Gene Symbol: C/EBPbeta
Description: CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta
Alias: C/EBP-beta, IL6DBP, NF-IL6, TCF5, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta, interleukin 6-dependent DNA-binding protein, nuclear factor NF-IL6, nuclear factor of interleukin 6, transcription factor 5, transcription factor C/EBP beta
Species: human
Products:     C/EBPbeta

Top Publications

  1. Christian M, Zhang X, Schneider Merck T, Unterman T, Gellersen B, White J, et al. Cyclic AMP-induced forkhead transcription factor, FKHR, cooperates with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta in differentiating human endometrial stromal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20825-32 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence of regulated expression of FKHR and demonstrate that FKHR has an integral role in PKA-dependent endometrial differentiation through its ability to bind and functionally cooperate with C/EBPbeta. ..
  2. Kim M, Minton A, Agrawal V. C/EBPbeta regulates metastatic gene expression and confers TNF-alpha resistance to prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2009;69:1435-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Prostate 69: 1435-1447, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  3. Calkhoven C, Muller C, Leutz A. Translational control of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta isoform expression. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1920-32 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the translational controlled ratio of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta isoform expression determines cell fate. ..
  4. Zhang D, Hetherington C, Meyers S, Rhoades K, Larson C, Chen H, et al. CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and AML1 (CBF alpha2) synergistically activate the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1231-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they demonstrate physical and functional interactions between AML1 and C/EBP transcription factor family members. ..
  5. Kowenz Leutz E, Leutz A. A C/EBP beta isoform recruits the SWI/SNF complex to activate myeloid genes. Mol Cell. 1999;4:735-43 pubmed
    ..Interaction between C/EBP beta and SWI/SNF is essential for activating a subgroup of resident target genes in chromatin and may represent a major determinant of combinatorial gene regulation in eukaryotes. ..
  6. Kowenz Leutz E, Pless O, Dittmar G, Knoblich M, Leutz A. Crosstalk between C/EBPbeta phosphorylation, arginine methylation, and SWI/SNF/Mediator implies an indexing transcription factor code. EMBO J. 2010;29:1105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of the transcription factor C/EBPbeta couples ras signalling to arginine methylation and regulates the interaction of C/EBPbeta with epigenetic gene regulatory protein complexes during cell differentiation. ..
  7. Pless O, Kowenz Leutz E, Knoblich M, Lausen J, Beyermann M, Walsh M, et al. G9a-mediated lysine methylation alters the function of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify C/EBPbeta as a direct substrate of G9a-mediated post-translational modification that alters the functional properties of C/EBPbeta during gene regulation. ..
  8. Guerzoni C, Bardini M, Mariani S, Ferrari Amorotti G, Neviani P, Panno M, et al. Inducible activation of CEBPB, a gene negatively regulated by BCR/ABL, inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of BCR/ABL-expressing cells. Blood. 2006;107:4080-9 pubmed
  9. Xi S, Yang M, Tao Y, Xu H, Shan J, Inchauste S, et al. Cigarette smoke induces C/EBP-?-mediated activation of miR-31 in normal human respiratory epithelia and lung cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13764 pubmed publisher
    ..Cigarette smoke induces expression of miR-31 targeting several antagonists of cancer stem cell signaling in normal respiratory epithelia and lung cancer cells. miR-31 functions as an oncomir during human pulmonary carcinogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Zwergal A, Quirling M, Saugel B, Huth K, Sydlik C, Poli V, et al. C/EBP beta blocks p65 phosphorylation and thereby NF-kappa B-mediated transcription in TNF-tolerant cells. J Immunol. 2006;177:665-72 pubmed
    ..These results define a new molecular mechanism responsible for TNF tolerance in monocytic cells that may contribute to the unresponsiveness seen in patients with sepsis. ..
  2. Arnal Estapé A, Tarragona M, Morales M, Guiu M, Nadal C, Massague J, et al. HER2 silences tumor suppression in breast cancer cells by switching expression of C/EBPß isoforms. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9927-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism through which HER2 silences tumor suppression in a concerted manner, contributing to the potency of this oncogene in breast cancer. ..
