CA9

Summary

Gene Symbol: CA9
Description: carbonic anhydrase 9
Alias: CAIX, carbonic anhydrase 9, CA-IX, P54/58N, RCC-associated antigen G250, RCC-associated protein G250, carbonate dehydratase IX, carbonic anhydrase IX, carbonic dehydratase, membrane antigen MN, pMW1, renal cell carcinoma-associated antigen G250
Species: human
Products:     CA9

Top Publications

  1. Zavada J, Zavadova Z, Pastorekova S, Ciampor F, Pastorek J, Zelnik V. Expression of MaTu-MN protein in human tumor cultures and in clinical specimens. Int J Cancer. 1993;54:268-74 pubmed
    ..Using immunogold-staining, we visualized the p54/58N on the surface microvilli and in the nucleus, particularly in nucleoli. ..
  2. Ivanov S, Kuzmin I, Wei M, Pack S, Geil L, Johnson B, et al. Down-regulation of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by wild-type von Hippel-Lindau transgenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12596-601 pubmed
    ..Additional experiments are needed to define the role of CA IX and CA XII enzymes in the regulation of pH in the extracellular microenvironment and its potential impact on ..
  3. Grabmaier K, A de Weijert M, Verhaegh G, Schalken J, Oosterwijk E. Strict regulation of CAIX(G250/MN) by HIF-1alpha in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene. 2004;23:5624-31 pubmed
    ..and band-shift analysis demonstrated that Sp1 and HIF-1alpha proteins in nuclear extracts of RCC cells bind to the CAIX promoter and mutations in the most proximal Sp1 binding element or HIF binding element completely abolished CAIX ..
  4. Niemelä A, Hynninen P, Mecklin J, Kuopio T, Kokko A, Aaltonen L, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX is highly expressed in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:1760-6 pubmed
    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, CA IX, and CA XII are expressed in various neoplasias and have been linked to tumorigenesis. We examined their expression in three different groups of colorectal cancer [i.e...
  5. Choi S, Kim J, Park J, Cha I, Kim J, Lee S. Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX is associated with postoperative recurrence and poor prognosis in surgically treated oral squamous cell carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1317-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas, but little is known about the expression pattern of CA9 in oral cavity cancer and the corresponding normal tissues...
  6. Sim S, Messenger M, Gregory W, Wind T, Vasudev N, Cartledge J, et al. Prognostic utility of pre-operative circulating osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and CRP in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..nephrectomy (median follow-up 7 years) were analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), osteopontin (OPN) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) and prognostic significance determined...
  7. Choschzick M, Woelber L, Hess S, zu Eulenburg C, Schwarz J, Simon R, et al. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in vulvar cancer is associated with tumor progression and development of locoregional lymph node metastases. Virchows Arch. 2010;456:483-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a strictly membranous expressed metalloenzyme involved in cell adhesion, pH homeostasis, and cancer progression. The protein is specifically overexpressed in a wide variety of malignant tumors...
  8. Kivela A, Parkkila S, Saarnio J, Karttunen T, Kivela J, Parkkila A, et al. Expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes IX and XII in normal human pancreas and pancreatic tumours. Histochem Cell Biol. 2000;114:197-204 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the localisation of CA IX and XII in the normal human pancreas and pancreatic tumours...
  9. De Schutter H, Landuyt W, Verbeken E, Goethals L, Hermans R, Nuyts S. The prognostic value of the hypoxia markers CA IX and GLUT 1 and the cytokines VEGF and IL 6 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. BMC Cancer. 2005;5:42 pubmed
    ..In the first subgroup (n = 67), immunohistochemistry for carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was performed on the pretreatment tumor biopsy...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Ilie M, Hofman V, Zangari J, Chiche J, Mouroux J, Mazure N, et al. Response of CAIX and CAXII to in vitro re-oxygenation and clinical significance of the combined expression in NSCLC patients. Lung Cancer. 2013;82:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Although hypoxic regulation of the expression of the carbonic anhydrases CAIX and CAXII is well established, the effect of re-oxygenation on these proteins remains to be elucidated...
  2. Woelber L, Kress K, Kersten J, Choschzick M, Kilic E, Herwig U, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX in tumor tissue and sera of patients with primary cervical cancer. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:12 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membranous expressed metalloenzyme involved in pH homeostasis and cell adhesion. The protein is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and potentially associated with negative outcome...
