BST2

Summary

Gene Symbol: BST2
Description: bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2
Alias: CD317, TETHERIN, BST-2, HM1.24 antigen, NPC-A-7
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. pmc Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism
    Janet L Douglas
    Oregon Health and Science University, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Beaverton, 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:7931-47. 2009
  2. pmc Vpu antagonizes BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release via beta-TrCP and endo-lysosomal trafficking
    Richard S Mitchell
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000450. 2009
  3. doi HIV-1 antagonism of CD317 is species specific and involves Vpu-mediated proteasomal degradation of the restriction factor
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 5:285-97. 2009
  4. pmc Molecular mechanism of BST2/tetherin downregulation by K5/MIR2 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    Mandana Mansouri
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:9672-81. 2009
  5. pmc HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes
    Yukie Iwabu
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:35060-72. 2009
  6. pmc HIV-1 Vpu neutralizes the antiviral factor Tetherin/BST-2 by binding it and directing its beta-TrCP2-dependent degradation
    Bastien Mangeat
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospitals and Medical School of Geneva, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000574. 2009
  7. pmc Innate sensing of HIV-1 assembly by Tetherin induces NFκB-dependent proinflammatory responses
    Rui Pedro Galao
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 12:633-44. 2012
  8. pmc BST-2/tetherin: a new component of the innate immune response to enveloped viruses
    David T Evans
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Drives, Southborough, MA 01772, USA
    Trends Microbiol 18:388-96. 2010
  9. pmc Mutation of a single residue renders human tetherin resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated depletion
    Ravindra K Gupta
    Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000443. 2009
  10. pmc Simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein counteracts tetherin/BST-2/CD317 by intracellular sequestration
    Ravindra K Gupta
    Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20889-94. 2009

Detail Information

Publications191 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism
    Janet L Douglas
    Oregon Health and Science University, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Beaverton, 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:7931-47. 2009
    ..Recently, BST-2 has been identified as the interferon-inducible cellular factor Tetherin, which restricts HIV virion release in the absence of Vpu...
  2. pmc Vpu antagonizes BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release via beta-TrCP and endo-lysosomal trafficking
    Richard S Mitchell
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000450. 2009
    The interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2/CD317 (tetherin) restricts the release of diverse enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  3. doi HIV-1 antagonism of CD317 is species specific and involves Vpu-mediated proteasomal degradation of the restriction factor
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 5:285-97. 2009
    ..Human CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) is a restriction factor that blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface ..
  4. pmc Molecular mechanism of BST2/tetherin downregulation by K5/MIR2 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    Mandana Mansouri
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:9672-81. 2009
    ..VPU, reduced steady-state levels of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2; also called CD317 or tetherin), suggesting that BST2 might be a novel substrate of K5 and VPU...
  5. pmc HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes
    Yukie Iwabu
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:35060-72. 2009
    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin) is a recently identified interferon-inducible host restriction factor that can block the production of enveloped viruses by trapping virus particles at the cell surface...
  6. pmc HIV-1 Vpu neutralizes the antiviral factor Tetherin/BST-2 by binding it and directing its beta-TrCP2-dependent degradation
    Bastien Mangeat
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospitals and Medical School of Geneva, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000574. 2009
    Host cells impose a broad range of obstacles to the replication of retroviruses. Tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) impedes viral release by retaining newly budded HIV-1 virions on the surface of cells...
  7. pmc Innate sensing of HIV-1 assembly by Tetherin induces NFκB-dependent proinflammatory responses
    Rui Pedro Galao
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 12:633-44. 2012
    ..Here we investigated whether the interferon-induced viral restriction factor tetherin (CD317/BST2), which is known to inhibit HIV-1 particle release by physically tethering virions to the cell ..
  8. pmc BST-2/tetherin: a new component of the innate immune response to enveloped viruses
    David T Evans
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Drives, Southborough, MA 01772, USA
    Trends Microbiol 18:388-96. 2010
    The interferon-inducible, transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317, tetherin) directly holds fully formed enveloped virus particles to the cells that produce them, inhibiting their spread...
  9. pmc Mutation of a single residue renders human tetherin resistant to HIV-1 Vpu-mediated depletion
    Ravindra K Gupta
    Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000443. 2009
    The recently identified restriction factor tetherin/BST-2/CD317 is an interferon-inducible trans-membrane protein that restricts HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 countermeasure viral protein U (Vpu)...
  10. pmc Simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein counteracts tetherin/BST-2/CD317 by intracellular sequestration
    Ravindra K Gupta
    Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20889-94. 2009
    b>Tetherin is an IFN-inducible restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 countermeasure, viral protein U (Vpu)...
  11. pmc Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission
    Nicoletta Casartelli
    Institut Pasteur, Virus and Immunity Unit, URA CNRS 3015, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000955. 2010
    The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin...
  12. pmc Infectious Lassa virus, but not filoviruses, is restricted by BST-2/tetherin
    Sheli R Radoshitzky
    U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol 84:10569-80. 2010
    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin) is a cellular membrane protein that inhibits the release of HIV-1...
  13. pmc Vpu enhances HIV-1 virus release in the absence of Bst-2 cell surface down-modulation and intracellular depletion
    Eri Miyagi
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Viral Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2868-73. 2009
    HIV-1 Vpu enhances the release of virions from infected cells. Recent work identified Bst-2/CD317/tetherin as a host factor whose inhibitory activity on viral release is counteracted by Vpu...
