BST2

Summary

Gene Symbol: BST2
Description: bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2
Alias: CD317, TETHERIN, bone marrow stromal antigen 2, BST-2, HM1.24 antigen, NPC-A-7
Species: human
Products:     BST2

Top Publications

  1. Sauter D, Schindler M, Specht A, Landford W, M nch J, Kim K, et al. Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:409-21 pubmed publisher
    Vpu proteins of pandemic HIV-1 M strains degrade the viral receptor CD4 and antagonize human tetherin to promote viral release and replication...
  2. Habermann A, Krijnse Locker J, Oberwinkler H, Eckhardt M, Homann S, Andrew A, et al. CD317/tetherin is enriched in the HIV-1 envelope and downregulated from the plasma membrane upon virus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:4646-58 pubmed publisher
    CD317/Bst-2/tetherin is a host factor that restricts the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by trapping virions at the plasma membrane of certain producer cells. It is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu...
  3. Blondeau C, Pelchen Matthews A, Mlcochova P, Marsh M, Milne R, Towers G. Tetherin restricts herpes simplex virus 1 and is antagonized by glycoprotein M. J Virol. 2013;87:13124-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin is a broadly active antiviral effector that works by tethering nascent enveloped virions to a host cell membrane, thus preventing their release...
  4. Waheed A, Ablan S, Soheilian F, Nagashima K, Ono A, Schaffner C, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly and release by the cholesterol-binding compound amphotericin B methyl ester: evidence for Vpu dependence. J Virol. 2008;82:9776-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the ability of Vpu to counter the activity of CD317/BST-2/tetherin is markedly reduced by AME...
  5. Masuyama N, Kuronita T, Tanaka R, Muto T, Hirota Y, Takigawa A, et al. HM1.24 is internalized from lipid rafts by clathrin-mediated endocytosis through interaction with alpha-adaptin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15927-41 pubmed publisher
    HM1.24/Bst2/CD317 is a protein highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells and has unique topology with two membrane anchor domains, an NH2-terminal transmembrane domain and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol attached to the COOH terminus...
  6. Sato K, Yamamoto S, Misawa N, Yoshida T, Miyazawa T, Koyanagi Y. Comparative study on the effect of human BST-2/Tetherin on HIV-1 release in cells of various species. Retrovirology. 2009;6:53 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell type-specific effect of hBST-2 may be critical to elucidate the mechanism of BST-2-dependent suppression of virus release. ..
  7. Zhang J, Liang C. BST-2 diminishes HIV-1 infectivity. J Virol. 2010;84:12336-43 pubmed publisher
    Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin/CD317/HM1.24) inhibits the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other enveloped viruses by tethering virus particles to the cell surface...
  8. Sauter D, Vogl M, Kirchhoff F. Ancient origin of a deletion in human BST2/Tetherin that confers protection against viral zoonoses. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:1243-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2)/Tetherin is an antiviral factor that blocks the release of enveloped virions from infected cells...
  9. Kirchhoff F. Is the high virulence of HIV-1 an unfortunate coincidence of primate lentiviral evolution?. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7:467-76 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications148 found, 100 shown here

  1. Skasko M, Tokarev A, Chen C, Fischer W, Pillai S, Guatelli J. BST-2 is rapidly down-regulated from the cell surface by the HIV-1 protein Vpu: evidence for a post-ER mechanism of Vpu-action. Virology. 2011;411:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..domain (TMD) interactions are essential for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated antagonism of the restriction factor BST-2/tetherin. We made Vpu TMD mutants to study the mechanism of BST-2 antagonism...
  2. Malim M, Bieniasz P. HIV Restriction Factors and Mechanisms of Evasion. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006940 pubmed publisher
    ..restriction factors that have been widely shown to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1: namely, APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, and tetherin. In each case, we discuss how these unrelated proteins were identified, the mechanisms by which they inhibit ..