  3. Fiaschi T, Giannoni E, Taddei M, Cirri P, Marini A, Pintus G, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX from cancer-associated fibroblasts drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate carcinoma cells. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer-associated fibroblasts, upon their activation by cancer delivered soluble factors, rapidly express carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX)...
  4. Pastorek J, Pastorekova S, Callebaut I, Mornon J, Zelnik V, Opavsky R, et al. Cloning and characterization of MN, a human tumor-associated protein with a domain homologous to carbonic anhydrase and a putative helix-loop-helix DNA binding segment. Oncogene. 1994;9:2877-88 pubmed
    ..In addition, the analysis of biological consequences of MN expression of NIH3T3 cells provides the evidence in favour of MN protein involvement in control of cell proliferation and transformation. ..
  5. Sansone P, Storci G, Tavolari S, Guarnieri T, Giovannini C, Taffurelli M, et al. IL-6 triggers malignant features in mammospheres from human ductal breast carcinoma and normal mammary gland. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3988-4002 pubmed
    ..Moreover, IL-6 induced Notch-3-dependent upregulation of the carbonic anhydrase IX gene and promoted a hypoxia-resistant/invasive phenotype in MCF-7 cells and MS...
  6. Skrzypski M, Jassem E, Taron M, Sanchez J, Mendez P, Rzyman W, et al. Three-gene expression signature predicts survival in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of gene expression in the training cohort identified 10 genes with significant prognostic value: CSF1, EGFR, CA IX, PH4, KIAA0974, ANLN, VEGFC, NTRK1, FN1, and INR1. In the multivariate Cox model, CSF1 (hazard ratio, 3.5; P = 0...
  7. Kim J, Shin H, Kim T, Cho K, Shin K, Kim B, et al. Tumor-associated carbonic anhydrases are linked to metastases in primary cervical cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:302-8 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) has emerged as an important surrogate marker for hypoxia in solid tumors. CA12 shares a role with CA9 in acidification of micromilieu but it is less strictly regulated by hypoxia than CA9...
  8. Ilie M, Mazure N, Hofman V, Ammadi R, Ortholan C, Bonnetaud C, et al. High levels of carbonic anhydrase IX in tumour tissue and plasma are biomarkers of poor prognostic in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:1627-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme upregulated by hypoxia during tumour development and progression...
  9. Tripodi S, Del Vecchio M, Supuran C, Scozzafava A, Gabrielli M, Pastorekova S, et al. Redox state and carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX expression in human renal cell carcinoma: biochemical and morphological investigations. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2004;19:287-91 pubmed
    Clear renal cell carcinomas (RCC) frequently express carbonic anydrase IX (CA IX) because of non-functional mutation of von Hippel Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene...
  10. Choschzick M, Oosterwijk E, Muller V, Woelber L, Simon R, Moch H, et al. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an independent unfavorable prognostic marker in endometrioid ovarian cancer. Virchows Arch. 2011;459:193-200 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a strictly membranous expressed metalloenzyme involved in cell adhesion, pH homeostasis, and cancer progression. This study was designed to assess the role of CAIX in primary ovarian cancer...
  11. Choueiri T, Cheng S, Qu A, Pastorek J, Atkins M, Signoretti S. Carbonic anhydrase IX as a potential biomarker of efficacy in metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma patients receiving sorafenib or placebo: analysis from the treatment approaches in renal cancer global evaluation trial (TARGET). Urol Oncol. 2013;31:1788-93 pubmed publisher
    Retrospective data analyses have suggested that carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) may have a predictive role in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) receiving high dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib...
  12. Kaluzova M, Kaluz S, Lerman M, Stanbridge E. DNA damage is a prerequisite for p53-mediated proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha in hypoxic cells and downregulation of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase IX. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5757-66 pubmed
    ..suppressor p53 and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent expression of the hypoxia marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX)...
  13. Grabmaier K, Vissers J, De Weijert M, Oosterwijk Wakka J, Van Bokhoven A, Brakenhoff R, et al. Molecular cloning and immunogenicity of renal cell carcinoma-associated antigen G250. Int J Cancer. 2000;85:865-70 pubmed
    ..the G250 antigen, which we identified as a transmembrane protein identical to the tumor-associated antigen MN/CAIX. We determined, by FISH analysis, that the G250/MN/CAIX gene is located on chromosome 9p12-13...
