Lise M, Backos D, El Husseini A, et al. Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. ..
  51. Rellos P, Pike A, Niesen F, Salah E, Lee W, von Delft F, et al. Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex reveals the molecular mechanism of CaMKII kinase activation. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000426 pubmed publisher
    ..Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the Web plugin are available in Text S1. ..
  52. Kristiansson K, Perola M, Tikkanen E, Kettunen J, Surakka I, Havulinna A, et al. Genome-wide screen for metabolic syndrome susceptibility Loci reveals strong lipid gene contribution but no evidence for common genetic basis for clustering of metabolic syndrome traits. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found little evidence for pleiotropy linking dyslipidemia and obesity to the other MetS component traits, such as hypertension and glucose intolerance. ..
  53. Zou S, Fuss B, Fitting S, Hahn Y, Hauser K, Knapp P. Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11384-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Since ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists can partially or fully reverse the detrimental effects of Tat, glutamate receptors could be a potential therapeutic target for white matter damage in HIV patients. ..
  54. Plössl K, Royer M, Bernklau S, Tavraz N, Friedrich T, Wild J, et al. Retinoschisin is linked to retinal Na/K-ATPase signaling and localization. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:2178-2189 pubmed publisher
    ..of Src, an initial transmitter in Na/K-ATPase signal transduction, and of Ca2+ signaling marker Camk2. Immunohistochemistry on murine retinae revealed an overlap of the retinoschisin-Na/K-ATPase complex with proteins ..
  55. Moyers J, Bilan P, Zhu J, Kahn C. Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11832-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Rad family of GTP-binding proteins possess unique characteristics of binding CaM and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, suggesting a role for Rad-like GTPases in calcium activation of serine/threonine kinase cascades. ..
  56. Chang B, Mukherji S, Soderling T. Characterization of a calmodulin kinase II inhibitor protein in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10890-5 pubmed
    ..These results characterize a potent and specific cellular inhibitor of CaM-KII that may have an important role in the physiological regulation of this key protein kinase. ..
  57. Anborgh P, Qian X, Papageorge A, Vass W, DeClue J, Lowy D. Ras-specific exchange factor GRF: oligomerization through its Dbl homology domain and calcium-dependent activation of Raf. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4611-22 pubmed
  58. Rochlitz H, Voigt A, Lankat Buttgereit B, Goke B, Heimberg H, Nauck M, et al. Cloning and quantitative determination of the human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) isoforms in human beta cells. Diabetologia. 2000;43:465-73 pubmed
    ..These results provide the basis for exploring the pathophysiological relevance of CaMK IIbeta in human diabetes. ..
  59. Yue C, Sanborn B. KN-93 inhibition of G protein signaling is independent of the ability of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to phosphorylate phospholipase Cbeta3 on 537-Ser. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;175:149-56 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that phosphorylation of PLCbeta3 by CaMK II is not directly involved in the inhibitory effect of KN-93 on phosphatidylinositide turnover. ..
  60. Poggi A, Carosio R, Rubartelli A, Zocchi M. Beta(3)-mediated engulfment of apoptotic tumor cells by dendritic cells is dependent on CAMKII: inhibition by HIV-1 Tat. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71:531-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, pertussis toxin can prevent HIV-1 Tat-mediated inhibition, suggesting the involvement of a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein in DC-mediated phagocytosis. ..
  61. Gee K, Angel J, Mishra S, Blahoianu M, Kumar A. IL-10 regulation by HIV-Tat in primary human monocytic cells: involvement of calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-activated p38 MAPK and Sp-1 and CREB-1 transcription factors. J Immunol. 2007;178:798-807 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that extracellular HIV-Tat induced IL-10 transcription in primary human monocytes is regulated by CREB-1 and Sp-1 transcription factors through the activation of calmodulin/CaMK-II-dependent p38 MAPK. ..
  62. Kury S, van Woerden G, Besnard T, Proietti Onori M, Latypova X, Towne M, et al. De Novo Mutations in Protein Kinase Genes CAMK2A and CAMK2B Cause Intellectual Disability. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101:768-788 pubmed publisher based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability...
  63. Liao G, Wagner D, Hsu M, Leonard J. Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:960-4 pubmed
    ..The direct action of PKC on certain NMDA receptor subtypes may be important in any physiological or pathological process where PKC and NR2B/NR1 receptors interact. ..
  64. Poggi A, Carosio R, Spaggiari G, Fortis C, Tambussi G, Dell Antonio G, et al. NK cell activation by dendritic cells is dependent on LFA-1-mediated induction of calcium-calmodulin kinase II: inhibition by HIV-1 Tat C-terminal domain. J Immunol. 2002;168:95-101 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that exogenous Tat inhibits NK cell activation occurring upon contact with DC: this mechanism might contribute to the impairment of natural immunity in HIV-1 infection. ..