  3. Ignatova I, Kostadinova R, Goldring C, Nawrocki A, Frey F, Frey B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in HepG2 cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study showing involvement of p38 MAPK in the TNF-alpha-mediated 11beta-HSD1 regulation, and that TNF-alpha stimulates enzyme activity in vivo. ..
  4. Chen P, Riley D, Chen Kiang S, Lee W. Retinoblastoma protein directly interacts with and activates the transcription factor NF-IL6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:465-9 pubmed
    ..Such disparate mechanisms may help to explain the dual role of RB in cell differentiation and the cell division cycle. ..
  5. Buck M, Poli V, Hunter T, Chojkier M. C/EBPbeta phosphorylation by RSK creates a functional XEXD caspase inhibitory box critical for cell survival. Mol Cell. 2001;8:807-16 pubmed
    ..C/EBPbeta-/- and C/EBPbeta-Ala(217) stellate cells were rescued from apoptosis by the cell permeant KE(217)VD tetrapeptide or C/EBPbeta-Glu(217). ..
  6. Harries L, Pilling L, Hernandez L, Bradley Smith R, Henley W, Singleton A, et al. CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-beta expression in vivo is associated with muscle strength. Aging Cell. 2012;11:262-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This association may be consistent with mouse model evidence of CEBPB-triggered muscle repair: if this mechanism is confirmed, it may provide a target for intervention to protect and enhance aging muscle. ..
  7. Carmona M, Hondares E, Rodriguez de la Concepción M, Rodríguez Sureda V, Peinado Onsurbe J, Poli V, et al. Defective thermoregulation, impaired lipid metabolism, but preserved adrenergic induction of gene expression in brown fat of mice lacking C/EBPbeta. Biochem J. 2005;389:47-56 pubmed
    ..In summary, defective thermoregulation owing to the lack of C/EBPbeta is associated with the reduced capacity to supply fatty acids as fuels to sustain brown fat thermogenesis. ..
  8. Steinberg X, Hepp M, Fernández García Y, Suganuma T, Swanson S, Washburn M, et al. Human CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? interacts with chromatin remodeling complexes of the imitation switch subfamily. Biochemistry. 2012;51:952-62 pubmed publisher
  9. Wegner M, Cao Z, Rosenfeld M. Calcium-regulated phosphorylation within the leucine zipper of C/EBP beta. Science. 1992;256:370-3 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of serine at position 276 within the leucine zipper of C/EBP beta appeared to confer calcium-regulated transcriptional stimulation of a promoter that contained binding sites for C/EBP beta. ..
  10. Quintanilla Martinez L, Pittaluga S, Miething C, Klier M, Rudelius M, Davies Hill T, et al. NPM-ALK-dependent expression of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Blood. 2006;108:2029-36 pubmed
    ..We suggest that C/EBPbeta is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis and unique phenotype of this lymphoma. ..
  11. Buck M, Poli V, van der Geer P, Chojkier M, Hunter T. Phosphorylation of rat serine 105 or mouse threonine 217 in C/EBP beta is required for hepatocyte proliferation induced by TGF alpha. Mol Cell. 1999;4:1087-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, a site-specific phosphorylation of the transcription factor C/EBP beta is critical for hepatocyte proliferation induced by TGF alpha and other stimuli that activate RSK. ..
  12. Gomis R, Alarcon C, Nadal C, Van Poznak C, Massague J. C/EBPbeta at the core of the TGFbeta cytostatic response and its evasion in metastatic breast cancer cells. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:203-14 pubmed
    ..We suggest that C/EBPbeta plays a key role in the coordination of TGFbeta cytostatic gene responses, and its malfunction may trigger evasion of these responses in breast cancer. ..
  13. Shackleford T, Zhang Q, Tian L, Vu T, Korapati A, Baumgartner A, et al. Stat3 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP-beta) regulate Jab1/CSN5 expression in mammary carcinoma cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R65 pubmed publisher
  14. Abreu M, Sealy L. Cells expressing the C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP, engulf their neighbors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work illustrates that expression of a specific transcription factor, LIP, can mediate cell engulfment. ..
  15. Greenbaum L, Li W, Cressman D, Peng Y, Ciliberto G, Poli V, et al. CCAAT enhancer- binding protein beta is required for normal hepatocyte proliferation in mice after partial hepatectomy. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:996-1007 pubmed
    ..These data link C/EBPbeta to the activation of metabolic and growth response pathways in the regenerating liver and demonstrate that C/EBPbeta is required for a normal proliferative response. ..