  14. pmc Identification of amino acids in the human tetherin transmembrane domain responsible for HIV-1 Vpu interaction and susceptibility
    Tomoko Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 85:932-45. 2011
    b>Tetherin, also known as BST-2/CD317/HM1.24, is an antiviral cellular protein that inhibits the release of HIV-1 particles from infected cells...
  15. pmc Antagonism of CD317 restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release and depletion of CD317 are separable activities of HIV-1 Vpu
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 84:4089-94. 2010
    Vpu antagonizes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release inhibition by CD317/BST-2/Tetherin. Whether this Vpu activity strictly requires cellular depletion of the restriction factor is unclear...
  16. pmc HM1.24 is internalized from lipid rafts by clathrin-mediated endocytosis through interaction with alpha-adaptin
    Naoko Masuyama
    Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:15927-41. 2009
    HM1.24/Bst2/CD317 is a protein highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells and has unique topology with two membrane anchor domains, an NH2-terminal transmembrane domain and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol attached to the COOH terminus...
  17. pmc CD317/tetherin is enriched in the HIV-1 envelope and downregulated from the plasma membrane upon virus infection
    Anja Habermann
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 84:4646-58. 2010
    CD317/Bst-2/tetherin is a host factor that restricts the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by trapping virions at the plasma membrane of certain producer cells. It is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu...
  18. pmc HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes innate restriction factor BST-2 via lipid-embedded helix-helix interactions
    Mark Skasko
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:58-67. 2012
    The Vpu protein of HIV-1 antagonizes BST-2 (tetherin), a broad spectrum effector of the innate immune response to viral infection, by an intermolecular interaction that maps genetically to the α-helical transmembrane domains (TMDs) of ..
  19. pmc In vivo expression profile of the antiviral restriction factor and tumor-targeting antigen CD317/BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin in humans
    Elina Erikson
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13688-93. 2011
    Human CD317 is an intrinsic immunity factor that restricts the release of enveloped viruses, including the major pathogens HIV and Lassa virus, from infected cells in culture...
  20. pmc Antagonism of tetherin restriction of HIV-1 release by Vpu involves binding and sequestration of the restriction factor in a perinuclear compartment
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000856. 2010
    The Vpu accessory protein promotes HIV-1 release by counteracting Tetherin/BST-2, an interferon-regulated restriction factor, which retains virions at the cell-surface...
  21. pmc Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef
    Christopher M Coleman
    Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Retrovirology 8:26. 2011
    ..b>Tetherin is a type I IFN-inducible restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 release and modulates CD4+ T cell-mediated cell-to-..
  22. pmc Identification of alternatively translated Tetherin isoforms with differing antiviral and signaling activities
    Luis J Cocka
    Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002931. 2012
    b>Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an IFN induced transmembrane protein that restricts release of a broad range of enveloped viruses. Important features required for Tetherin activity and regulation reside within the cytoplasmic domain...
  23. pmc Stimulation of NF-κB activity by the HIV restriction factor BST2
    Andrey Tokarev
    The University of California San Diego, La Jolla California, USA
    J Virol 87:2046-57. 2013
    BST2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein that restricts the release of several enveloped viruses, including HIV, from infected cells...
  24. pmc Broad-spectrum inhibition of retroviral and filoviral particle release by tetherin
    Nolwenn Jouvenet
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 83:1837-44. 2009
    ..A recently identified IFN-induced antiretroviral protein, termed tetherin (previously known as BST-2 or CD317), blocks the release of nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ..
  25. pmc Antiviral inhibition of enveloped virus release by tetherin/BST-2: action and counteraction
    Anna Le Tortorec
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE19RT, UK
    Viruses 3:520-40. 2011
    b>Tetherin (BST2/CD317) has been recently recognized as a potent interferon-induced antiviral molecule that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped virus particles from infected cells...
  26. pmc Ancient adaptive evolution of tetherin shaped the functions of Vpu and Nef in human immunodeficiency virus and primate lentiviruses
    Efrem S Lim
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, P O Box 10924, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    J Virol 84:7124-34. 2010
    b>Tetherin/BST-2 is a host-encoded protein that restricts a wide diversity of viruses at the stage of virion release. However, viruses have evolved antagonists of Tetherin, including the Vpu and Nef proteins of primate lentiviruses...
  27. pmc HIV-1 Vpu blocks recycling and biosynthetic transport of the intrinsic immunity factor CD317/tetherin to overcome the virion release restriction
    Sarah Schmidt
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    MBio 2:e00036-11. 2011
    The intrinsic immunity factor CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) imposes a barrier to HIV-1 release at the cell surface that can be overcome by the viral protein Vpu...
  28. pmc Inhibition of Lassa and Marburg virus production by tetherin
    Toshie Sakuma
    First Department of Forensic Science, National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa 277 0882, Japan
    J Virol 83:2382-5. 2009
    Recently, tetherin has been identified as an effective cellular factor that prevents the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  29. pmc Endogenous CD317/Tetherin limits replication of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus in rodent cells and is resistant to antagonists from primate viruses
    Christine Goffinet
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 84:11374-84. 2010
    Human CD317 (BST-2/tetherin) is an intrinsic immunity factor that blocks the release of retroviruses, filoviruses, herpesviruses, and arenaviruses...