  3. Yang H, Wang J, Jia X, McNatt M, Zang T, Pan B, et al. Structural insight into the mechanisms of enveloped virus tethering by tetherin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18428-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin/BST2 is a type-II membrane protein that inhibits the release of a range of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1...
  4. Caillet M, Janvier K, Pelchen Matthews A, Delcroix Genête D, Camus G, Marsh M, et al. Rab7A is required for efficient production of infectious HIV-1. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002347 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that siRNA-mediated Rab7A depletion induces a BST2/Tetherin phenotype on HIV-1 release...
  5. Zhou J, Zhang Z, Mi Z, Wang X, Zhang Q, Li X, et al. Characterization of the interface of the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2-Vpu protein complex via computational chemistry. Biochemistry. 2012;51:1288-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a precise model that predicts the detailed interaction occurring between the transmembrane domains of Vpu and BST-2 and should facilitate the design of anti-HIV agents that are able to disrupt this interaction. ..
  6. Hammonds J, Wang J, Yi H, Spearman P. Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for Tetherin/BST2 as the physical bridge between HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000749 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin/BST2 was identified in 2008 as the cellular factor responsible for restricting HIV-1 replication at a very late stage in the lifecycle...
  7. Gustin J, Douglas J, Bai Y, Moses A. Ubiquitination of BST-2 protein by HIV-1 Vpu protein does not require lysine, serine, or threonine residues within the BST-2 cytoplasmic domain. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:14837-50 pubmed publisher
    The cellular protein BST-2/CD317/Tetherin has been shown to inhibit the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  8. Galão R, Le Tortorec A, Pickering S, Kueck T, Neil S. Innate sensing of HIV-1 assembly by Tetherin induces NFκB-dependent proinflammatory responses. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated whether the interferon-induced viral restriction factor tetherin (CD317/BST2), which is known to inhibit HIV-1 particle release by physically tethering virions to the cell ..
  9. Ilinskaya A, Derse D, Hill S, Princler G, Heidecker G. Cell-cell transmission allows human T-lymphotropic virus 1 to circumvent tetherin restriction. Virology. 2013;436:201-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin is part of the cellular innate immunity and impedes cell-free transmission of viruses that bud from the plasma membrane by retaining them on the cell surface...
  10. Arias J, Heyer L, von Bredow B, Weisgrau K, Moldt B, Burton D, et al. Tetherin antagonism by Vpu protects HIV-infected cells from antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6425-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin is an IFN-inducible transmembrane protein that inhibits the detachment of enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  11. Hauser H, Lopez L, Yang S, Oldenburg J, Exline C, Guatelli J, et al. HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env counteract BST-2/tetherin by sequestration in a perinuclear compartment. Retrovirology. 2010;7:51 pubmed publisher
    ..to the surface of human cells due to the action of an interferon-inducible cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin. Tetherin also restricts the release of other enveloped viral particles and is counteracted by a several viral ..
  12. Cai D, Cao J, Li Z, Zheng X, Yao Y, Li W, et al. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:102 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently made the novel observation of the BST2 protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines...
  13. Andrew A, Miyagi E, Strebel K. Differential effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu on the stability of BST-2/tetherin. J Virol. 2011;85:2611-9 pubmed publisher
    BST-2/CD317/tetherin is a host factor that inhibits the release of HIV-1 and other unrelated viruses. A current model proposes that BST-2 physically tethers virions to the surface of virus-producing cells...
  14. Billcliff P, Rollason R, Prior I, Owen D, Gaus K, Banting G. CD317/tetherin is an organiser of membrane microdomains. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1553-64 pubmed publisher
    The integral membrane protein tetherin has been associated with an eclectic mix of cellular processes, including restricting the release of a range of enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  15. Gottlinger H. HIV/AIDS: virus kept on a leash. Nature. 2008;451:406-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Andrew A, Kao S, Strebel K. C-terminal hydrophobic region in human bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2)/tetherin protein functions as second transmembrane motif. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39967-81 pubmed publisher
    BST-2/CD317/HM1.24/tetherin is a host factor that inhibits the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses...
