Gene Symbol: C21orf91
Description: chromosome 21 open reading frame 91
Alias: C21orf14, C21orf38, CSSG1, EURL, YG81, protein EURL homolog, cold sore susceptibility gene 1, early undifferentiated retina and lens
Species: human
Products:     C21orf91

Top Publications

  1. Prior H, Casey W, Kimber I, Whelan M, Sewell F. Reflections on the progress towards non-animal methods for acute toxicity testing of chemicals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;102:30-33 pubmed publisher
    ..in Research (NC3Rs), together with the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL-ECVAM), and the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) Centre for the Evaluation of Alternative Methods (NICEATM) ..
  2. Hunt K, Blanc M, Alvarez Ordóñez A, Jordan K. Challenge Studies to Determine the Ability of Foods to Support the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Pathogens. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in June 2014. Primarily based on the EURL guidance document for conducting challenge studies, the ability of cheese (feta and soft goat's milk cheese), cold-..
  3. Fox E, Young J, Li Y, Dreisbach A, Keating B, Musani S, et al. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:2273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..6 × 10(-8)) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10(-8)). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6...
  4. Clerbaux L, Coecke S, Lumen A, Kliment T, Worth A, Paini A. Capturing the applicability of in vitro-in silico membrane transporter data in chemical risk assessment and biomedical research. Sci Total Environ. 2018;645:97-108 pubmed publisher
    ..risk assessment in non-pharmaceutical sectors, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) created a survey with a view of identifying the improvements needed when using in vitro and in silico ..
  5. Kirkland D, Zeiger E, Madia F, Gooderham N, Kasper P, Lynch A, et al. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014;775-776:55-68 pubmed publisher
    ..A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further...
  6. Kirkland D, Zeiger E, Madia F, Corvi R. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? II. Construction and analysis of a consolidated database. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014;775-776:69-80 pubmed publisher
    A Workshop sponsored by EURL ECVAM was held in Ispra, Italy in 2013 to consider whether the in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results could complement and mitigate the implications of a positive Ames test response for the ..
  7. Mooijman K, Pielaat A, Kuijpers A. Validation of EN ISO 6579-1 - Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella - Part 1 detection of Salmonella spp. Int J Food Microbiol. 2019;288:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, results from two interlaboratory studies organised earlier by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Salmonella were used for determination of the performance characteristics...
  8. Tozzoli R, Maugliani A, Michelacci V, Minelli F, Caprioli A, Morabito S. Validation on milk and sprouts of EN ISO 16654:2001 - Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. Int J Food Microbiol. 2019;288:53-57 pubmed publisher
    ..validation project was led by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli including VTEC (EURL-VTEC), which organized the collaborative validation study on milk in 2012 with 15 participating laboratories and ..
  9. Bao C, Li Y, Huan L, Zhang Y, Zhao F, Wang Q, et al. NF-κB signaling relieves negative regulation by miR-194 in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing the transcription factor HNF-1α. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra75 pubmed publisher
    ..23 (TRIM23), a ubiquitin ligase involved in NF-κB activation, and chromosome 21 open reading frame 91 (C21ORF91), a protein of unknown function, were identified as direct targets of miR-194 in HCC cells; knocking down either ..