  30. pmc The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin
    Janet L Douglas
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000913. 2010
    ..that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as "tetherin"...
  31. pmc HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env counteract BST-2/tetherin by sequestration in a perinuclear compartment
    Heiko Hauser
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Retrovirology 7:51. 2010
    ..to the surface of human cells due to the action of an interferon-inducible cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin. Tetherin also restricts the release of other enveloped viral particles and is counteracted by a several viral ..
  32. pmc Determinants of tetherin antagonism in the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein
    Raphaël Vigan
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:12958-70. 2010
    b>Tetherin (BST2/CD317) potently restricts the particle release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants defective in the accessory gene vpu...
  33. pmc Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency viruses are tetherin antagonists
    Fengwen Zhang
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 6:54-67. 2009
    The tetherin/BST2/CD317 protein blocks the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by inducing tethering of nascent particles to infected cell surfaces...
  34. doi HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment
    Michael H Malim
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 3:388-98. 2008
    ..Broadly speaking, the HIV-1 accessory proteins modify the local environment within infected cells to ensure viral persistence, replication, dissemination, and transmission...
  35. pmc Modulation of HIV-1-host interaction: role of the Vpu accessory protein
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110, avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7
    Retrovirology 7:114. 2010
    ..Second, it enhances the release of progeny virions from infected cells by antagonizing Tetherin, an interferon (IFN)-regulated host restriction factor that directly cross-links virions on host cell-surface...
  36. pmc Serine-threonine ubiquitination mediates downregulation of BST-2/tetherin and relief of restricted virion release by HIV-1 Vpu
    Andrey A Tokarev
    Department of Medicine University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:51-63. 2011
    The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts the antiviral activity of the innate restriction factor BST-2/tetherin by a mechanism that partly depends on its interaction with β-TrCP, a substrate adaptor for an SCF (Skp-Cullin 1-F box) E3 ubiquitin ..
  37. pmc Anti-tetherin activities in Vpu-expressing primate lentiviruses
    Su Jung Yang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Retrovirology 7:13. 2010
    The anti-viral activity of the cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin, was first observed as an ability to block the release of Vpu-minus HIV-1 from the surface of infected cells...
  38. pmc Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for Tetherin/BST2 as the physical bridge between HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane
    Jason Hammonds
    Department of Pediatrics and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000749. 2010
    b>Tetherin/BST2 was identified in 2008 as the cellular factor responsible for restricting HIV-1 replication at a very late stage in the lifecycle...
  39. pmc HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89069, Ulm, Germany
    Retrovirology 8:103. 2011
    ..Group O or rare Group N viruses, efficiently antagonize the human orthologue of the restriction factor tetherin (BST-2, HM1...
  40. pmc Structural basis of HIV-1 tethering to membranes by the BST-2/tetherin ectodomain
    Andreas Hinz
    Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions UVHCI UMI 3265 Université Joseph Fourier EMBL CNRS, 38042 Grenoble, France
    Cell Host Microbe 7:314-23. 2010
    The restriction factor BST-2/tetherin contains two membrane anchors employed to retain some enveloped viruses, including HIV-1 tethered to the plasma membrane in the absence of virus-encoded antagonists. The 2...
  41. pmc Ebola virus glycoprotein counteracts BST-2/Tetherin restriction in a sequence-independent manner that does not require tetherin surface removal
    Lisa A Lopez
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, USC Keck School of Medicine, 2011 Zonal Ave, HMR502, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    J Virol 84:7243-55. 2010
    BST-2/tetherin is an interferon-inducible protein that restricts the release of enveloped viruses from the surface of infected cells by physically linking viral and cellular membranes...
  42. pmc BST-2 diminishes HIV-1 infectivity
    Jianyong Zhang
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote Ste Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 84:12336-43. 2010
    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin/CD317/HM1.24) inhibits the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other enveloped viruses by tethering virus particles to the cell surface...
  43. pmc The transmembrane domain of BST-2 determines its sensitivity to down-modulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu
    Liwei Rong
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1E2
    J Virol 83:7536-46. 2009
    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin) restricts the production of a number of enveloped viruses by blocking virus release from the cell surface...
  44. pmc Vpu serine 52 dependent counteraction of tetherin is required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue
    Michael Schindler
    Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
    Retrovirology 7:1. 2010
    ..human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release...
  45. pmc Direct restriction of virus release and incorporation of the interferon-induced protein BST-2 into HIV-1 particles
    Kathleen Fitzpatrick
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000701. 2010
    ..on the surface of infected cells by the interferon-induced, transmembrane and GPI-anchored protein BST-2 (CD317; tetherin). BST-2 inhibits diverse families of enveloped viruses, but how it restricts viral release is unclear...
  46. pmc HIV-1-induced AIDS in monkeys
    Theodora Hatziioannou
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Science 344:1401-5. 2014
    ..over four passages in macaques, HIV-1 acquired the ability to antagonize the macaque restriction factor tetherin, replicated at progressively higher levels, and ultimately caused marked CD4(+) T cell depletion and AIDS-..
  47. pmc Ig-like transcript 7, but not bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (also known as HM1.24, tetherin, or CD317), modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in primary human blood leukocytes
    Barbara Tavano
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Immunology Section, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW10 9NH, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 190:2622-30. 2013
    ..The bone marrow stromal cell Ag 2 (BST2, aka HM1.24, tetherin, or CD317) is expressed by different cell types upon exposure to IFN-I and is a natural ligand for ILT7...