  65. Yang B, Xiao C, Roa W, Krammer P, Hao C. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulation of c-FLIP expression and phosphorylation in modulation of Fas-mediated signaling in malignant glioma cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7043-50 pubmed
    ..Transfection of CaMK II cDNA in sensitive cells rendered them resistant to CH-11. These results indicated that CaMK II regulates c-FLIP expression and phosphorylation, thus modulating Fas-mediated signaling in glioma cells. ..
  66. Cuschieri J, Bulger E, Garcia I, Jelacic S, Maier R. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II is required for platelet-activating factor priming. Shock. 2005;23:99-106 pubmed
    ..This priming event is mediated in part by modulation of ERK 1/2, JNK/SAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 activation. CaMK IV, on the other hand, is not specific for priming by PAF and appears to have a direct link in TLR4-mediated events. ..
  67. Lantsman K, Tombes R. CaMK-II oligomerization potential determined using CFP/YFP FRET. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1746:45-54 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that alpha, beta, and delta CaMK-IIs can freely hetero-oligomerize and that increased variable region lengths place amino termini further apart, potentially influencing the rate of inter-subunit autophosphorylation. ..
  68. Bayer K, Lebel E, McDonald G, O Leary H, Schulman H, De Koninck P. Transition from reversible to persistent binding of CaMKII to postsynaptic sites and NR2B. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1164-74 pubmed
    ..This activity-dependent incorporation of CaMKII into postsynaptic sites may play a role in maturation and plasticity of synapses. ..
  69. Wayman G, Lee Y, Tokumitsu H, Silva A, Silva A, Soderling T. Calmodulin-kinases: modulators of neuronal development and plasticity. Neuron. 2008;59:914-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The technical challenges of mapping cellular protein kinase signaling pathways are also discussed. ..
  70. Jiao Y, Jalan Sakrikar N, Robison A, Baucum A, Bass M, Colbran R. Characterization of a central Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha/beta binding domain in densin that selectively modulates glutamate receptor subunit phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24806-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, densin can target multiple CaMKII isoforms to differentially modulate phosphorylation of physiologically relevant downstream targets...
  71. Park E, Jung H, Choi H, Cho J, Park H, Kwon T. MiR-34c-5p and CaMKII are involved in aldosterone-induced fibrosis in kidney collecting duct cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;:ajprenal.00358.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Through the identification of putative target genes of these three miRNAs, mRNA and protein expression of Camk2b gene (a target gene of miR-34c-5p) were found to be significantly increased in aldosterone-treated cells, ..
  72. Yamamoto H. [Molecular mechanisms of the intracellular localizations of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II isoforms, and their physiological functions]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2002;47:241-7 pubmed
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    ..However, CaMKII shows decreased affinity towards the closely related NR2A subunit due to an -Ile-Asn- motif present as a natural insertion in the analogous sequence on NR2A. ..
  74. Liu H, Grundström T. Calcium regulation of GM-CSF by calmodulin-dependent kinase II phosphorylation of Ets1. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4497-507 pubmed
    ..In addition, the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of Ets1 reduces the binding of Ets1 to the GM-CSF promoter in vivo. ..
  75. Ellis J, Valencia T, Zeng H, Roberts L, Deaton R, Grant S. CaM kinase IIdeltaC phosphorylation of 14-3-3beta in vascular smooth muscle cells: activation of class II HDAC repression. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;242:153-61 pubmed
  76. Cairns B, Svensson P, Wang K, Hupfeld S, Graven Nielsen T, Sessle B, et al. Activation of peripheral NMDA receptors contributes to human pain and rat afferent discharges evoked by injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:2098-105 pubmed
    ..It is conceivable that activation of peripheral NMDA receptors may contribute to masticatory muscle pain and that peripherally acting NMDA receptor antagonists could prove to be effective analgesics for this type of pain. ..
  77. Chin E. The role of calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in skeletal muscle plasticity and mitochondrial biogenesis. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;63:279-86 pubmed
    ..Future studies will be important in determining whether insights from the adaptational response of muscle to increased loads will provide pharmacological approaches for increasing muscle strength or endurance to counter muscle wasting. ..
  78. Krapivinsky G, Medina I, Krapivinsky L, Gapon S, Clapham D. SynGAP-MUPP1-CaMKII synaptic complexes regulate p38 MAP kinase activity and NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic AMPA receptor potentiation. Neuron. 2004;43:563-74 pubmed
    ..siRNA-mediated SynGAP knockdown confirmed these results. These data implicate SynGAP in NMDAR- and CaMKII-dependent regulation of AMPAR trafficking. ..