  16. Bergalet J, Fawal M, Lopez C, Desjobert C, Lamant L, Delsol G, et al. HuR-mediated control of C/EBPbeta mRNA stability and translation in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:485-96 pubmed publisher
  17. Pal R, Janz M, Galson D, Gries M, Li S, Johrens K, et al. C/EBPbeta regulates transcription factors critical for proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells. Blood. 2009;114:3890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting C/EBPbeta may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of multiple myeloma. ..
  18. Lincoln A, Monczak Y, Williams S, Johnson P. Inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and beta translation by upstream open reading frames. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9552-60 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the uORFs regulate translation of full-length C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta and do not play a role in generating truncated forms of these proteins, as has been suggested by start site multiplicity models. ..
  19. Scala G, Ruocco M, Ambrosino C, Mallardo M, Giordano V, Baldassarre F, et al. The expression of the interleukin 6 gene is induced by the human immunodeficiency virus 1 TAT protein. J Exp Med. 1994;179:961-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TAT protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of some HIV1-associated diseases by modulating the expression of host cellular genes. ..
  20. Zha Q, Wang Y, Fan Y, Zhu M. Dexamethasone-induced up-regulation of the human norepinephrine transporter involves the glucocorticoid receptor and increased binding of C/EBP-? to the proximal promoter of norepinephrine transporter. J Neurochem. 2011;119:654-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that Dex-induced increase in NET expression is mediated by the GR via a non-conventional transcriptional mechanism involving interaction of C/EBP-? with a C/EBP-? response element. ..
  21. Weber M, Sydlik C, Quirling M, Nothdurfter C, Zwergal A, Heiss P, et al. Transcriptional inhibition of interleukin-8 expression in tumor necrosis factor-tolerant cells: evidence for involvement of C/EBP beta. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23586-93 pubmed
  22. Chen C, Dudenhausen E, Pan Y, Zhong C, Kilberg M. Human CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta gene expression is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress through an unfolded protein response element downstream of the protein coding sequence. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27948-56 pubmed
    ..Consistent with those data, overexpression of XBP-1 caused an increase in transcription that was mediated by the C/EBPbeta mammalian unfolded protein response element. ..
  23. Connors S, Balusu R, Kundu C, Jaiswal A, Gairola C, Narayan S. C/EBPbeta-mediated transcriptional regulation of bcl-xl gene expression in human breast epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke condensate. Oncogene. 2009;28:921-32 pubmed publisher
  24. Kannan A, Fazleabas A, Bagchi I, Bagchi M. The transcription factor C/EBP? is a marker of uterine receptivity and expressed at the implantation site in the primate. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that C/EBPbeta is a biomarker of endometrial receptivity and plays a conserved functional role during implantation in the primate. ..
  25. Homma J, Yamanaka R, Yajima N, Tsuchiya N, Genkai N, Sano M, et al. Increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta correlates with prognosis in glioma patients. Oncol Rep. 2006;15:595-601 pubmed
    ..The data imply that the comparison of C/EBP beta expression could be a prognostic marker for patients with glioma. ..
  26. Wang W, Taylor R, Bagchi I, Bagchi M. Regulation of human endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation by C/EBP? involves cyclin E-cdk2 and STAT3. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:2016-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings revealed a novel functional link between C/EBP? and STAT3 that is a critical regulator of endometrial differentiation in women. ..
  27. Maranto J, Rappaport J, Datta P. Role of C/EBP-?, p38 MAPK, and MKK6 in IL-1?-mediated C3 gene regulation in astrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the p38?, MAPK, and MKK6 play prominent roles in IL-1? and C/EBP-?-mediated C3 gene expression in astrocytes. ..
  28. Calkhoven C, Bouwman P, Snippe L, Ab G. Translation start site multiplicity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha mRNA is dictated by a small 5' open reading frame. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:5540-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of a similar, thusfar unnoticed, small ORF 5' to the major initiation codon of C/EBP beta mRNA suggests that start site multiplicity from this mRNA may be governed by the same mechanism. ..