  48. pmc Antiviral activity of the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/tetherin
    Andrey Tokarev
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:1197-210. 2009
    ..study of HIV-1 Vpu recently led to the discovery of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317; tetherin) as a novel component of the innate defense against enveloped viruses...
  49. pmc Virus-activated interferon regulatory factor 7 upregulates expression of the interferon-regulated BST2 gene independently of interferon signaling
    Mariana G Bego
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 86:3513-27. 2012
    BST-2/tetherin is an interferon (IFN)-inducible host restriction factor that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses and functions as a negative-feedback regulator of IFN production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells...
  50. pmc Species-specific activity of HIV-1 Vpu and positive selection of tetherin transmembrane domain variants
    Matthew W McNatt
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000300. 2009
    b>Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 is a recently identified antiviral protein that blocks the release of nascent retrovirus, and other virus, particles from infected cells. An HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, acts as an antagonist of tetherin...
  51. pmc Upregulation of BST-2/Tetherin by HIV infection in vivo
    Stefanie Homann
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:10659-68. 2011
    ..The data further suggest that this upregulation is sufficient to saturate the activity of Vpu and inhibit wild-type HIV...
  52. pmc β-TrCP is dispensable for Vpu's ability to overcome the CD317/Tetherin-imposed restriction to HIV-1 release
    Hanna Mari Tervo
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Retrovirology 8:9. 2011
    The cellular transmembrane protein CD317/BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 infection by physically tethering mature virions to the surface of infected cells...
  53. pmc Ubiquitination of BST-2 protein by HIV-1 Vpu protein does not require lysine, serine, or threonine residues within the BST-2 cytoplasmic domain
    Jean K Gustin
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:14837-50. 2012
    The cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin has been shown to inhibit the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  54. pmc Structural and biophysical analysis of BST-2/tetherin ectodomains reveals an evolutionary conserved design to inhibit virus release
    Melissa Swiecki
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:2987-97. 2011
    BST-2/tetherin is a host antiviral molecule that functions to potently inhibit the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. In return, viruses have evolved antagonists to this activity...
  55. pmc Differential effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu on the stability of BST-2/tetherin
    Amy J Andrew
    Viral Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 4, Room 310, 4 Center Drive, MSC 0460, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 85:2611-9. 2011
    BST-2/CD317/tetherin is a host factor that inhibits the release of HIV-1 and other unrelated viruses. A current model proposes that BST-2 physically tethers virions to the surface of virus-producing cells...
  56. doi Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu
    Stuart J D Neil
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 451:425-30. 2008
    ..24), a membrane protein of previously unknown function, as a tetherin. Specifically, CD317 expression correlated with, and induced, a requirement for Vpu during HIV-1 and murine ..
  57. doi Tetherin: holding on and letting go
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, University Clinic Ulm, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell 141:392-8. 2010
    ..This Essay discusses the host restriction factor tetherin, which blocks the release of enveloped viruses like HIV-1, and the factors evolved by primate lentiviruses, such ..
  58. pmc The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin
    Claire Pardieu
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000843. 2010
    b>Tetherin (CD317/BST2) is an interferon-induced membrane protein that inhibits the release of diverse enveloped viral particles...
  59. pmc Structural and functional studies on the extracellular domain of BST2/tetherin in reduced and oxidized conformations
    Heidi L Schubert
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5650, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17951-6. 2010
    HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses can be restricted by a host cellular protein called BST2/tetherin that prevents release of budded viruses from the cell surface...
  60. pmc Mechanism of HIV-1 virion entrapment by tetherin
    Siddarth Venkatesh
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Retrovirology, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003483. 2013
    b>Tetherin, an interferon-inducible membrane protein, inhibits the release of nascent enveloped viral particles from the surface of infected cells. However, the mechanisms underlying virion retention have not yet been fully delineated...
  61. pmc Budding capability of the influenza virus neuraminidase can be modulated by tetherin
    Mark A Yondola
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Department of Microbiology, Annenberg Bldg 16 20, New York, NY 10128, USA
    J Virol 85:2480-91. 2011
    ..Most importantly, we demonstrate that the antiviral restriction factor tetherin plays a role in determining the strain-specific limitations of release competency...
  62. pmc Influenza virus is not restricted by tetherin whereas influenza VLP production is restricted by tetherin
    Rie Watanabe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dept of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 2138, USA
    Virology 417:50-6. 2011
    b>Tetherin (ST2/CD317) is a cellular protein that restricts the release from cells of some enveloped viruses including HIV-1...
  63. pmc Role of the endocytic pathway in the counteraction of BST-2 by human lentiviral pathogens
    David Lau
    University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    J Virol 85:9834-46. 2011
    The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317, tetherin) restricts the release of several enveloped viruses from infected cells. BST-2 is broadly active against retroviruses, including HIV-1 and HIV-2...
  64. pmc Separable determinants of subcellular localization and interaction account for the inability of group O HIV-1 Vpu to counteract tetherin
    Raphaël Vigan
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    J Virol 85:9737-48. 2011
    b>Tetherin (BST-2/CD317) is thought to restrict retroviral particle release by cross-linking nascent viral and cellular membranes...