More Information


  1. Tozzoli R, D Aurizio F, Ferrari A, Castello R, Metus P, Caruso B, et al. The upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies is method-dependent: A collaborative study with biomedical industries. Clin Chim Acta. 2016;452:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to establish the URL (eURL) for TPOAbs, according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to compare them with ..
  2. Deyssenroth M, Peng S, Hao K, Lambertini L, Marsit C, Chen J. Whole-transcriptome analysis delineates the human placenta gene network and its associations with fetal growth. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:520 pubmed publisher
    ..expression, were associated with birth weight; hub genes of all five modules (CREB3, DDX3X, DNAJC14, GRHL1 and C21orf91) were significantly associated with fetal growth restriction, and one hub gene (CREB3) was additionally ..
  3. Coecke S, Bernasconi C, Bowe G, Bostroem A, Burton J, Cole T, et al. Practical Aspects of Designing and Conducting Validation Studies Involving Multi-study Trials. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;856:133-163 pubmed
    ..Methods (EU-NETVAL) that is coordinated by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM)...
  4. Li N, Liu Y, Qiu J, Zhong L, Alépée N, Cotovio J, et al. In vitro skin irritation assessment becomes a reality in China using a reconstructed human epidermis test method. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017;41:159-167 pubmed publisher
    ..test method was validated in 2007 by the European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM) as a full replacement method for the Draize acute skin irritation test and adopted in the OECD Test ..
  5. Hajeb P, Herrmann S, Poulsen M. Role of Sample Processing Strategies at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:5759-5767 pubmed publisher
    ..rye samples milled by each NRL were sent to the European Union Reference Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery...
  6. Patlewicz G, Casati S, Basketter D, Asturiol D, Roberts D, Lepoittevin J, et al. Can currently available non-animal methods detect pre and pro-haptens relevant for skin sensitization?. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;82:147-155 pubmed publisher
    ..This current study reviewed an EURL ECVAM dataset of 127 substances for which information was available in the LLNA and three non-animal test methods...
  7. Gray A, Sidhu S, Chandrasekera P, Hendriksen C, Borrebaeck C. Animal-Friendly Affinity Reagents: Replacing the Needless in the Haystack. Trends Biotechnol. 2016;34:960-969 pubmed publisher
    ..implementation, we have engaged in discussions with the EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM) and the Directorate General for Environment to carve out an EU-led replacement strategy...
  8. Nia Y, Mutel I, Asséré A, Lombard B, Auvray F, Hennekinne J. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8:107 pubmed publisher
    ..The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for ..
  9. Dominguez O, Ashhab Y, Sabater L, Belloso E, Caro P, Pujol Borrell R. Cloning of ARE-containing genes by AU-motif-directed display. Genomics. 1998;54:278-86 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the efficiency of the system and support the notion that numerous genes falling into those categories remain unidentified and that they can be cloned by this method. ..
  10. Kriesel J, Jones B, Matsunami N, Patel M, St Pierre C, Kurt Jones E, et al. C21orf91 genotypes correlate with herpes simplex labialis (cold sore) frequency: description of a cold sore susceptibility gene. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a 3-megabase region on human chromosome 21 containing 6 candidate genes associated with herpes simplex labialis (HSL, "cold sores")...
  11. Corvi R, Madia F, Guyton K, Kasper P, Rudel R, Colacci A, et al. Moving forward in carcinogenicity assessment: Report of an EURL ECVAM/ESTIV workshop. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017;45:278-286 pubmed publisher
    ..The current progress in this area was addressed in a EURL ECVAM- ESTIV workshop held in October 2016, in Juan les Pins...
  12. Quaroni G, Gennari C, Cilurzo F, Ducouret G, Creton C, Minghetti P. Tuning the rheological properties of an ammonium methacrylate copolymer for the design of adhesives suitable for transdermal patches. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018;111:238-246 pubmed publisher
    Eudragit® RL (EuRL) matrices have been proposed to release a drug to the skin. However, no information is available on both viscoelastic and adhesive properties of such compositions...
  13. Li S, Qu Z, Haas M, Ngo L, Heo Y, Kang H, et al. The HSA21 gene EURL/C21ORF91 controls neurogenesis within the cerebral cortex and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Down Syndrome. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29514 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we focussed on the neurodevelopmental functions for EURL (also known as C21ORF91, Refseq Gene ID:54149), a protein-coding gene at the centromeric boundary of the Down Syndrome Critical Region (..
  14. Godbout R, Andison R, Katyal S, Bisgrove D. Isolation of a novel cDNA enriched in the undifferentiated chick retina and lens. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:409-15 pubmed
    ..The only recognizable feature in the EURL (early undifferentiated retina and lens) amino acid sequence is a putative coiled-coil domain located at the C-terminus of the protein...