  29. Ohoka N, Yoshii S, Hattori T, Onozaki K, Hayashi H. TRB3, a novel ER stress-inducible gene, is induced via ATF4-CHOP pathway and is involved in cell death. EMBO J. 2005;24:1243-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TRB3 is a novel target of CHOP/ATF4 and downregulates its own induction by repression of CHOP/ATF4 functions, and that it is involved in CHOP-dependent cell death during ER stress. ..
  30. Shimizu H, Yamamoto K. NF-kappa B and C/EBP transcription factor families synergistically function in mouse serum amyloid A gene expression induced by inflammatory cytokines. Gene. 1994;149:305-10 pubmed
  31. Park M, Park S, Kim Y. Induction of proline-rich tyrosine kinase2 (Pyk2) through C/EBPbeta is involved in PMA-induced monocyte differentiation. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Pyk2 is induced and involved in monocyte differentiation and C/EBPbeta is a critical regulator of the Pyk2 expression. ..
  32. Jiang K, Hein N, Eckert K, Lüscher Firzlaff J, Luscher B. Regulation of the MAD1 promoter by G-CSF. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1517-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the base for the characterization of additional signal transduction pathways that control the expression of MAD1. ..
  33. Atwood A, Sealy L. Regulation of C/EBPbeta1 by Ras in mammary epithelial cells and the role of C/EBPbeta1 in oncogene-induced senescence. Oncogene. 2010;29:6004-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that C/EBPbeta1 induces senescence. Taken together, degradation of C/EBPbeta1 by Ras activation may represent a mechanism to bypass OIS. ..
  34. Ji Y, Studzinski G. Retinoblastoma protein and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta are required for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced monocytic differentiation of HL60 cells. Cancer Res. 2004;64:370-7 pubmed
  35. Ford A, Bennett C, Healy L, Towatari M, Greaves M, Enver T. Regulation of the myeloperoxidase enhancer binding proteins Pu1, C-EBP alpha, -beta, and -delta during granulocyte-lineage specification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10838-43 pubmed
  36. Piwien Pilipuk G, Galigniana M, Schwartz J. Subnuclear localization of C/EBP beta is regulated by growth hormone and dependent on MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35668-77 pubmed
  37. Hadaschik D, Hinterkeuser K, Oldak M, Pfister H, Smola Hess S. The Papillomavirus E2 protein binds to and synergizes with C/EBP factors involved in keratinocyte differentiation. J Virol. 2003;77:5253-65 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that E2, via its interaction with C/EBP factors, may contribute to enhancing keratinocyte differentiation, which is suppressed by the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in HPV-induced lesions. ..
  38. Ménard C, Hein P, Paquin A, Savelson A, Yang X, Lederfein D, et al. An essential role for a MEK-C/EBP pathway during growth factor-regulated cortical neurogenesis. Neuron. 2002;36:597-610 pubmed
    ..Thus, activation of a MEK-C/EBP pathway enhances neurogenesis and inhibits gliogenesis, thereby providing a mechanism whereby growth factors can selectively bias progenitors to become neurons during development. ..
  39. Cappello C, Zwergal A, Kanclerski S, Haas S, Kandemir J, Huber R, et al. C/EBPbeta enhances NF-kappaB-associated signalling by reducing the level of IkappaB-alpha. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1918-24 pubmed publisher
    ..C/EBPbeta may belong to the group of proteins in the regulatory machinery which adjusts the IkappaB-alpha level in different cell types under various conditions with physiological and pathophysiological implications. ..
  40. Buck M, Zhang L, Halasz N, Hunter T, Chojkier M. Nuclear export of phosphorylated C/EBPbeta mediates the inhibition of albumin expression by TNF-alpha. EMBO J. 2001;20:6712-23 pubmed
    ..Treatment of TNF-alpha mice with antioxidants or NOS inhibitors prevented phosphorylation of C/EBPbeta on Ser239 and its nuclear export, and rescued the abnormal albumin gene expression. ..