  65. pmc Dimerization of tetherin is not essential for its antiviral activity against Lassa and Marburg viruses
    Toshie Sakuma
    First Department of Forensic Science, National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa, Japan
    PLoS ONE 4:e6934. 2009
    b>Tetherin (also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24) has recently been reported to inhibit a wide range of viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of action of tetherin has not been determined...
  66. pmc Tetherin antagonism by Vpu protects HIV-infected cells from antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    Juan F Arias
    Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA 01772
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:6425-30. 2014
    b>Tetherin is an IFN-inducible transmembrane protein that inhibits the detachment of enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  67. pmc Expression of HIV-1 Vpu leads to loss of the viral restriction factor CD317/Tetherin from lipid rafts and its enhanced lysosomal degradation
    Ruth Rollason
    School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e75680. 2013
    CD317/tetherin (aka BST2 or HM1.24 antigen) is an interferon inducible membrane protein present in regions of the lipid bilayer enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol (often termed lipid rafts)...
  68. pmc HIV Nef and Vpu protect HIV-infected CD4+ T cells from antibody-mediated cell lysis through down-modulation of CD4 and BST2
    Tram N Q Pham
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal H2W 1R7, Quebec, Canada
    Retrovirology 11:15. 2014
    ..Indeed, the CD4 receptor is down-regulated by Nef and Vpu, whereas virion-tethering BST2 is depleted by Vpu...
  69. pmc Preservation of tetherin and CD4 counter-activities in circulating Vpu alleles despite extensive sequence variation within HIV-1 infected individuals
    Suzanne Pickering
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 10:e1003895. 2014
    ..infectious virus release by targeting CD4 for proteosomal degradation and counteracting the antiviral protein tetherin (BST2/CD317)...
  70. pmc BST-2/tetherin-mediated restriction of chikungunya (CHIKV) VLP budding is counteracted by CHIKV non-structural protein 1 (nsP1)
    Philip H Jones
    Department of Microbiology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Virology 438:37-49. 2013
    ..We conclude that BST-2 tethers CHIKV VLPs on the host cell plasma membrane and identify CHIKV nsP1 as a novel BST-2 antagonist...
  71. pmc HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes BST-2 by interfering mainly with the trafficking of newly synthesized BST-2 to the cell surface
    Mathieu Dubé
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Traffic 12:1714-29. 2011
    ....
  72. pmc Polarity changes in the transmembrane domain core of HIV-1 Vpu inhibits its anti-tetherin activity
    Mingyu Lv
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e20890. 2011
    b>Tetherin (BST-2/CD317) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that restricts the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu can efficiently antagonize this restriction...
  73. pmc Intrinsic cellular defenses against human immunodeficiency viruses
    Daniel Blanco-Melo
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Retrovirology, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Immunity 37:399-411. 2012
    ..Among these are several classes of proteins (APOBEC3, TRIM5, Tetherin, and SAMHD1) that inhibit the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses...
  74. pmc Role of retroviral restriction factors in the interferon-α-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in vivo
    Satish K Pillai
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3035-40. 2012
    ..B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin/CD317) retroviral restriction factors underlies the IFN-α-mediated suppression of HIV-1 replication in vitro...
  75. pmc Tetherin and its viral antagonists
    Björn D Kuhl
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1E2
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 6:188-201. 2011
    ..number of well-characterized interferon-inducible antiviral factors such as RNaseL/OAS, ISG15, Mx, PKR, and ADAR, tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1...
  76. pmc Some human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu proteins are able to antagonize macaque BST-2 in vitro and in vivo: Vpu-negative simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are attenuated in vivo
    Masashi Shingai
    NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 85:9708-15. 2011
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu enhances the release of viral particles from infected cells by targeting BST-2/tetherin, a cellular protein inhibiting virus release...
  77. pmc BST-2 is rapidly down-regulated from the cell surface by the HIV-1 protein Vpu: evidence for a post-ER mechanism of Vpu-action
    Mark Skasko
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Virology 411:65-77. 2011
    ..domain (TMD) interactions are essential for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated antagonism of the restriction factor BST-2/tetherin. We made Vpu TMD mutants to study the mechanism of BST-2 antagonism...
  78. pmc Human tetherin exerts strong selection pressure on the HIV-1 group N Vpu protein
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1003093. 2012
    ..E15A, V19A and IV25/26LL) in their transmembrane domain (TMD) that allow efficient interaction with human tetherin. However, despite these adaptive changes, most N-Vpus still antagonize human tetherin only poorly and fail to ..
  79. doi Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses
    Frank Kirchhoff
    Institute of Molecular Virology, University Hospital Ulm, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 8:55-67. 2010
    ....
  80. pmc A cytoplasmic tail determinant in HIV-1 Vpu mediates targeting of tetherin for endosomal degradation and counteracts interferon-induced restriction
    Tonya Kueck
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002609. 2012
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts tetherin (BST-2/CD317) by preventing its incorporation into virions, reducing its surface expression, and ultimately promoting its degradation...
  81. pmc Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Universitatsklinikum, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 6:409-21. 2009
    Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication...
  82. pmc Compensatory changes in the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 confer resistance to tetherin/BST-2 in a pathogenic nef-deleted SIV
    Ruth Serra-Moreno
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772 9102, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:46-57. 2011
    b>Tetherin (BST-2 or CD317) is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein that inhibits virus release from infected cells...
