CA6

Summary

Gene Symbol: CA6
Description: carbonic anhydrase 6
Alias: CA-VI, GUSTIN, carbonic anhydrase 6, carbonate dehydratase VI, carbonic anhydrase VI nirs variant 2, salivary carbonic anhydrase, secreted carbonic anhydrase
Species: human
Products:     CA6

Top Publications

  1. Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Rajaniemi L, Kumpulainen T, Jokinen K, Rajaniemi H. Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes VI, II, and I in human parotid and submandibular glands. J Histochem Cytochem. 1990;38:941-7 pubmed
    Human salivary carbonic anhydrase (HCA VI) was purified by inhibitor affinity chromatography and its location in the human parotid and submandibular glands identified, using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified enzyme in ..
  2. Murakami H, Sly W. Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:1382-8 pubmed
    ..against the salivary enzyme cross-reacted with CA II from human erythrocytes, indicating that human salivary carbonic anhydrase and CA II must share at least one antigenic site...
  3. Calo C, Padiglia A, Zonza A, Corrias L, Contu P, Tepper B, et al. Polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and the taste bud trophic factor, gustin gene co-operate in modulating PROP taste phenotype. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..variation is associated with polymorphisms in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 and the taste-bud trophic factor gustin gene...
  4. Padiglia A, Zonza A, Atzori E, Chillotti C, Calo C, Tepper B, et al. Sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil is associated with gustin (carbonic anhydrase VI) gene polymorphism, salivary zinc, and body mass index in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:539-45 pubmed publisher
    ..to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may be correlated with body mass index (BMI) and differences in the salivary proteins involved in taste function, such as the zinc-dependent enzyme gustin, which is a trophic factor of taste buds.
  5. Leinonen J, Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Koivunen P, Rajaniemi H. Secretion of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) from human and rat lingual serous von Ebner's glands. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001;49:657-62 pubmed
    b>Salivary carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) appears to contribute to taste function by protecting taste receptor cells (TRCs) from apoptosis...
  6. Roman E, Correia I, Prieto D, Alonso R, Pla J. The HOG MAPK pathway in Candida albicans: more than an osmosensing pathway. Int Microbiol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    In 1993, Brewster and Gustin described the existence of a kinase whose activity was essential for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow in environments with high osmolarity...
  7. Fernández Torres J, Martínez Nava G, Zamudio Cuevas Y, Martínez Flores K, Espinosa Morales R. Epistasis between ADIPOQ rs1501299 and PON1 rs662 polymorphisms is potentially associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis. Mol Biol Rep. 2019;46:2049-2058 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine variants of six genes (PEPD, AGER, IL6, ADIPOQ, PON1, and CA6) related to OS were genotyped in both study groups through the OpenArray system...
  8. Tye C, Sharma R, Smith C, Bartlett J. Altered ion-responsive gene expression in Mmp20 null mice. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, expression of secreted carbonic anhydrase (Car6) was reduced to almost undetectable levels in the null enamel organ...
  9. Esberg A, Haworth S, Brunius C, Lif Holgerson P, Johansson I. Carbonic Anhydrase 6 Gene Variation influences Oral Microbiota Composition and Caries Risk in Swedish adolescents. Sci Rep. 2019;9:452 pubmed publisher
    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6) catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in saliva with possible pH regulation, taste perception, and tooth formation effects...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Singleton D, Dickey A, Scholl E, Wright F, Aitken M. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Bacterium within the Family Rhodocyclaceae That Degrades Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium designated strain Ca6, a member of the family Rhodocyclaceae and a representative of the uncharacterized pyrene group 1 (PG1), was isolated and its genome sequenced...
  2. Applbaum E, Lichtbroun A. Novel Sjögren's autoantibodies found in fibromyalgia patients with sicca and/or xerostomia. Autoimmun Rev. 2019;18:199-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the presence of novel tissue specific autoantibodies (TSAs), SP-1, CA6, and PSP, has been observed in the early stages of SS...
  3. Martín Nares E, Hernández Molina G. Novel autoantibodies in Sjögren's syndrome: A comprehensive review. Autoimmun Rev. 2019;18:192-198 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, anti-SP-1, anti-CA6 and anti-PSP antibodies occur in an earlier stage than anti-Ro/La antibodies, and may identify a subset of primary ..