  17. Tokarev A, Suarez M, Kwan W, Fitzpatrick K, Singh R, Guatelli J. Stimulation of NF-?B activity by the HIV restriction factor BST2. J Virol. 2013;87:2046-57 pubmed publisher
    BST2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein that restricts the release of several enveloped viruses, including HIV, from infected cells...
  18. Andrew A, Miyagi E, Kao S, Strebel K. The formation of cysteine-linked dimers of BST-2/tetherin is important for inhibition of HIV-1 virus release but not for sensitivity to Vpu. Retrovirology. 2009;6:80 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work identified BST-2/CD317 as a host factor that inhibits HIV-1 virus release in a Vpu sensitive manner...
  19. Kaletsky R, Francica J, Agrawal Gamse C, Bates P. Tetherin-mediated restriction of filovirus budding is antagonized by the Ebola glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2886-91 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian cells employ numerous innate cellular mechanisms to inhibit viral replication and spread. Tetherin, also known as Bst-2 or CD317, is a recently identified, IFN-induced, cellular response factor that blocks release of HIV-1 and ..
  20. Evans D, Serra Moreno R, Singh R, Guatelli J. BST-2/tetherin: a new component of the innate immune response to enveloped viruses. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:388-96 pubmed publisher
    The interferon-inducible, transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317, tetherin) directly holds fully formed enveloped virus particles to the cells that produce them, inhibiting their spread...
  21. Vigan R, Neil S. Determinants of tetherin antagonism in the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein. J Virol. 2010;84:12958-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (BST2/CD317) potently restricts the particle release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants defective in the accessory gene vpu...
  22. Bolduan S, Votteler J, Lodermeyer V, Greiner T, Koppensteiner H, Schindler M, et al. Ion channel activity of HIV-1 Vpu is dispensable for counteraction of CD317. Virology. 2011;416:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..domain (TM) mediates ion channel activity, enhances virus release and is essential for counteracting CD317/Bst-2/Tetherin. Here we analyzed whether the ion channel activity of Vpu is required to antagonize CD317-mediated restriction of ..
  23. Rollason R, Korolchuk V, Hamilton C, Jepson M, Banting G. A CD317/tetherin-RICH2 complex plays a critical role in the organization of the subapical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:721-36 pubmed publisher
    CD317/tetherin is a lipid raft-associated integral membrane protein with a novel topology. It has a short N-terminal cytosolic domain, a conventional transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor...
  24. Sauter D, Hotter D, Engelhart S, Giehler F, Kieser A, Kubisch C, et al. A rare missense variant abrogates the signaling activity of tetherin/BST-2 without affecting its effect on virus release. Retrovirology. 2013;10:85 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (or BST-2) is an antiviral host restriction factor that suppresses the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering them to the cell surface...
  25. Sandberg J, Andersson S, Bachle S, Nixon D, Moll M. HIV-1 Vpu interference with innate cell-mediated immune mechanisms. Curr HIV Res. 2012;10:327-33 pubmed
    ..Both these activities are mechanistically distinct from CD4 and Tetherin (BST-2) down-modulation...
  26. Ramirez P, Famiglietti M, Sowrirajan B, DePaula Silva A, RODESCH C, Barker E, et al. Downmodulation of CCR7 by HIV-1 Vpu results in impaired migration and chemotactic signaling within CD4? T cells. Cell Rep. 2014;7:2019-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BST-2 and CCR7 may be downregulated via similar mechanisms. ..
  27. Pardieu C, Vigan R, Wilson S, Calvi A, Zang T, Bieniasz P, et al. The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000843 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (CD317/BST2) is an interferon-induced membrane protein that inhibits the release of diverse enveloped viral particles...