  14. Li G, Feng G, Gentil Perret A, Genin C, Tostain J. CA9 gene expression in conventional renal cell carcinoma: a potential marker for prediction of early metastasis after nephrectomy. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2007;24:149-55 pubmed
    ..The present study aimed to test if analysis of the CA9 gene can provide useful information to predict early metastasis after nephrectomy...
  15. Trastour C, Benizri E, Ettore F, Ramaioli A, Chamorey E, Pouyssegur J, et al. HIF-1alpha and CA IX staining in invasive breast carcinomas: prognosis and treatment outcome. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1451-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HIF-1alpha and CA IX (carbonic anhydrase IX) (one of its target genes) expression on prognosis and treatment outcome of patients with breast cancer...
  16. Shin H, Rho S, Jung D, Han I, Oh E, Kim J. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) modulates tumor-associated cell migration and invasion. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1077-87 pubmed publisher
    Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) was shown to be strongly involved in high incidences of metastasis and poor prognosis in various human tumors...
  17. Malentacchi F, Simi L, Nannelli C, Andreani M, Janni A, Pastorekova S, et al. Alternative splicing variants of carbonic anhydrase IX in human non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2009;64:271-6 pubmed publisher
    In human cancers, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) contributes to maintain intracellular and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions, but also influences regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression...
  18. Li Y, Tu C, Wang H, Silverman D, Frost S. Catalysis and pH control by membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15789-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membrane-bound, tumor-related enzyme whose expression is often considered a marker for hypoxia, an indicator of poor prognosis in the majority of cancer patients, and is associated with acidification of ..
  19. Dungwa J, Hunt L, Ramani P. Carbonic anhydrase IX up-regulation is associated with adverse clinicopathologic and biologic factors in neuroblastomas. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:1651-60 pubmed publisher
    The overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced enzyme, is associated with an adverse prognosis in many cancers...
  20. Kim S, Rabbani Z, Vollmer R, Schreiber E, Oosterwijk E, Dewhirst M, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:7925-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CA IX might allow tumors to acclimate to a hypoxic microenvironment, promoting tumor cell proliferation...
  21. Kaluz S, Kaluzova M, Stanbridge E. Expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase IX is critically dependent on SP1 activity. Identification of a novel type of hypoxia-responsive enhancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:917-22 pubmed
    In the present study, we further studied mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). We identified PR5 in the CA9 promoter as another SP1/SP3-binding site...
  22. Patard J, Fergelot P, Karakiewicz P, Klatte T, Trinh Q, Rioux Leclercq N, et al. Low CAIX expression and absence of VHL gene mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor survival of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:395-400 pubmed publisher
    We attempted to describe, in a series of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the relationship between CAIX expression, VHL gene mutations, tumor characteristics and outcome. Radical nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients...
  23. Zavadova Z, Zavada J. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) mediates tumor cell interactions with microenvironment. Oncol Rep. 2005;13:977-82 pubmed
    Expression of CA IX is normally restricted to the mucosa of alimentary tract, but on the other hand, it takes place in a high percentage of human cancers derived from tissues which are normally CA IX-negative...
  24. Måseide K, Kandel R, Bell R, Catton C, O Sullivan B, Wunder J, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX as a marker for poor prognosis in soft tissue sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:4464-71 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have suggested that carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is an intrinsic marker of hypoxia, and that CA IX correlates with poor prognosis in several types of carcinoma...
  25. Alterio V, Hilvo M, Di Fiore A, Supuran C, Pan P, Parkkila S, et al. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the tumor-associated human carbonic anhydrase IX. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a marker of tumor hypoxia and a prognostic factor in several human cancers. An aberrant increase in CA IX expression in chronic hypoxia and during development of various carcinomas contributes to tumorigenesis through at ..
  26. Pastorekova S, Zavadova Z, Kostal M, Babusikova O, Zavada J. A novel quasi-viral agent, MaTu, is a two-component system. Virology. 1992;187:620-6 pubmed
    ..Both p54/58N peptides are glycosylated and they form oligomers linked by disulfidic bonds; p58X is not glycosylated and it does not form S-S-linked oligomers...