  4. Liu J, Shriver Lake L, Zabetakis D, Anderson G, Goldman E. Selection and characterization of protective anti-chikungunya virus single domain antibodies. Mol Immunol. 2019;105:190-197 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the ability of two sdAb, CC3 and CA6, to inhibit CHIKV infection were tested using a plaque reduction and neutralization test (PRNT), yielding PRNT..
  5. Trabelsi I, Slima S, Chaabane H, Riadh B. Purification and characterization of a novel exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus sp. Ca6. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;74:541-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A maximum EPS production yield of 2.4 g/l was obtained by strain Lactobacillus sp. Ca6. The results from thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed that ..
  6. Han N, Lu H, Zhang Z, Ruan M, Yang W, Zhang C. Comprehensive and in-depth analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profile in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. Gene. 2018;678:349-360 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles recognized a core microRNA-mRNA regulatory network and unmasked many novel genes including SCUBE3, CA6, hsa-miR-885-5p and other molecules which may play an essential role in the carcinogenesis of SACC...
  7. Suresh L, Malyavantham K, Shen L, Ambrus J. Investigation of novel autoantibodies in Sjogren's syndrome utilizing Sera from the Sjogren's international collaborative clinical alliance cohort. BMC Ophthalmol. 2015;15:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal models for SS have identified novel autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and parotid secretory protein (PSP)...
  8. Cole N, Wang A, Donovan S, Lee S, Teran Garcia M. Variants in Chemosensory Genes Are Associated with Picky Eating Behavior in Preschool-Age Children. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2017;10:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..When controlling for child age, sex, breastfed status, and parent education level, SNPs in TAS2R38 (rs713598) and CA6 (rs2274327) were associated with picky eating behavior in children...
  9. Lim H, In H, Lee J, Sik Yoo J, Lee S, Chung G, et al. The immunogenicity and protection effect of an inactivated coxsackievirus A6, A10, and A16 vaccine against hand, foot, and mouth disease. Vaccine. 2018;36:3445-3452 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the immunogenicity of coxsackieviruses A6, A10, and A16 (CA6, CA10, and CA16), which were inactivated by formalin or ?-propiolactone (BPL) under different conditions, was ..
  10. Fábián T, BECK A, Fejérdy P, Hermann P, Fábián G. Molecular mechanisms of taste recognition: considerations about the role of saliva. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:5945-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides these, data clearly indicate the major role of several other salivary proteins, such as salivary carbonic anhydrase (gustin), proline-rich proteins, cystatins, alpha-amylases, histatins, salivary albumin and mucins...
  11. Noar J, Loveless T, Navarro Herrero J, Olson J, Bruno Bárcena J. Aerobic Hydrogen Production via Nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii CA6. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:4507-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In batch cultures, A. vinelandii strain CA6, a mutant of strain CA, displays multiple phenotypes distinct from its parent: tolerance to tungstate, impaired ..
  12. Henkin R, Potolicchio S, Levy L, Moharram R, Velicu I, Martin B. Carbonic anhydrase I, II, and VI, blood plasma, erythrocyte and saliva zinc and copper increase after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Am J Med Sci. 2010;339:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II...
  13. Al Mousawi A, Arar A, Ibrahim Ouali M, Duval S, Dumur F, Garra P, et al. Carbazole-based compounds as photoinitiators for free radical and cationic polymerization upon near visible light illumination. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2018;17:578-585 pubmed publisher
    Six new carbazole based compounds (Ca1-Ca6) are synthesized and proposed as high performance photoinitiators with iodonium salt (iod) and/or an amine (EDB) for both the free radical polymerization (FRP) of acrylates and the cationic ..
  14. Tepper B, Banni S, Melis M, Crnjar R, Tomassini Barbarossa I. Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and its association with physiological mechanisms controlling body mass index (BMI). Nutrients. 2014;6:3363-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2) the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3) other specific salivary ..
  15. Patrikainen M, Tolvanen M, Aspatwar A, Barker H, Ortutay C, Jänis J, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel zebrafish (Danio rerio) pentraxin-carbonic anhydrase. Peerj. 2017;5:e4128 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CA VI is the only secretory protein of the enzymatically active isoforms...
  16. Jung Y, Katilius E, Ostroff R, Kim Y, Seok M, Lee S, et al. Development of a Protein Biomarker Panel to Detect Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Korea. Clin Lung Cancer. 2017;18:e99-e107 pubmed publisher
    ..We derived a 7-protein biomarker classifier from the initial train set comprising: EGFR1, MMP7, CA6, KIT, CRP, C9, and SERPINA3...