  28. Dubé M, Paquay C, Roy B, Bego M, Mercier J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes BST-2 by interfering mainly with the trafficking of newly synthesized BST-2 to the cell surface. Traffic. 2011;12:1714-29 pubmed publisher
  29. Kueck T, Neil S. A cytoplasmic tail determinant in HIV-1 Vpu mediates targeting of tetherin for endosomal degradation and counteracts interferon-induced restriction. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002609 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts tetherin (BST-2/CD317) by preventing its incorporation into virions, reducing its surface expression, and ultimately promoting its degradation...
  30. Dubé M, Roy B, Guiot Guillain P, Binette J, Mercier J, Chiasson A, et al. Antagonism of tetherin restriction of HIV-1 release by Vpu involves binding and sequestration of the restriction factor in a perinuclear compartment. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000856 pubmed publisher
    The Vpu accessory protein promotes HIV-1 release by counteracting Tetherin/BST-2, an interferon-regulated restriction factor, which retains virions at the cell-surface...
  31. Tervo H, Homann S, Ambiel I, Fritz J, Fackler O, Keppler O. ?-TrCP is dispensable for Vpu's ability to overcome the CD317/Tetherin-imposed restriction to HIV-1 release. Retrovirology. 2011;8:9 pubmed publisher
    The cellular transmembrane protein CD317/BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin restricts HIV-1 infection by physically tethering mature virions to the surface of infected cells...
  32. Ishikawa J, Kaisho T, Tomizawa H, Lee B, Kobune Y, Inazawa J, et al. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of a bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell growth. Genomics. 1995;26:527-34 pubmed
    ..The BST-2 gene (HGMW-approved symbol BST2) is located on chromosome 19p13.2...
  33. Blanchet F, Mitchell J, Piguet V. ?-TrCP dependency of HIV-1 Vpu-induced downregulation of CD4 and BST-2/tetherin. Curr HIV Res. 2012;10:307-14 pubmed
    ..These effects rely mainly on the ability of Vpu to target the host proteins CD4 and BST-2/tetherin. Indeed, Vpu downregulates the cell surface expression of these receptors and subsequently induces their ..
  34. Tokarev A, Munguia J, Guatelli J. Serine-threonine ubiquitination mediates downregulation of BST-2/tetherin and relief of restricted virion release by HIV-1 Vpu. J Virol. 2011;85:51-63 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts the antiviral activity of the innate restriction factor BST-2/tetherin by a mechanism that partly depends on its interaction with ?-TrCP, a substrate adaptor for an SCF (Skp-Cullin 1-F box) E3 ubiquitin ..
  35. Kirchhoff F. Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:55-67 pubmed publisher
  36. Iwabu Y, Fujita H, Tanaka Y, Sata T, Tokunaga K. Direct internalization of cell-surface BST-2/tetherin by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu. Commun Integr Biol. 2010;3:366-9 pubmed
    The host transmembrane protein BST-2/tetherin is a powerful antiviral factor that blocks the production of enveloped viruses...
  37. Lim E, Malik H, Emerman M. Ancient adaptive evolution of tetherin shaped the functions of Vpu and Nef in human immunodeficiency virus and primate lentiviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:7124-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin/BST-2 is a host-encoded protein that restricts a wide diversity of viruses at the stage of virion release. However, viruses have evolved antagonists of Tetherin, including the Vpu and Nef proteins of primate lentiviruses...
  38. Kuhl B, Cheng V, Wainberg M, Liang C. Tetherin and its viral antagonists. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:188-201 pubmed publisher
    ..number of well-characterized interferon-inducible antiviral factors such as RNaseL/OAS, ISG15, Mx, PKR, and ADAR, tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1...