  41. Lee S, Shuman J, Guszczynski T, Sakchaisri K, Sebastian T, Copeland T, et al. RSK-mediated phosphorylation in the C/EBP{beta} leucine zipper regulates DNA binding, dimerization, and growth arrest activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2621-35 pubmed publisher
  42. Anastasov N, Bonzheim I, Rudelius M, Klier M, Dau T, Angermeier D, et al. C/EBP? expression in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas is required for cell proliferation and is induced by the STAT3 signaling pathway. Haematologica. 2010;95:760-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the convergence of STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways activated by NPM-ALK in mediating the regulation of C/EBPbeta expression, a transcription factor central to NPM-ALK transformation. ..
  43. Carro M, Lim W, Alvarez M, Bollo R, Zhao X, Snyder E, et al. The transcriptional network for mesenchymal transformation of brain tumours. Nature. 2010;463:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the activation of a small regulatory module is necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain an aberrant phenotypic state in cancer cells. ..
  44. Cao Z, Umek R, McKnight S. Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1538-52 pubmed
    ..The temporal pattern of expression of these three C/EBP isoforms during adipocyte differentiation may reflect the underpinnings of a regulatory cascade that controls the process of terminal cell differentiation. ..
  45. Pomerance M, Mockey M, Young J, Quillard J, Blondeau J. Expression, hormonal regulation, and subcellular localization of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta in rat and human thyrocytes. Thyroid. 2005;15:197-204 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this factor may play important roles in the regulation of thyroidspecific genes and processes, and that its functions are altered in human thyroid carcinoma. ..
  46. Akira S, Isshiki H, Sugita T, Tanabe O, Kinoshita S, Nishio Y, et al. A nuclear factor for IL-6 expression (NF-IL6) is a member of a C/EBP family. EMBO J. 1990;9:1897-906 pubmed
  47. Descombes P, Chojkier M, Lichtsteiner S, Falvey E, Schibler U. LAP, a novel member of the C/EBP gene family, encodes a liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1541-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the preferential accumulation of LAP protein in liver appears to be regulated post-transcriptionally. ..
  48. Mink S, Haenig B, Klempnauer K. Interaction and functional collaboration of p300 and C/EBPbeta. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6609-17 pubmed
  49. Xia C, Cheshire J, Patel H, Woo P. Cross-talk between transcription factors NF-kappa B and C/EBP in the transcriptional regulation of genes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997;29:1525-39 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the NF-kappa B and C/EBP may form a new complex of transcription factors that mediates the synergistic induction of SAA2 by IL-1 and IL-6. ..
  50. Boruk M, Savory J, Hache R. AF-2-dependent potentiation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta-mediated transcriptional activation by glucocorticoid receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:1749-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the potentiation of C/EBP beta-mediated transcription by GR would appear to require the presence of an intermediary factor. ..
  51. Zhu S, Yoon K, Sterneck E, Johnson P, Smart R. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta is a mediator of keratinocyte survival and skin tumorigenesis involving oncogenic Ras signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:207-12 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that C/EBPbeta has a critical role in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis and cell survival and implicate C/EBPbeta as a target for tumor inhibition. ..
  52. Yang Y, Pares Matos E, Tesmer V, Dai C, Ashworth S, Huai J, et al. Organization of the promoter region of the human NF-IL6 gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1577:102-8 pubmed
    ..In functional assays, the potential CREB site responded to cellular stimulation. The region that interacted with SP1 and SP3 augmented the overall level of activity produced in response to LPS+PMA. ..
  53. Buckner A, Tesmer V, Bina M. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription by NF-IL6 in activated Jurkat T cells. Virus Res. 2002;89:53-63 pubmed
    ..The results implied that the basal region of HIV-1 LTR includes molecular properties that support activation of HIV-1 by NF-IL6 in stimulated cells. ..
  54. Eaton E, Sealy L. Modification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family members, SUMO-2 and SUMO-3. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33416-21 pubmed
    ..The sumoylation of C/EBP beta-1 is likely to be important in the functional differences observed between C/EBP beta-1 and C/EBP beta-2. ..
  55. Baldwin B, Timchenko N, Zahnow C. Epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation activates the RNA binding protein CUG-BP1 and increases expression of C/EBPbeta-LIP in mammary epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3682-91 pubmed
    ..CUG-BP1 is thus a previously unidentified downstream target of EGFR signaling and represents a new translational regulator of LIP expression in human mammary epithelial cells. ..