  83. pmc Quantitative multicolor super-resolution microscopy reveals tetherin HIV-1 interaction
    Martin Lehmann
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University Hospital and Medical School of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002456. 2011
    ..The cellular restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1...
  84. pmc Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 group O and P
    Su Jung Yang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Retrovirology 8:78. 2011
    ..it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin...
  85. pmc Tetherin inhibits prototypic foamy virus release
    Fengwen Xu
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics Tianjin, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
    Virol J 8:198. 2011
    b>Tetherin (also known as BST-2, CD317, and HM1.24) is an interferon- induced protein that blocks the release of a variety of enveloped viruses, such as retroviruses, filoviruses and herpesviruses...
  86. pmc Rab7A is required for efficient production of infectious HIV-1
    Marina Caillet
    INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002347. 2011
    ..We also show that siRNA-mediated Rab7A depletion induces a BST2/Tetherin phenotype on HIV-1 release...
  87. pmc Structural insight into the mechanisms of enveloped virus tethering by tetherin
    HaiTao Yang
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18428-32. 2010
    b>Tetherin/BST2 is a type-II membrane protein that inhibits the release of a range of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1...
  88. pmc Antagonism to and intracellular sequestration of human tetherin by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein
    Anna Le Tortorec
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:11966-78. 2009
    b>Tetherin (CD317/BST-2), an interferon-induced membrane protein, restricts the release of nascent retroviral particles from infected cell surfaces...
  89. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus, restriction factors, and interferon
    Stuart Neil
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 29:569-80. 2009
    ..Such knowledge could allow for novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the development of animal models of human disease...
  90. doi Overexpression of inactive tetherin delGPI mutant inhibits HIV-1 Vpu-mediated antagonism of endogenous tetherin
    Mingyu Lv
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People s Republic of China
    FEBS Lett 587:37-43. 2013
    b>Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 inhibits HIV-1 release from infected cells, but the viral Vpu protein efficiently antagonizes this antiviral activity through direct interaction between the transmembrane (TM) domains of each protein...
  91. pmc The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein
    Nanette Van Damme
    The San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:245-52. 2008
    ..Here we show that the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/HM1.24/CD317 is such a factor...
  92. pmc Efficient BST2 antagonism by Vpu is critical for early HIV-1 dissemination in humanized mice
    Vibhuti P Dave
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H2W 1R7, Canada
    Retrovirology 10:128. 2013
    ..the release of HIV-1 by counteracting the entrapment of nascent virions on infected cell surface mediated by BST2/Tetherin. Vpu-mediated BST2 antagonism involves physical association with BST2 and subsequent mislocalization of the ..
  93. pmc HIV-1 Vpu affects the anterograde transport and the glycosylation pattern of NTB-A
    Sebastian Bolduan
    Institute of Virology, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany
    Virology 440:190-203. 2013
    ..the glycosylation pattern of NTB-A by a mechanism that is distinct from the Vpu induced downregulation of CD4 and tetherin. In the presence of Vpu, only the high mannose form of NTB-A was detectable, suggesting that Vpu prevented the ..
  94. pmc Equine tetherin blocks retrovirus release and its activity is antagonized by equine infectious anemia virus envelope protein
    Xin Yin
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Harbin, China
    J Virol 88:1259-70. 2014
    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release...
  95. pmc Feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins antagonize tetherin through a distinctive mechanism that requires virion incorporation
    James H Morrison
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    J Virol 88:3255-72. 2014
    BST2/tetherin inhibits the release of enveloped viruses from cells. Primate lentiviruses have evolved specific antagonists (Vpu, Nef, and Env)...
  96. pmc The expression of HIV-1 Vpu in monocytes causes increased secretion of TGF-β that activates profibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells
    Paresh Patel
    Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India
    PLoS ONE 9:e88934. 2014
    ..Besides its other roles in pathogenesis, Vpu is likely to contribute to hepatic fibrosis through this hitherto unknown mechanism. ..
  97. pmc Differential sensitivities of tetherin isoforms to counteraction by primate lentiviruses
    Julia Weinelt
    Department of Infectious Disease, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 88:5845-58. 2014
    The mammalian antiviral membrane protein tetherin (BST2/CD317) can be expressed as two isoforms derived from differential translational initiation...
  98. pmc HIV-1 Vpu antagonism of tetherin inhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic responses by natural killer cells
    Raymond A Alvarez
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 88:6031-46. 2014
    The type I interferon-inducible factor tetherin retains virus particles on the surfaces of cells infected with vpu-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  99. pmc Herpes simplex virus 1 counteracts tetherin restriction via its virion host shutoff activity
    Helen L Zenner
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Virol 87:13115-23. 2013
    The interferon-inducible membrane protein tetherin (Bst-2, or CD317) is an antiviral factor that inhibits enveloped virus release by cross-linking newly formed virus particles to the producing cell...
  100. pmc A rare missense variant abrogates the signaling activity of tetherin/BST-2 without affecting its effect on virus release
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Retrovirology 10:85. 2013
    b>Tetherin (or BST-2) is an antiviral host restriction factor that suppresses the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering them to the cell surface...
  101. pmc Vpu binds directly to tetherin and displaces it from nascent virions
    Matthew W McNatt
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003299. 2013
    b>Tetherin (Bst2/CD317/HM1.24) is an interferon-induced antiviral host protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses by tethering virions to the cell surface...