  39. Dubé M, Roy B, Guiot Guillain P, Mercier J, Binette J, Leung G, et al. Suppression of Tetherin-restricting activity upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle release correlates with localization of Vpu in the trans-Golgi network. J Virol. 2009;83:4574-90 pubmed publisher
    Vpu promotes the efficient release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by overcoming the activity of tetherin, a host cell restriction factor that retains assembled virions at the cell surface...
  40. Miyakawa K, Ryo A, Murakami T, Ohba K, Yamaoka S, Fukuda M, et al. BCA2/Rabring7 promotes tetherin-dependent HIV-1 restriction. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000700 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent reports have identified a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein, tetherin/CD317/BST-2, as a crucial host restriction factor that acts during a late budding step in HIV-1 replication by ..
  41. Le Tortorec A, Willey S, Neil S. Antiviral inhibition of enveloped virus release by tetherin/BST-2: action and counteraction. Viruses. 2011;3:520-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (BST2/CD317) has been recently recognized as a potent interferon-induced antiviral molecule that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped virus particles from infected cells...
  42. McNatt M, Zang T, Bieniasz P. Vpu binds directly to tetherin and displaces it from nascent virions. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003299 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (Bst2/CD317/HM1.24) is an interferon-induced antiviral host protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses by tethering virions to the cell surface...
  43. Zhang F, Wilson S, Landford W, Virgen B, Gregory D, Johnson M, et al. Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency viruses are tetherin antagonists. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:54-67 pubmed publisher
    The tetherin/BST2/CD317 protein blocks the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by inducing tethering of nascent particles to infected cell surfaces...
  44. Neil S, Zang T, Bieniasz P. Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Nature. 2008;451:425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..24), a membrane protein of previously unknown function, as a tetherin. Specifically, CD317 expression correlated with, and induced, a requirement for Vpu during HIV-1 and murine ..
  45. Mitchell R, Katsura C, Skasko M, Fitzpatrick K, Lau D, Ruiz A, et al. Vpu antagonizes BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release via beta-TrCP and endo-lysosomal trafficking. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000450 pubmed publisher
    The interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2/CD317 (tetherin) restricts the release of diverse enveloped viruses from infected cells...
  46. Neil S, Bieniasz P. Human immunodeficiency virus, restriction factors, and interferon. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such knowledge could allow for novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the development of animal models of human disease. ..
  47. Jolly C, Booth N, Neil S. Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells. J Virol. 2010;84:12185-99 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetherin (BST-2/CD317) is an interferon-induced, antiretroviral restriction factor that inhibits nascent cell-free ..
  48. Vidal Laliena M, Romero X, March S, Requena V, Petriz J, Engel P. Characterization of antibodies submitted to the B cell section of the 8th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshop by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cell Immunol. 2005;236:6-16 pubmed
    ..Our results have permitted us to characterize the expression of 10 new CD molecules: CD316 (HM1.24, BST2), CD268 (BAFF-R, TNFRSF13C), CD269 (BCMA, TNFRF17), CD267 (TACI, TNFRSF13B), CD275 (ICOSL, B7H2), CD254 (TRANCE, ..
  49. Sakuma T, Sakurai A, Yasuda J. Dimerization of tetherin is not essential for its antiviral activity against Lassa and Marburg viruses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6934 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24) has recently been reported to inhibit a wide range of viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of action of tetherin has not been determined...
  50. Sauter D, Specht A, Kirchhoff F. Tetherin: holding on and letting go. Cell. 2010;141:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This Essay discusses the host restriction factor tetherin, which blocks the release of enveloped viruses like HIV-1, and the factors evolved by primate lentiviruses, such ..
  51. Yang S, Lopez L, Hauser H, Exline C, Haworth K, Cannon P. Anti-tetherin activities in Vpu-expressing primate lentiviruses. Retrovirology. 2010;7:13 pubmed publisher
    The anti-viral activity of the cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin, was first observed as an ability to block the release of Vpu-minus HIV-1 from the surface of infected cells...