  56. Abraham S, Sweet T, Sawaya B, Rappaport J, Khalili K, Amini S. Cooperative interaction of C/EBP beta and Tat modulates MCP-1 gene transcription in astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;160:219-27 pubmed
  57. Tissieres P, Araud T, Ochoda A, Drifte G, Dunn Siegrist I, Pugin J. Cooperation between PU.1 and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is necessary to induce the expression of the MD-2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we show that it also participates in the regulation of an acute phase protein, MD-2, in nonmyeloid cells cooperatively with C/EBPbeta, a classical IL-6-inducible TF. ..
  58. Campion C, Labrie M, Grosset A, St Pierre Y. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta-2 isoform (CEBP?-2) upregulates galectin-7 expression in human breast cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95087 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that C/EBP? is an important mediator of galectin-7 gene activation in breast cancer cells and highlight the different transcriptional mechanisms controlling galectin-7 in cancer cells. ..
  59. Descombes P, Schibler U. A liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein, LAP, and a transcriptional inhibitory protein, LIP, are translated from the same mRNA. Cell. 1991;67:569-79 pubmed
    ..The LAP/LIP ratio increases about 5-fold during terminal rat liver differentiation and is thus likely to modulate the activity of LAP in the intact animal. ..
  60. Berg T, Didon L, Barton J, Andersson O, Nord M. Glucocorticoids increase C/EBPbeta activity in the lung epithelium via phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:638-45 pubmed
    ..Together this shows that glucocorticoids increase DNA-binding activity of C/EBPbeta via post-translational mechanism(s) involving phosphorylation. ..
  61. Huber R, Pietsch D, Panterodt T, Brand K. Regulation of C/EBP? and resulting functions in cells of the monocytic lineage. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed knowledge of the C/EBP? system in monocytic cells may help to further understand the difference between inflammatory and malignant proliferation as well as additional regulatory facets of innate immunity. ..
  62. Piva R, Pellegrino E, Mattioli M, Agnelli L, Lombardi L, Boccalatte F, et al. Functional validation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase signature identifies CEBPB and BCL2A1 as critical target genes. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:3171-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, we proved that an experimentally controlled and functionally validated GEP analysis represents a powerful tool to identify novel pathogenetic networks and validate biologically suitable target genes for therapeutic interventions. ..
  63. Nakajima T, Kinoshita S, Sasagawa T, Sasaki K, Naruto M, Kishimoto T, et al. Phosphorylation at threonine-235 by a ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is essential for transcription factor NF-IL6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:2207-11 pubmed
    ..Mutation of Thr-235 abolished the ras-dependent activation of NF-IL6. From these results, we conclude that NF-IL6 is regulated through phosphorylation by MAP kinases in response to activated ras. ..
  64. Tsushima H, Okazaki K, Hayashida M, Ushijima T, Iwamoto Y. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 in arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that C/EBP? was directly bound to MMP-3 and ADAMTS-5 promoters. These data demonstrate that C/EBP? is involved in expression of MMP-3 and ADAMTS-5 in arthritic synovium and cartilage. ..
  65. Ambrosino C, Ruocco M, Chen X, Mallardo M, Baudi F, Trematerra S, et al. HIV-1 Tat induces the expression of the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene by binding to the IL6 leader RNA and by interacting with CAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (NF-IL6) transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14883-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, Tat may function by protein-protein interactions, leading to the generation of heterodimers with specific transcription factors. ..
  66. Li H, Baldwin B, Zahnow C. LIP expression is regulated by IGF-1R signaling and participates in suppression of anoikis. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:100 pubmed publisher
    ..C/EBP? expression and elevations in LIP play an important role in regulating cellular survival via suppression of anoikis, in an IGF-1R mediated context or in a manner independent of IGF-1R signaling. ..
  67. Williams S, Angerer N, Johnson P. C/EBP proteins contain nuclear localization signals imbedded in their basic regions. Gene Expr. 1997;6:371-85 pubmed
    ..Finally, we observed that a C/EBPbeta protein lacking its NLS can be localized to the nucleus when coexpressed with C/EBPalpha, indicating that a single NLS is sufficient to promote nuclear transport of a bZIP dimer. ..