  17. Janata A, Magnet I, Uray T, Stezoski J, Janesko Feldman K, Tisherman S, et al. Regional TNFα mapping in the brain reveals the striatum as a neuroinflammatory target after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest in rats. Resuscitation. 2014;85:694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..In a prospective study, rats were randomized to 6min (CA6), 8min (CA8) or 10min (CA10) of VF CA, or sham group...
  18. Yu P, Guo J, Liu L, Wang P, Wu G, Chang F, et al. Ammonia Decomposition with Manganese Nitride-Calcium Imide Composites as Efficient Catalysts. ChemSusChem. 2016;9:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveal that CaNH participates in the catalysis via forming a [Ca6 MnN5 ]-like intermediate, thus altering the reaction pathway and energetics...
  19. Ge Y, Zheng Y, Pan H, Mao S, Li Y, Xia A, et al. [Epidemiological surveillance of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, 2010-2014]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2015;53:676-83 pubmed
    ..78%-40.08% and 8.36%-33.39% in mild community cases, respectively. The detection rates of CA6 and CA10 in the mild community cases in 2014 were 18.38% and 1.43%, respectively...
  20. Shimomura Kuroki J, Nashida T, Miyagawa Y, Sekimoto T. The Role of Genetic Factors in the Outbreak Mechanism of Dental Caries. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2018;42:32-36 pubmed publisher
    ..from the plaque of each patient, and SNP analyses of five candidate genes (MBL2, TAS2R38, GLUT2, MMP13 and CA6) were performed using DNA isolated from buccal mucosal cells...
  21. Chen Q, Hu Z, Zhang Q, Yu M. Development and evaluation of a real-time method for testing human enteroviruses and coxsackievirus A16. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;85:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, another HEV-A serotype, CA6 or CA10, has emerged to be one of the major etiologic agents that can induce HFMD worldwide...
  22. Everett S, Vishwanath S, Cavero V, Shen L, Suresh L, Malyavantham K, et al. Analysis of novel Sjogren's syndrome autoantibodies in patients with dry eyes. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have identified autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), which occur early in the course of SS...
  23. Hayashi K, Hosono H. Green apatites: hydride ions, electrons and their interconversion in the crystallographic channel. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:8186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..atoms are located at the centre of Ca3 triangles in the apatite, while the electrons are located in the centre of Ca6 octahedra...
  24. Yang L, Li S, Liu Y, Hou W, Lin Q, Zhao H, et al. Construction and characterization of an infectious clone of coxsackievirus A6 that showed high virulence in neonatal mice. Virus Res. 2015;210:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) is the major pathogen for aHFMD...
  25. Gao C, Ding Y, Zhou P, Feng J, Qian B, Lin Z, et al. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21979 pubmed publisher
    ..the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and ..
  26. Trabelsi I, Ktari N, Ben Slima S, Triki M, Bardaa S, Mnif H, et al. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity and in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of a new exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus sp.Ca6. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;103:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall the finding indicates that the EPS-Ca6 might be useful as a wound healing agent in modern medicine. ..
  27. Ang L, Too H, Tan E, Chow T, Shek P, Tham E, et al. Antiviral activity of Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis against Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71 infection in human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines. Virol J. 2016;13:111 pubmed publisher
    ..Protectis displays a significant dose-dependent antiviral activity against Coxsackievirus type A (CA) strain 6 (CA6), CA16 and EV71, but not against Coxsackievirus type B strain 2...
  28. Shen L, Suresh L. Autoantibodies, detection methods and panels for diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2017;182:24-29 pubmed publisher
    ..ANA, Anti-Ro/SSA, Anti-La/SSB, RF), autoantibodies identified from mouse models (Anti-SP1, Anti- PSP, Anti-CA6, and anti-alpha fodrin) and autoantibodies associated with other autoimmune disease (ACA, AMA, and Anti-CCP)...
  29. Gu H, Liu Z, Zhang L, Chen Y, Yang S, Zhang W, et al. [The etiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease in Beijing in 2013]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2015;53:459-63 pubmed
    ..6% (98/128); the positive rate of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6), 43.0% ( 55/128), was the highest, followed by enterovirus 71 (EV71), accounting for 14.8% (19/128)...