Research Grants52

  1. The Role of Lipid Rafts in Vpu Function
    EDWARD BRICE STEPHENS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..24, or tetherin. BST-2 is an interferon inducible, lipid raft , type II integral membrane protein with an unusual topology...
  2. Interactions of Ebola virus glycoproteins with host cells
    Paul Bates; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Tetherin/BST-2 is a recently described intrinsic cellular antiviral factor that is active against a number of enveloped ..
  3. Studies of Natural SIV Infection of Sooty Mangabeys
    Guido Silvestri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As part of this Aim, we will also study the expression of host restriction factors (i.e., TRIM-5a, APOBECs, and Tetherin) as well as the global transcriptional profile in CD4+ TCM and CD4+ TEM of SMs and RMs...
  4. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ALPHAVIRUS ENTRY AND EXIT
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary results show that the cellular membrane protein BST2/tetherin inhibits alphavirus release...
  5. Lentiviral Resistance to Tetherin
    David T Evans; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tetherin (BST-2 or CD317) is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein that inhibits virus release from infected cells...
  6. The role of myeloid cells in viral replication, persistence and neuroinvasion
    Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antiviral restrictions such as Apobec 3G and Tetherin have generated intense interest in the field...
  7. HTLV-1 antagonists of HIV restriction factors
    VIVIANA A SIMON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In contrast to our growing knowledge of lentiviral antagonists (APOBEC3: Vif;Tetherin/BST2: Vpu, Nef and Env;SAMHD1: Vpx), we know very little about how HTLV-1 overcomes these blocks...
  8. Natural SIV Reservoirs and Human Zoonotic Risk
    Beatrice H Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Host specific restriction factors, in particular tetherin, pose major hurdles to SIV cross-species transmission...
  9. Introducing restriction factors into the genome of an AIDS virus host species
    Eric M Poeschla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This kind of innate immunity is mediated by proteins such as APOBEC3 proteins, TRIM5alpha, TRIMCyp, and BST2/Tetherin. To infect new species, retroviruses must evolve specific countermeasures...
  10. The Innate Immune Response in the Marmoset Model of GBV-B Infections: A Surrogate
    Robert E Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also knockdown BST2, the receptor that provides negative feedback to pDCs and controls IFN production...
  11. Targeting Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to Treat Human Myeloma
    Qing Yi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently identified a pDC-specific receptor complex ILT7/FceR?1 (pDCR) and its ligand BST2. Signaling through pDCR induces a BCR-like signal cascade that potently inhibits TLR7/9-mediated type 1 IFN ..
  12. Immune evasion by gamma 2 Herpesviruses
    KLAUS J FRUEH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ALCAM, CD3IIPECAM, VE-Cadherin, alpha and beta- Catenin) and the interferon-induced antiviral protein B ST2/Tetherin. We therefore hypothesize that K5 modulates innate immune defense as well as angioproliferative and inflammatory ..
  13. Mechanisms of enveloped virus tethering by tetherin and viral countermeasures
    Yong Xiong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, an interferon-induced membrane protein, tetherin/ BST2, has been identified as a potent host antiviral factor inhibiting the release of a range of enveloped ..
  14. HIV-1 Vpu and BST-2/CD317
    John C Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..24, CD317, or "tetherin." BST-2 seems able to affect diverse enveloped virions, suggesting a broad role in the host defense against ..
  15. Recruitment of BST-2/tetherin to HIV-1 assembly sites
    Akira Ono; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..24, CD317, BST-2, or tetherin (hereafter referred to as BST-2/tetherin) inhibits HIV-1 particle release by tethering newly assembled virus ..
  16. Viral Hijacking of Host Membrane Trafficking Pathways
    Yong Xiong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immune surveillance by cytotoxic T cells;and it removes the innate host restriction factor BST2 (also known as tetherin) from the cell surface to allow for the efficient release of progeny virions...
  17. HIV-1 assembly and release
    Paul D Bieniasz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During the previous funding period, we identified an IFN-induced membrane protein, termed tetherin, as a host defense molecule that inhibits HIV-1 particle release...
  18. Global innate immune responses to HIV-1 infection
    John A T Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recognition receptor, restriction of HIV replication by interferon inducible HIV restriction factors Apobec3G and BST2, and inactivation of the latter two molecules by the HIV-encoded proteins Vif and Vpu, respectively...
  19. Role of VPU in Retroviral Particle Assembly
    Paul W Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Vpu inhibits a potent cellular restriction to release that was identified in 2008 as BST2 or tetherin. The overall goals of this project are to define the mechanism of restriction of particle release by tetherin, ..
  20. Structural Analysis of Human Tetherin and its Antagonist HIV-1 Vpu
    Jeffrey Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A newly discovered cellular membrane restriction factor, named tetherin, retains nascent HIV-1 virions at the cell surface...
  21. NEUROTOXIC MECHANISMS MEDIATED BY LENTIVIRUS-INDUCED PROTEOLYSIS
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The information derived from this proposal will be applicable to the prevention and treatment of HIV-associated brain disease. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. LENTIVIRUS-INDUCED NEUROPATHY: VIRAL DIVERSITY AND HOST*
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..From these studies, we expect to gain insights into this common neurological complication in terms of lentivirus-induced neurovirulence and pathogenic host responses. ..