  68. Maytin E, Habener J. Transcription factors C/EBP alpha, C/EBP beta, and CHOP (Gadd153) expressed during the differentiation program of keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:238-46 pubmed
    ..In summary, C/EBP are expressed in a differentiation-associated manner in the skin, and may play an important role in regulating one or more aspects of the epidermal differentiation program. ..
  69. Lee S, Miller M, Shuman J, Johnson P. CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein beta DNA binding is auto-inhibited by multiple elements that also mediate association with p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21399-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the N-terminal regulatory elements have dual roles in auto-inhibition and coactivator binding. ..
  70. Hanlon M, Sturgill T, Sealy L. ERK2- and p90(Rsk2)-dependent pathways regulate the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta interaction with serum response factor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38449-56 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate a requirement for p90(Rsk2) in regulation of C/EBPbeta-SRF interaction. These data show that multiple Ras effectors are required to regulate C/EBPbeta and SRF association. ..
  71. Ng P, Tsui S, Lau C, Wong C, Wong W, Huang L, et al. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:438-46 pubmed publisher
  72. Hoshino S, Konishi M, Mori M, Shimura M, Nishitani C, Kuroki Y, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces TLR4/MyD88-mediated IL-6 production and reactivates viral production from latency. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Vpr should be monitored based on the viral titer, and they provide the rationale for the development of novel, anti-AIDS therapeutics targeting Vpr. ..
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    ..Therefore, our results imply that this 3'untranslated region may have played role of a regulator of gene expression profile. ..
  74. Hayashida M, Okazaki K, Fukushi J, Sakamoto A, Iwamoto Y. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta mediates expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in human articular chondrocytes in inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..C/EBPbeta directly binds to the MMP-13 promoter region and stimulates the expression of MMP-13 in chondrocytes in inflammatory arthritis. ..
  75. Koslowski M, Tureci O, Biesterfeld S, Seitz G, Huber C, Sahin U. Selective activation of trophoblast-specific PLAC1 in breast cancer by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) isoform 2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide first insight into a novel and hitherto unknown regulatory mechanism governing selective activation of trophoblast-specific gene expression in breast cancer. ..
  76. Milde Langosch K, Löning T, Bamberger A. Expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins C/EBPalpha, C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta in breast cancer: correlations with clinicopathologic parameters and cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;79:175-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that high C/EBPbeta expression might be involved in tumor progression and indicative of an unfavorable prognosis. ..
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    ..Our work shows that C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP, is another member of the group of transcription factors, including E2F1 and p53, which are capable of playing a role in autophagy. ..
  78. Xiong W, Hsieh C, Kurtz A, Rabek J, Papaconstantinou J. Regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta isoform synthesis by alternative translational initiation at multiple AUG start sites. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3087-98 pubmed
    ..We propose that formation of C/EBPbeta isoforms is accomplished by a leaky ribosomal scanning mechanism that facilitates ATI of multiple internal AUGs. ..
  79. Chen H, Pan Y, Dudenhausen E, Kilberg M. Amino acid deprivation induces the transcription rate of the human asparagine synthetase gene through a timed program of expression and promoter binding of nutrient-responsive basic region/leucine zipper transcription factors as well as localized his. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50829-39 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that ATF3-FL and C/EBPbeta act as transcriptional suppressors for the ASNS gene to counterbalance the transcription rate activated by ATF4 following amino acid deprivation. ..
  80. Pham T, Langmann S, Schwarzfischer L, El Chartouni C, Lichtinger M, Klug M, et al. CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta regulates constitutive gene expression during late stages of monocyte to macrophage differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21924-33 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest an important constitutive gene regulatory function for C/EBPbeta in differentiated macrophages but not in human blood monocytes. ..
  81. Mo X, Kowenz Leutz E, Xu H, Leutz A. Ras induces mediator complex exchange on C/EBP beta. Mol Cell. 2004;13:241-50 pubmed
    ..These results show that a Ras-induced structural alteration of C/EBPbeta determines differential gene activation through selective interaction with distinct Mediator complexes. ..
  82. Liu X, Jana M, Dasgupta S, Koka S, He J, Wood C, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat induces nitric-oxide synthase in human astroglia. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39312-9 pubmed
    ..This study illustrates a novel role for HIV-1 tat in inducing the expression of iNOS in human astrocytes that may participate in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia. ..
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