  30. DrÄ…g JarzÄ…bek A, John Å, Petrus R, KosiÅ„ska Klähn M, Sobota P. Alkaline Earth Metal Zirconate Perovskites MZrO3 (M=Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Ca(2+)) Derived from Molecular Precursors and Doped with Eu(3+) Ions. Chemistry. 2016;22:4780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sr4 Zr2 (μ6 -O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2 (HOR)4 Cl4], [Ca4 Zr2 (μ6-O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2 Cl4], and [Ca6 Zr2 (μ2 ,η(2)-OR)12 (μ-Cl)2 (η(2) -HOR)4 Cl6 ]⋅8 CH2 Cl2 were prepared via elimination of ..
  31. Yang L, Mao Q, Li S, Gao F, Zhao H, Liu Y, et al. A neonatal mouse model for the evaluation of antibodies and vaccines against coxsackievirus A6. Antiviral Res. 2016;134:50-57 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) can induce atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is characterized by severe rash, onychomadesis and a higher rate of infection in adults...
  32. Li Z, Hu X, Zhou J, Xie X, Zhang J. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:5986-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.
  33. Karakus S, Baer A, Agrawal D, Gürakar M, Massof R, Akpek E. Utility of Novel Autoantibodies in the Diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome Among Patients With Dry Eye. Cornea. 2018;37:405-411 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the value of 3 novel autoantibodies [salivary protein 1 (SP1), carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), and parotid secretory protein (PSP)] in differentiating Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-related dry eye from non-SS dry eye...
  34. Peres R, Camargo G, Mofatto L, Cortellazzi K, Santos M, Nobre dos Santos M, et al. Association of polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase 6 gene with salivary buffer capacity, dental plaque pH, and caries index in children aged 7-9 years. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010;10:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to analyze the allele and genotype distribution of three polymorphisms in the coding sequences of (CA6) gene and check for possible associations with salivary buffer capacity, number of decayed, missing, and filled ..
  35. Leinonen J, Kivela J, Parkkila S, Parkkila A, Rajaniemi H. Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI is located in the human enamel pellicle. Caries Res. 1999;33:185-90 pubmed
    b>Salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA VI) appears to protect teeth from caries via mechanisms other than direct regulation of salivary pH and buffering capacity...
  36. Aldred P, Fu P, Barrett G, Penschow J, Wright R, Coghlan J, et al. Human secreted carbonic anhydrase: cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequence, and hybridization histochemistry. Biochemistry. 1991;30:569-75 pubmed
    Complementary DNA clones coding for the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme (CA VI) have been isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. These clones identify a 1...
  37. Yildiz G, Ermis R, Calapoglu N, Celik E, Türel G. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries. J Dent Res. 2016;95:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in ..
  38. Kivela J, Parkkila S, Parkkila A, Leinonen J, Rajaniemi H. Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI. J Physiol. 1999;520 Pt 2:315-20 pubmed
    ..Carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) is the only secretory isoenzyme of the mammalian CA gene family...
  39. Pilka E, Kochan G, Oppermann U, Yue W. Crystal structure of the secretory isozyme of mammalian carbonic anhydrases CA VI: implications for biological assembly and inhibitor development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the 15 human CAs with wide-ranging sub-cellular localisation and kinetic properties, CA VI is the only secretory isoform. The 1...
  40. Barbarossa I, Atzori E, Zonza A, Padiglia A. A rapid screening method for the identification of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene in studies of sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011;15:721-4 pubmed publisher
    ..PROP sensitivity and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2274333 (+292A/G) within a coding sequence of the gustin/carbonic anhydrase VI gene...
  41. Barbarossa I, Melis M, Mattes M, Calò C, Muroni P, Crnjar R, et al. The gustin (CA6) gene polymorphism, rs2274333 (A/G), is associated with fungiform papilla density, whereas PROP bitterness is mostly due to TAS2R38 in an ethnically-mixed population. Physiol Behav. 2015;138:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we showed that a polymorphism in the gene coding for the salivary trophic factor, gustin (CA6), affects PROP sensitivity by acting on cell growth and fungiform papillae maintenance, in a genetically ..
  42. Morzel M, Chabanet C, Schwartz C, Lucchi G, Ducoroy P, Nicklaus S. Salivary protein profiles are linked to bitter taste acceptance in infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher abundance of bands containing secretory component, zinc-?-2-glycoprotein and carbonic anhydrase 6 was associated to a lower bitterness acceptance, while higher abundance of bands containing lactoperoxidase,..