  23. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY IN LENTIVIRUS INFECTIONS: EARLY VIRAL AND HOST DETERMINANTS
    Christopher Power; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many of the scientific techniques and models to be employed in the experiments described herein are unique to the laboratories of this team of investigators who have worked together for many years. ..
  24. Actions of Vif and APOBEC3 proteins in HIV-1 Replication
    Yong Hui Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such findings may provide a more effective modality for the treatment of HIV infection to be used in conjunction with other chemotherapy and vaccines. ..
  25. Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Disease Pathogenesis
    Kathleen L Collins; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This proposal is relevant to the mission of NIH in that it seeks to understand basic mechanisms of how HIV establishes a chronic infection. This work has the potential to have a significant impact on public health. ..
  26. Defining Neutralization Breadth in HIV+ Human Serum
    Paul W Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By understanding in detail the antibody responses present in these HIV-infected individuals, we will gain insights into how we can better design a protective HIV vaccine that can generate similar responses in uninfected persons. ..
  27. MECHANISM OF NON-INTEGRASE-MEDIATED HIV-1 REPLICATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Further aims are to develop gene therapy vectors based on non-integrating retroviruses. ..
  28. DYNAMICS OF HIV1 SPECIFIC CTL IN HIV1 INFECTION
    Douglas Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies of CTL dynamics will likely contribute considerably to understanding the role of HIV-1 specific CTL and vaccine strategies designed to induce CTL in the context of a prophylactic anti-HIV-1 vaccine. ..
  29. Development of Enhanced HIV-1 Pseudovirion Vaccines
    Paul Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Innate NKT Cells in HIV Infection
    Douglas Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that the proposed studies will contribute considerably to our understanding of NKT cell function in HIV disease, how the virus affects them, and how they may contribute to innate defense against HIV...
  31. An Adjuvanted Therapeutic DNA Vaccine for AIDS
    Michael Murphey Corb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Adjuvanted Epitope Vaccine to Target HIV Reservoirs
    Michael Murphey Corb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Together, these studies will both define the nature of viral persistence during chronic infection and identify an effective method of treatment. ..
  33. T Regulatory Cells in HIV Infection
    Douglas Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The goal of this proposal is to generate data to determine the importance of T=g cells in HIV infection. Manipulation of T=g cells could be critical for vaccine strategies and for therapeutic interventions. ..
  34. Novel FRET-based Assays for HIV Assembly Inhibitors
    Paul Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These assays will be used to screen libraries of compounds available from NIH, Vanderbilt, and industrial partners to identify candidate inhibitors of Gag-Gag interactions. ..
  35. A Novel Scrambled Antigen DNA Vaccine (SAVINE) Strategy
    Michael Murphey Corb; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Together, these experiments will provide data essential to the translation of these studies to human trials. ..
  36. HIV VARIATION AND CROSS CLADE CTL RECOGNITION
    Douglas Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In the second specific aim, we will ascertain whether infection with HlV~2 stimulates CTL which cross react with HIV-1 or vice versa, and whether some individuals are protected by one clade of HIV-1 against super-infection with another. ..
  37. Viral Tropism and Immune Control in HIV
    Douglas Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If X4 virus is preferentially affected by CD8+ T cells, we will then assess whether this preferential control occurs because of the virus itself, or because of the targets infected. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Overcoming blocks to HIV-1 replication in rhesus macaques.
    Theodora Hatziioannou; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If successful, this proposal will lead to improved animal models for HIV-1 infection and will considerably facilitate the development and testing of drug and vaccine interventions. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. Pseudovirion Formation by Live Vector HIV Vaccines
    Paul Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Together, these experiments will provide important insights into the role of pseudovirions in generating HIV-specific immune responses following live vector immunization. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Novel Assays for Inhibitors of HIV Assembly
    Paul Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. Viral and Cellullar Determinants of HIV-1 Assembly
    Paul W Spearman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, these experiments will provide important new insights into the interaction of HIV structural proteins with cellular transport pathways. ..
  42. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Single-Cycle SIV as a Novel AIDS Vaccine Approach
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Associations between immune responses elicited by scSIV and the outcome of challenge will be analyzed for each specific aim to reveal potential mechanisms of protection. ..
  44. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF HIV DNA INTEGRATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Cell Mediated Immunity in HIV Infected Children
    Douglas Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The goal of this grant application is to better understand immunopathogenic factors relevant to HIV infected children so they can be better placed to take advantage of developments in vaccines and new treatments. ..
  46. T Regulatory Cells in HIV Infection
    Douglas F Nixon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this proposal is to generate data to determine the importance of Treg cells in HIV infection. Manipulation of Treg cells could be critical for vaccine strategies and for therapeutic interventions. ..
  47. LEDGF-Integrase Structural Biology
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Role of RNase L in the Biology of Prostate Cancer
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The experiments described in this PROPOSAL describe a previously unexplored area of research that may bring us closer to the eventual goal of understanding a molecular basis for prostate cancer. ..
  49. The MHC-I, HIV-1 Nef, AP-1 Complex
    John Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..By understanding the molecular basis of this linkage, new approaches to drug design may become apparent. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Single-Cycle SIV as a Non-Replicating Vaccine Strain
    David Evans; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Macaques immunized with single-cycle viruses will be challenged with wild type SIV by mucosal routes to assess protection. ..