  52. Ruiz A, Lau D, Mitchell R, Hill M, Schmitt K, Guatelli J, et al. BST-2 mediated restriction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 2010;406:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner...
  53. Schubert H, Zhai Q, Sandrin V, Eckert D, Garcia Maya M, Saul L, et al. Structural and functional studies on the extracellular domain of BST2/tetherin in reduced and oxidized conformations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17951-6 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses can be restricted by a host cellular protein called BST2/tetherin that prevents release of budded viruses from the cell surface...
  54. Lau D, Kwan W, Guatelli J. Role of the endocytic pathway in the counteraction of BST-2 by human lentiviral pathogens. J Virol. 2011;85:9834-46 pubmed publisher
    The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317, tetherin) restricts the release of several enveloped viruses from infected cells. BST-2 is broadly active against retroviruses, including HIV-1 and HIV-2...
  55. Fritz J, Tibroni N, Keppler O, Fackler O. HIV-1 Vpu's lipid raft association is dispensable for counteraction of the particle release restriction imposed by CD317/Tetherin. Virology. 2012;424:33-44 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the block to particle release mediated by CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/Tetherin) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Vpu and CD317 partially reside in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts where HIV-1 budding preferentially occurs...
  56. Yin X, Hu Z, Gu Q, Wu X, Zheng Y, Wei P, et al. Equine tetherin blocks retrovirus release and its activity is antagonized by equine infectious anemia virus envelope protein. J Virol. 2014;88:1259-70 pubmed publisher
    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release...
  57. Mangeat B, Gers Huber G, Lehmann M, Zufferey M, Luban J, Piguet V. HIV-1 Vpu neutralizes the antiviral factor Tetherin/BST-2 by binding it and directing its beta-TrCP2-dependent degradation. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000574 pubmed publisher
    Host cells impose a broad range of obstacles to the replication of retroviruses. Tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) impedes viral release by retaining newly budded HIV-1 virions on the surface of cells...
  58. Yoo H, Park S, Ye S, Kim M. IFN-?-induced BST2 mediates monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells. Cell Immunol. 2011;267:23-9 pubmed publisher
    b>BST2 is a type II transmembrane protein that had been initially identified as a surface molecule expressed on terminally differentiated B cells. Here, we characterize the expression of BST2 in human endothelial cells, HUVECs...
  59. Xu F, Tan J, Liu R, Xu D, Li Y, Geng Y, et al. Tetherin inhibits prototypic foamy virus release. Virol J. 2011;8:198 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (also known as BST-2, CD317, and HM1.24) is an interferon- induced protein that blocks the release of a variety of enveloped viruses, such as retroviruses, filoviruses and herpesviruses...
  60. Bego M, Mercier J, Cohen E. Virus-activated interferon regulatory factor 7 upregulates expression of the interferon-regulated BST2 gene independently of interferon signaling. J Virol. 2012;86:3513-27 pubmed publisher
    BST-2/tetherin is an interferon (IFN)-inducible host restriction factor that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses and functions as a negative-feedback regulator of IFN production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells...
  61. Moffat J, Segura E, Khoury G, Caminschi I, Cameron P, Lewin S, et al. Targeting antigen to bone marrow stromal cell-2 expressed by conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells elicits efficient antigen presentation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, BST-2 is a useful receptor to target with antigen, given its broad expression pattern and ability to access both MHCI and MHCII presentation pathways with relative efficiency. ..
  62. Pham T, Lukhele S, Hajjar F, Routy J, Cohen E. HIV Nef and Vpu protect HIV-infected CD4+ T cells from antibody-mediated cell lysis through down-modulation of CD4 and BST2. Retrovirology. 2014;11:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the CD4 receptor is down-regulated by Nef and Vpu, whereas virion-tethering BST2 is depleted by Vpu...