  43. Nishimori I, Onishi S. Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas. Dig Liver Dis. 2001;33:68-74 pubmed
    ..molecular structures and different subcellular localizations: cytoplasmic CA II, mitochondrial CA VB, secretory CA VI, membrane-bound CA IV, and transmembrane CA IX and XII...
  44. Nishimori I, Onishi S, Vullo D, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Supuran C. Carbonic anhydrase activators: the first activation study of the human secretory isoform VI with amino acids and amines. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:5351-7 pubmed
    ..A series of amino acids and amines were shown to act as CA VI activators, with variable efficacies...
  45. Yin K, Paine M. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation. Calcif Tissue Int. 2017;101:457-464 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2...
  46. Nishimori I, FujikawaAdachi K, Onishi S, Hollingsworth M. Carbonic anhydrase in human pancreas: hypotheses for the pathophysiological roles of CA isozymes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;880:5-16 pubmed
    ..cultured pancreatic tumor cell, lines suggest that CA II, IV, IX, and XII are expressed in the ductal cells, and CA VI is expressed in the acinar cells...
  47. Sengul F, Kilic M, Gurbuz T, Tasdemir S. Carbonic Anhydrase VI Gene Polymorphism rs2274327 Relationship Between Salivary Parameters and Dental-Oral Health Status in Children. Biochem Genet. 2016;54:467-475 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood samples and unstimulated whole saliva were collected, and SFR was calculated. The CA VI rs2274327 polymorphism was determined by a LightSNiP assay on the realtime PCR system...
  48. Shen C, Ku Z, Zhou Y, Li D, Wang L, Lan K, et al. Virus-like particle-based vaccine against coxsackievirus A6 protects mice against lethal infections. Vaccine. 2016;34:4025-31 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) is emerging as one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available for preventing CA6 infection...
  49. Feeney E, Hayes J. Exploring associations between taste perception, oral anatomy and polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (gustin) gene CA6. Physiol Behav. 2014;128:148-54 pubmed publisher
    Recent reports suggest that polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase gene CA6 (also known as gustin) may explain additional variation in the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil beyond that explained by variation in the bitter receptor gene ..
  50. Duarte M, Nielsen A, Camarinha Silva A, Vilchez Vargas R, Bruls T, Wos Oxley M, et al. Functional soil metagenomics: elucidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential following 12 years of in situ bioremediation. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19:2992-3011 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and Rugosibacter aromaticivorans Ca6 and underlined the great potential of an approach that combines an activity-screening, a cost-effective high-..
  51. Mikołajczyk Stecyna J, Malinowska A, Chmurzynska A. TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake, and blood biomarkers among elderly woman. Appetite. 2017;116:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception...
  52. De Groote M, Sterling D, Hraha T, Russell T, Green L, Wall K, et al. Discovery and Validation of a Six-Marker Serum Protein Signature for the Diagnosis of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2017;55:3057-3071 pubmed publisher
    ..median fold changes were SAA (serum amyloid protein A), NPS-PLA2 (secreted phospholipase A2), and CA6 (carbonic anhydrase 6)...
  53. Kivela J, Parkkila S, Waheed A, Parkkila A, Sly W, Rajaniemi H. Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme (CA VI) in human serum. Clin Chem. 1997;43:2318-22 pubmed
    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) is a secretory isoenzyme that, by analogy to alpha-amylase, is produced in the salivary glands and delivered into saliva...
  54. Zhou Y, Shen C, Zhang C, Zhang W, Wang L, Lan K, et al. Yeast-produced recombinant virus-like particles of coxsackievirus A6 elicited protective antibodies in mice. Antiviral Res. 2016;132:165-9 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) has recently emerged as the predominant pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), causing significant morbidity in children and adults...
  55. Koç Öztürk L, Ulucan K, Akyuz S, Furuncuoğlu H, Bayer H, Yarat A. The investigation of genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene exon 2 and salivary parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy adults. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5677-82 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no correlation between the SNPs frequencies and pH or buffering capacity. SNPs found in this study may be related to salivary CA activity in diabetics. ..
  56. Sutherland G, Baker E, Fernandez K, Callen D, Aldred P, Coghlan J, et al. The gene for human carbonic anhydrase VI(CA6) is on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1989;50:149-50 pubmed
    The gene encoding the human secreted carbonic anhydrase isozyme CAVI(CA6) maps to chromosome 1 by Southern analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel and to 1p36.22----p36.33 by in situ hybridization...