  27. Genega E, Ghebremichael M, Najarian R, Fu Y, Wang Y, Argani P, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX expression in renal neoplasms: correlation with tumor type and grade. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:873-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a hypoxia-induced protein, is expressed in some renal tumors...
  28. Opavsky R, Pastorekova S, Zelnik V, Gibadulinova A, Stanbridge E, Zavada J, et al. Human MN/CA9 gene, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase family: structure and exon to protein domain relationships. Genomics. 1996;33:480-7 pubmed
    ..So far, MN/CA IX is the only tumor-associated CA isoenzyme...
  29. Iakovlev V, Pintilie M, Morrison A, Fyles A, Hill R, Hedley D. Effect of distributional heterogeneity on the analysis of tumor hypoxia based on carbonic anhydrase IX. Lab Invest. 2007;87:1206-17 pubmed
    ..heterogeneity improves the correlation between histological measurements of the intrinsic hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and global tumor oxygenation status...
  30. Kim H, Kim W, Park S, Jung C, Choi H, Lee H, et al. Molecular biomarkers for advanced renal cell carcinoma: implications for prognosis and therapy. Urol Oncol. 2010;28:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraffin wax embedded tissues were immunostained for carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
  31. Brockton N, Klimowicz A, Bose P, Petrillo S, Konno M, Rudmik L, et al. High stromal carbonic anhydrase IX expression is associated with nodal metastasis and decreased survival in patients with surgically-treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:615-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a marker of tissue hypoxia and we have recently shown that stromal CAIX is associated with ..
  32. Haapasalo J, Nordfors K, Hilvo M, Rantala I, Soini Y, Parkkila A, et al. Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in astrocytic tumors predicts poor prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:473-7 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-inducible enzyme, which is associated with neoplastic growth. Ectopic CA IX expression has been observed in several tumors, whose normal counterparts do not express this enzyme...
  33. Nordfors K, Haapasalo J, Korja M, Niemelä A, Laine J, Parkkila A, et al. The tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases CA II, CA IX and CA XII in a group of medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours: an association of CA IX with poor prognosis. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:148 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the expression of the tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases CA II, CA IX and CA XII in a series of MB/PNET specimens (n = 39) using immunohistochemistry...
  34. Luong Player A, Liu H, Wang H, Lin F. Immunohistochemical reevaluation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) expression in tumors and normal tissues. Am J Clin Pathol. 2014;141:219-25 pubmed publisher
    To immunohistochemically evaluate the carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) expression on 1,551 cases of tumors and normal tissues from various organs...
  35. Rasmussen S, Donskov F, Pedersen J, Wandall H, Buus S, Harndahl M, et al. Carbon anhydrase IX specific immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma potentially cured by interleukin-2 based immunotherapy. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with ..
  36. Kaluz S, Kaluzova M, Chrastina A, Olive P, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, et al. Lowered oxygen tension induces expression of the hypoxia marker MN/carbonic anhydrase IX in the absence of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha stabilization: a role for phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase. Cancer Res. 2002;62:4469-77 pubmed
    Transcription of the gene coding for the tumor-associated antigen MN/carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)...
  37. McDonald P, Winum J, Supuran C, Dedhar S. Recent developments in targeting carbonic anhydrase IX for cancer therapeutics. Oncotarget. 2012;3:84-97 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that is overexpressed by cancer cells from many tumor types, and is a component of the pH regulatory system invoked by these cells to combat the deleterious effects of a high ..
  38. Hoogsteen I, Marres H, Wijffels K, Rijken P, Peters J, van den Hoogen F, et al. Colocalization of carbonic anhydrase 9 expression and cell proliferation in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:97-106 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to relate the expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) to the uptake of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd), a marker of proliferation, in head and neck squamous cell ..
  39. Xu C, Lo A, Yammanuru A, Tallarico A, Brady K, Murakami A, et al. Unique biological properties of catalytic domain directed human anti-CAIX antibodies discovered through phage-display technology. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9625 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, gene G250/MN-encoded transmembrane protein) is highly expressed in various human epithelial tumors such as renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC), but absent from the corresponding normal tissues...
  40. Askoxylakis V, Garcia Boy R, Rana S, Krämer S, Hebling U, Mier W, et al. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15962 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia...