  63. Rollason R, Dunstan K, Billcliff P, Bishop P, Gleeson P, Wise H, et al. Expression of HIV-1 Vpu leads to loss of the viral restriction factor CD317/Tetherin from lipid rafts and its enhanced lysosomal degradation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75680 pubmed publisher
    CD317/tetherin (aka BST2 or HM1.24 antigen) is an interferon inducible membrane protein present in regions of the lipid bilayer enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol (often termed lipid rafts)...
  64. Dubé M, Bego M, Paquay C, Cohen E. Modulation of HIV-1-host interaction: role of the Vpu accessory protein. Retrovirology. 2010;7:114 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, it enhances the release of progeny virions from infected cells by antagonizing Tetherin, an interferon (IFN)-regulated host restriction factor that directly cross-links virions on host cell-surface...
  65. Serra Moreno R, Jia B, Breed M, Alvarez X, Evans D. Compensatory changes in the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 confer resistance to tetherin/BST-2 in a pathogenic nef-deleted SIV. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:46-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (BST-2 or CD317) is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein that inhibits virus release from infected cells...
  66. Lv M, Wang J, Zhu Y, Wang X, Zuo T, Liu D, et al. Overexpression of inactive tetherin delGPI mutant inhibits HIV-1 Vpu-mediated antagonism of endogenous tetherin. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:37-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 inhibits HIV-1 release from infected cells, but the viral Vpu protein efficiently antagonizes this antiviral activity through direct interaction between the transmembrane (TM) domains of each protein...
  67. Weinelt J, Neil S. Differential sensitivities of tetherin isoforms to counteraction by primate lentiviruses. J Virol. 2014;88:5845-58 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian antiviral membrane protein tetherin (BST2/CD317) can be expressed as two isoforms derived from differential translational initiation...
  68. Sakuma T, Noda T, Urata S, Kawaoka Y, Yasuda J. Inhibition of Lassa and Marburg virus production by tetherin. J Virol. 2009;83:2382-5 pubmed publisher
    Recently, tetherin has been identified as an effective cellular factor that prevents the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  69. Coleman C, Spearman P, Wu L. Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef. Retrovirology. 2011;8:26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetherin is a type I IFN-inducible restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 release and modulates CD4+ T cell-mediated cell-to-..
  70. Cocka L, Bates P. Identification of alternatively translated Tetherin isoforms with differing antiviral and signaling activities. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002931 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an IFN induced transmembrane protein that restricts release of a broad range of enveloped viruses. Important features required for Tetherin activity and regulation reside within the cytoplasmic domain...
  71. Jouvenet N, Neil S, Zhadina M, Zang T, Kratovac Z, Lee Y, et al. Broad-spectrum inhibition of retroviral and filoviral particle release by tetherin. J Virol. 2009;83:1837-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A recently identified IFN-induced antiretroviral protein, termed tetherin (previously known as BST-2 or CD317), blocks the release of nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ..
  72. Lucas T, Janaka S, Stephens E, Johnson M. Vpu downmodulates two distinct targets, tetherin and gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope, through shared features in the Vpu cytoplasmic tail. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51741 pubmed publisher
    During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor) and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein) both reduce viral fitness...
  73. Grover J, Llewellyn G, Soheilian F, Nagashima K, Veatch S, Ono A. Roles played by capsid-dependent induction of membrane curvature and Gag-ESCRT interactions in tetherin recruitment to HIV-1 assembly sites. J Virol. 2013;87:4650-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin/BST-2 (here called tetherin) is an antiviral protein that restricts release of diverse enveloped viruses from infected cells through physically tethering virus envelope and host plasma membrane...
  74. Lopez L, Yang S, Exline C, Rengarajan S, Haworth K, Cannon P. Anti-tetherin activities of HIV-1 Vpu and Ebola virus glycoprotein do not involve removal of tetherin from lipid rafts. J Virol. 2012;86:5467-80 pubmed publisher
    BST-2/tetherin is an interferon-inducible host restriction factor that blocks the release of newly formed enveloped viruses...