  79. Bossuyt J, Helmstadter K, Wu X, Clements Jewery H, Haworth R, Avkiran M, et al. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIdelta and protein kinase D overexpression reinforce the histone deacetylase 5 redistribution in heart failure. Circ Res. 2008;102:695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..This may directly contribute to the development and/or maintenance of HF. ..
  80. Chai Y, Zhang D, Lin Y. Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels via a ROS/calmodulin/CaMKII signaling cascade. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18191 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel cGMP/PKG/ROS/calmodulin/CaMKII signaling pathway may regulate cardiomyocyte excitability by opening K(ATP) channels and contribute to cardiac protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  81. Williams C, Phelps S, Porter R. Expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV, and reduced DNA synthesis due to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KN-62 (1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenyl piperazine) in smal. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996;51:707-15 pubmed
    ..The expression of both CaMKII and CaMKIV by SCLC cells, and the sensitivity of these cells to the anti-proliferative effects of KN-62, suggest a role for CaM kinase in regulating SCLC proliferation. ..
  82. Walikonis R, Oguni A, Khorosheva E, Jeng C, Asuncion F, Kennedy M. Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)-actinin. J Neurosci. 2001;21:423-33 pubmed
  83. Li G, Laabich A, Liu L, Xue J, Cooper N. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II from fetal and adult human brain. Sequence analyses of human brain calciuum/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Mol Biol Rep. 2001;28:35-41 pubmed
    ..The CaMKII alpha, alphaB, beta, beta' and beta(e) isoforms were characterized in both human fetal and adult brain. ..
  84. Hoogenraad C, Feliu Mojer M, Spangler S, Milstein A, Dunah A, Hung A, et al. Liprinalpha1 degradation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates LAR receptor tyrosine phosphatase distribution and dendrite development. Dev Cell. 2007;12:587-602 pubmed
    ..Thus, regulated degradation of liprinalpha1 is important for proper LAR receptor distribution, and could provide a mechanism for localized control of dendrite and synapse morphogenesis by activity and CaMKII. ..
  85. Bingol B, Wang C, Arnott D, Cheng D, Peng J, Sheng M. Autophosphorylated CaMKIIalpha acts as a scaffold to recruit proteasomes to dendritic spines. Cell. 2010;140:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a scaffolding role of postsynaptic CaMKIIalpha in activity-dependent proteasome redistribution, which is commensurate with the great abundance of CaMKIIalpha in synapses. ..
  86. Kim J, Kim T, Kim S. Downregulation of ARFGEF1 and CAMK2B by promoter hypermethylation in breast cancer cells. BMB Rep. 2011;44:523-8 pubmed
    ..A series of these in silico methods identified CAMK2B and ARFGEF1 as candidates, and the two genes were revealed to be hypermethylated in breast cancer cell lines and ..
  87. Chao L, Stratton M, Lee I, Rosenberg O, Levitz J, Mandell D, et al. A mechanism for tunable autoinhibition in the structure of a human Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent kinase II holoenzyme. Cell. 2011;146:732-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This equilibrium between autoinhibited states provides a simple mechanism for tuning the calcium response without changes in either the hub or the kinase domains. ..
  88. Yamagata K, Tanaka N, Matsufuji H, Chino M. ?-carotene reverses the IL-1?-mediated reduction in paraoxonase-1 expression via induction of the CaMKKII pathway in human endothelial cells. Microvasc Res. 2012;84:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..carotene may contribute to the functional maintenance of vascular endothelial cells in a manner similar to HDL, protecting them against stimuli such as IL-1?. ..
  89. Evangelou E, Kerkhof H, Styrkarsdottir U, Ntzani E, Bos S, Esko T, et al. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies novel variants associated with osteoarthritis of the hip. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:2130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..9×10(-7), OR=1.10) and rs3757837 at 7p13 (MAF 6%, p=2.2×10(-6), OR=1.27 in male specific analysis). Novel genetic loci for hip OA were found in this meta-analysis of GWAS. ..
  90. Thiel G, Czernik A, Gorelick F, Nairn A, Greengard P. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: identification of threonine-286 as the autophosphorylation site in the alpha subunit associated with the generation of Ca2+-independent activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:6337-41 pubmed
    ..The sequences obtained for two phosphopeptides derived from secondary chymotryptic digestion of CB-1 confirmed that Thr-286 was the phosphorylated residue. ..
  91. Penades J, Bernal D, Revert F, Johansson C, Fresquet V, Cervera J, et al. Characterization and expression of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of the Goodpasture antigen gene region. Goodpasture antibodies recognize recombinant proteins representing the autoantigen and one of its alternative forms. Eur J Biochem. 1995;229:754-60 pubmed
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    ..The evidence suggests that Glutamate-NMDA binding sites may undergo structural rearrangements which alter their ability to interact with ligands during the later stages of human gestation, and that such changes are regionally variable. ..