  41. Saarnio J, Parkkila S, Parkkila A, Waheed A, Casey M, Zhou X, et al. Immunohistochemistry of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (MN/CA IX) in human gut reveals polarized expression in the epithelial cells with the highest proliferative capacity. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998;46:497-504 pubmed
    MN/CA IX is a recently discovered member of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) gene family that has been identified in the plasma membranes of certain tumor and epithelial cells and found to promote cell proliferation when transfected into ..
  42. Barathova M, Takacova M, Holotnakova T, Gibadulinova A, Ohradanova A, Zatovicova M, et al. Alternative splicing variant of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase IX expressed independently of hypoxia and tumour phenotype. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:129-36 pubmed
    b>CA IX is a hypoxia-induced, cancer-associated carbonic anhydrase isoform with functional involvement in pH control and cell adhesion...
  43. Span P, Bussink J, Manders P, Beex L, Sweep C. Carbonic anhydrase-9 expression levels and prognosis in human breast cancer: association with treatment outcome. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:271-6 pubmed
    Here, we set out to assess CA9 expression levels by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in breast cancer tissue samples obtained from 253 patients, and correlated those with relapse-free (RFS) survival...
  44. Lock F, McDonald P, Lou Y, Serrano I, Chafe S, Ostlund C, et al. Targeting carbonic anhydrase IX depletes breast cancer stem cells within the hypoxic niche. Oncogene. 2013;32:5210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor hypoxia plays a key role in regulating EMT and cancer stem cell function. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-inducible protein that regulates cellular pH to promote cancer cell survival and ..
  45. Svastova E, Hulikova A, Rafajová M, Zat ovicová M, Gibadulinova A, Casini A, et al. Hypoxia activates the capacity of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX to acidify extracellular pH. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:439-45 pubmed
    ..The tumor-associated CA IX isoform is the best candidate, because its extracellular enzyme domain is highly active, expression is induced by ..
  46. Swinson D, Jones J, Richardson D, Wykoff C, Turley H, Pastorek J, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX expression, a novel surrogate marker of tumor hypoxia, is associated with a poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:473-82 pubmed
    ..Standard immunohistochemical techniques were used to study CA IX expression in 175 resected NSCLC tumors...
  47. Liao S, Ivanov S, Ivanova A, Ghosh S, Cote M, Keefe K, et al. Expression of cell surface transmembrane carbonic anhydrase genes CA9 and CA12 in the human eye: overexpression of CA12 (CAXII) in glaucoma. J Med Genet. 2003;40:257-61 pubmed
    ..In this work, we investigated the expression and tissue distribution of two recently discovered CA genes CA9 (CAIX) and CA12 (CAXII) in fetal, neonatal, and adult human eyes with and without glaucoma...
  48. Benej M, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J. Carbonic anhydrase IX: regulation and role in cancer. Subcell Biochem. 2014;75:199-219 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is the most widely expressed gene in response to hypoxia...
  49. Yoo H, Baia G, Smith J, McDermott M, Bollen A, VandenBerg S, et al. Expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 is associated with anaplastic phenotypes in meningiomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:68-75 pubmed
    ..of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypoxia in meningiomas using the endogenous hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and to relate the expression of CA9 to tumor vascularity, histopathologic grade, and clinical ..
  50. Ihnatko R, Kubes M, Takacova M, Sedlakova O, Sedlak J, Pastorek J, et al. Extracellular acidosis elevates carbonic anhydrase IX in human glioblastoma cells via transcriptional modulation that does not depend on hypoxia. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:1025-33 pubmed
    ..b>CA IX is pre-dominantly expressed in tumors with poor prognosis and its transcription and activity are induced by ..
  51. Chien M, Yang J, Chu Y, Lin C, Wei L, Yang S, et al. Impacts of CA9 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on oral-cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics in Taiwan. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51051 pubmed publisher
    In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy...
  52. Ditte P, Dequiedt F, Svastova E, Hulikova A, Ohradanova Repic A, Zatovicova M, et al. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors. Cancer Res. 2011;71:7558-67 pubmed publisher
    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport...
  53. Jarvela S, Parkkila S, Bragge H, Kähkönen M, Parkkila A, Soini Y, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX in oligodendroglial brain tumors. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:1 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX is a hypoxia-induced enzyme that has many biologically important functions, including its role in cell adhesion and invasion...