  57. Breton S. The cellular physiology of carbonic anhydrases. JOP. 2001;2:159-64 pubmed
    ..CA I, II, III and VII are cytoplasmic, CA V is mitochondrial, and CA VI is present in salivary secretions...
  58. He S, Chen M, Xu X, Yan Q, Niu J, Wu W, et al. Epidemics and aetiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in Xiamen, China, from 2008 to 2015. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:1865-1874 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-two genotypes were identified. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16, A6 and A10 (CA16, CA6 and CA10) were the most common genotypes, and there were no changes in the predominant lineages of these genotypes...
  59. Melis M, Atzori E, Cabras S, Zonza A, Calo C, Muroni P, et al. The gustin (CA6) gene polymorphism, rs2274333 (A/G), as a mechanistic link between PROP tasting and fungiform taste papilla density and maintenance. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74151 pubmed publisher
    ..with the G variant of polymorphism rs2274333 (A/G) of the gene that controls the salivary trophic factor, gustin. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the role of gustin gene polymorphism rs2274333 (A/G), in PROP ..
  60. Redman R, Peagler F, Johansson I. Immunohistochemical localization of carbonic anhydrases I, II, and VI in the developing rat sublingual and submandibular glands. Anat Rec. 2000;258:269-76 pubmed
    ..When localized via these anti-human antibodies, carbonic anhydrase is a useful marker of the functional differentiation of the striated and excretory ducts of the developing rat sublingual and submandibular glands. ..
  61. Rudenko N, Vetoshkina D, Fedorchuk T, Ivanov B. Effect of Light Intensity under Different Photoperiods on Expression Level of Carbonic Anhydrase Genes of the ?- and ?-Families in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:1025-1035 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of genes encoding carbonic anhydrases ?-CA1, ?-CA2, ?-CA4, ?-CA1, ?-CA2, ?-CA3, ?-CA4, ?-CA5, and ?-CA6 in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves after light increase from 80 to 400 µmol PAR quanta·m-2·s-1..
  62. Ogawa Y, Hong S, Toyosawa S, Kuwahara H, Shimazaki M, Yagi T. Immunoelectron microscopy of carbonic anhydrase isozyme VI in human submandibular gland: comparison with isozymes I and II. J Histochem Cytochem. 1993;41:343-51 pubmed
    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) was purified from human saliva by inhibitor-affinity chromatography, and its distribution was studied in human submandibular gland by the indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a rabbit polyclonal antibody ..
  63. Aidar M, Marques R, Valjakka J, Mononen N, Lehtimaki T, Parkkila S, et al. Effect of genetic polymorphisms in CA6 gene on the expression and catalytic activity of human salivary carbonic anhydrase VI. Caries Res. 2013;47:414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to verify the correlation between changes in the expression and activity of human salivary carbonic anhydrase VI and genetic polymorphisms in its gene (CA6)...
  64. Karhumaa P, Leinonen J, Parkkila S, Kaunisto K, Tapanainen J, Rajaniemi H. The identification of secreted carbonic anhydrase VI as a constitutive glycoprotein of human and rat milk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11604-8 pubmed
    ..Secretory carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) has been identified earlier as an essential component of mammalian saliva, and we demonstrate here by using ..
  65. White P, Jensen S, Rajalingam V, Stairs D, Sulman E, Maris J, et al. Physical mapping of the CA6, ENO1, and SLC2A5 (GLUT5) genes and reassignment of SLC2A5 to 1p36.2. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81:60-4 pubmed
    ..The carbonic anhydrase (CA6) and alpha-enolase (ENO1) genes, previously mapped to 1p36, were physically linked in yeast- and P1-artificial ..
  66. Thatcher B, Doherty A, Orvisky E, Martin B, Henkin R. Gustin from human parotid saliva is carbonic anhydrase VI. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;250:635-41 pubmed
    b>Gustin, a zinc-metalloprotein constituting about 3% of human parotid saliva protein was previously isolated and characterized as a single polypeptide chain of 37kDa with one mole of zinc tightly bound to the protein...
  67. Hsieh M, Jeng Y, Jhuang Y, Chou Y, Lin C. Carbonic anhydrase VI: a novel marker for salivary serous acinar differentiation and its application to discriminate acinic cell carcinoma from mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland. Histopathology. 2016;68:641-7 pubmed publisher
    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6) is present in serous acinar cells of human salivary glands...