  54. Hyrsl L, Zavada J, Zavadova Z, Kawaciuk I, Vesely S, Skapa P. Soluble form of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary tract. Neoplasma. 2009;56:298-302 pubmed
    We investigated the expression of cell-associated CAIX protein in histological sections of the transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary tract and of the soluble form of CAIX (s-CAIX) shed by the tumor into the serum and urine of ..
  55. Generali D, Fox S, Berruti A, Brizzi M, Campo L, Bonardi S, et al. Role of carbonic anhydrase IX expression in prediction of the efficacy and outcome of primary epirubicin/tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006;13:921-30 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression in predicting the response to epirubicin and disease-free survival (DFS) in breast cancer patients enrolled in a single institution trial of ..
  56. Hulikova A, Zatovicova M, Svastova E, Ditte P, Brasseur R, Kettmann R, et al. Intact intracellular tail is critical for proper functioning of the tumor-associated, hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase IX. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3563-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a tumor-associated, hypoxia-induced enzyme involved in pH regulation and cell adhesion. Its catalytically active ectodomain (ECD) is linked to a transmembrane region and a short intracellular (IC) tail...
  57. Takacova M, Bullova P, Simko V, Skvarková L, Poturnajova M, Feketeova L, et al. Expression pattern of carbonic anhydrase IX in Medullary thyroid carcinoma supports a role for RET-mediated activation of the HIF pathway. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:953-965 pubmed publisher
    ..Although CAXII was present in all types of thyroid carcinomas, CAIX, a direct HIF target implicated in tumor progression, was associated with aggressive medullary and anaplastic ..
  58. Yoo H, Sohn S, Nam B, Min H, Jung E, Shin S, et al. The expressions of carbonic anhydrase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor in astrocytic tumors predict a poor prognosis. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:3-9 pubmed
    ..The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expressions of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in astrocytic gliomas and to relate patterns of ..
  59. Chen C, Chu J, Su W, Huang S, Lee W. Hypoxia and metabolic phenotypes during breast carcinogenesis: expression of HIF-1alpha, GLUT1, and CAIX. Virchows Arch. 2010;457:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..hypoxia on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) was assessed in breast cancer cells derived from primary sites (HCC1395 and HCC1937) and metastatic ..
  60. Swietach P, Patiar S, Supuran C, Harris A, Vaughan Jones R. The role of carbonic anhydrase 9 in regulating extracellular and intracellular ph in three-dimensional tumor cell growths. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20299-310 pubmed publisher
    We have studied the role of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), a cancer-associated extracellular isoform of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in multicellular spheroid growths (radius of approximately 300 microm) of human colon carcinoma HCT116 ..
  61. Pastorekova S, Zatovicova M, Pastorek J. Cancer-associated carbonic anhydrases and their inhibition. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:685-98 pubmed
    ..Moreover, CA IX is a direct target of HIF and serves as a surrogate marker of hypoxia and prognostic indicator...
  62. de Martino M, Klatte T, Seligson D, Larochelle J, Shuch B, Caliliw R, et al. CA9 gene: single nucleotide polymorphism predicts metastatic renal cell carcinoma prognosis. J Urol. 2009;182:728-34 pubmed publisher
    We assessed CA9 single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations, and their association with CAIX protein expression, overall survival and response to interleukin-2 in white patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma...
  63. Bui M, Seligson D, Han K, Pantuck A, Dorey F, Huang Y, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX is an independent predictor of survival in advanced renal clear cell carcinoma: implications for prognosis and therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:802-11 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether a novel kidney cancer marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), is associated with progression and survival...
  64. Hedley D, Pintilie M, Woo J, Morrison A, Birle D, Fyles A, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX expression, hypoxia, and prognosis in patients with uterine cervical carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:5666-74 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), which is regulated via hypoxia-inducible factor 1, is a useful intrinsic marker of tumor hypoxia...
  65. Kim S, Rabbani Z, Dewhirst M, Vujaskovic Z, Vollmer R, Schreiber E, et al. Expression of HIF-1alpha, CA IX, VEGF, and MMP-9 in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2005;49:325-35 pubmed
    ..compare the expression of two endogenous hypoxia markers, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), with regard to their prognostic significance...
  66. Hilvo M, Baranauskiene L, Salzano A, Scaloni A, Matulis D, Innocenti A, et al. Biochemical characterization of CA IX, one of the most active carbonic anhydrase isozymes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27799-809 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an exceptional member of the CA protein family; in addition to its classical role in pH regulation, it has also been proposed to participate in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and tumorigenic processes...
  67. Lawrentschuk N, Lee F, Jones G, Rigopoulos A, Mountain A, O Keefe G, et al. Investigation of hypoxia and carbonic anhydrase IX expression in a renal cell carcinoma xenograft model with oxygen tension measurements and ¹²?I-cG250 PET/CT. Urol Oncol. 2011;29:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a protein stimulated by hypoxia and involved in angiogenesis, and is a potential tumor target ..
  68. Cleven A, van Engeland M, Wouters B, De Bruine A. Stromal expression of hypoxia regulated proteins is an adverse prognostic factor in colorectal carcinomas. Cell Oncol. 2007;29:229-40 pubmed
    ..We studied the role of protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, HIF-2alpha, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas...
  69. Muller V, Riethdorf S, Rack B, Janni W, Fasching P, Solomayer E, et al. Prospective evaluation of serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and carbonic anhydrase IX in correlation to circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a metalloenzyme involved in cell adhesion, growth and survival of tumor cells...
  70. Mayer A, Hockel M, Vaupel P. Carbonic anhydrase IX expression and tumor oxygenation status do not correlate at the microregional level in locally advanced cancers of the uterine cervix. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:7220-5 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) can be induced by hypoxia in vitro and shows an immunohistochemical expression pattern that is predominantly found in perinecrotic tumor areas and correlates with exogenous markers of hypoxia, such as ..
  71. Koukourakis M, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Simopoulos K, Pastorek J, Wykoff C, et al. Hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) relates to poor vascularization and resistance of squamous cell head and neck cancer to chemoradiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:3399-403 pubmed
    ..Recent studies show that carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is up-regulated by hypoxia and that its immunohistochemical tissue distribution follows the ..
  72. Wingo T, Tu C, Laipis P, Silverman D. The catalytic properties of human carbonic anhydrase IX. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:666-9 pubmed
    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an integral membrane protein and a member of the alpha class of carbonic anhydrases that includes the human and animal enzymes...
  73. Pastorekova S, Parkkila S, Parkkila A, Opavsky R, Zelnik V, Saarnio J, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX, MN/CA IX: analysis of stomach complementary DNA sequence and expression in human and rat alimentary tracts. Gastroenterology. 1997;112:398-408 pubmed
    b>CA IX (formerly MN protein) is a carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme whose expression is associated with human tumors. However, it has also been found in normal gastric mucosa...
  74. Phuoc N, Ehara H, Gotoh T, Nakano M, Kamei S, Deguchi T, et al. Prognostic value of the co-expression of carbonic anhydrase IX and vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2008;20:525-30 pubmed
    This study aimed to investigate whether the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is associated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and whether the co-expression of the two correlates with survival ..
  75. Svastova E, Zilka N, Zat ovicová M, Gibadulinova A, Ciampor F, Pastorek J, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX reduces E-cadherin-mediated adhesion of MDCK cells via interaction with beta-catenin. Exp Cell Res. 2003;290:332-45 pubmed
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a cancer-associated transmembrane isoform of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyse interconversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate...
  76. Zavada J, Zavadova Z, Zat ovicová M, Hyrsl L, Kawaciuk I. Soluble form of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in the serum and urine of renal carcinoma patients. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:1067-71 pubmed
    Tumour-associated protein carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) has two major forms. One is a cell-associated, transmembrane protein seen on Western blots as a twin band of 54/58 kDa, expressed in gastric mucosa and in several types of cancer...
  77. Tan E, Yan M, Campo L, Han C, Takano E, Turley H, et al. The key hypoxia regulated gene CAIX is upregulated in basal-like breast tumours and is associated with resistance to chemotherapy. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:405-11 pubmed publisher
    ..001) in a multivariate analysis. Carbonic anhydrase IX expression was positively correlated with tumour size (P=0.005), tumour grade (P<0...
  78. Svastova E, Witarski W, Csaderova L, Kosik I, Skvarková L, Hulikova A, et al. Carbonic anhydrase IX interacts with bicarbonate transporters in lamellipodia and increases cell migration via its catalytic domain. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3392-402 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced cell surface enzyme expressed in solid tumors, and functionally involved in acidification of extracellular pH and destabilization of intercellular contacts...