  75. Bolduan S, Hubel P, Reif T, Lodermeyer V, Höhne K, Fritz J, et al. HIV-1 Vpu affects the anterograde transport and the glycosylation pattern of NTB-A. Virology. 2013;440:190-203 pubmed publisher
    ..the glycosylation pattern of NTB-A by a mechanism that is distinct from the Vpu induced downregulation of CD4 and tetherin. In the presence of Vpu, only the high mannose form of NTB-A was detectable, suggesting that Vpu prevented the ..
  76. Yang S, Lopez L, Exline C, Haworth K, Cannon P. Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 group O and P. Retrovirology. 2011;8:78 pubmed publisher
    ..it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin...
  77. Pillai S, Abdel Mohsen M, Guatelli J, Skasko M, Monto A, Fujimoto K, et al. Role of retroviral restriction factors in the interferon-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3035-40 pubmed publisher
    ..B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin/CD317) retroviral restriction factors underlies the IFN-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1 replication in vitro...
  78. Verma S, Ronsard L, Kapoor R, Banerjea A. Genetic characterization of natural variants of Vpu from HIV-1 infected individuals from Northern India and their impact on virus release and cell death. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59283 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two major groups and an extremely rare ?-TrcP binding motif mutant that show widely varying biological activities with potential implications for conferring subtype-specific pathogenesis. ..
  79. Elortza F, Mohammed S, Bunkenborg J, Foster L, Nühse T, Brodbeck U, et al. Modification-specific proteomics of plasma membrane proteins: identification and characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins released upon phospholipase D treatment. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:935-43 pubmed
  80. Arias J, Iwabu Y, Tokunaga K. Structural Basis for the Antiviral Activity of BST-2/Tetherin and Its Viral Antagonism. Front Microbiol. 2011;2:250 pubmed publisher
    The interferon-inducible host restriction factor bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin) blocks the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses...
  81. Douglas J, Bai Y, Gustin J, Moses A. A comparative mutational analysis of HIV-1 Vpu subtypes B and C for the identification of determinants required to counteract BST-2/Tetherin and enhance viral egress. Virology. 2013;441:182-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, determinants in the C-terminus of Vpu B that may be involved in efficient TGN accumulation were also necessary for enhanced viral egress but are missing or non-functional in Vpu C. ..
  82. Blanchet F, Stalder R, Czubala M, Lehmann M, Rio L, Mangeat B, et al. TLR-4 engagement of dendritic cells confers a BST-2/tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells across the virological synapse. Retrovirology. 2013;10:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The cellular restriction factor BST-2/tetherin (also known as CD317 or HM1...
  83. Iwabu Y, Fujita H, Kinomoto M, Kaneko K, Ishizaka Y, Tanaka Y, et al. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35060-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin) is a recently identified interferon-inducible host restriction factor that can block the production of enveloped viruses by trapping virus particles at the cell surface...
  84. Lv M, Zhu Y, Wang J, Zhang H, Wang X, Zuo T, et al. Purification of eukaryotic tetherin/Vpu proteins and detection of their interaction by ELISA. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;91:112-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 inhibits HIV-1 release from infected cells, while HIV-1 Vpu efficiently antagonizes tetherin based on intermolecular interactions between the transmembrane domains of each protein...
  85. Tokarev A, Skasko M, Fitzpatrick K, Guatelli J. Antiviral activity of the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/tetherin. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..study of HIV-1 Vpu recently led to the discovery of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317; tetherin) as a novel component of the innate defense against enveloped viruses...
  86. Radoshitzky S, Dong L, Chi X, Clester J, Retterer C, Spurgers K, et al. Infectious Lassa virus, but not filoviruses, is restricted by BST-2/tetherin. J Virol. 2010;84:10569-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin) is a cellular membrane protein that inhibits the release of HIV-1...
  87. Tavano B, Galao R, Graham D, Neil S, Aquino V, Fuchs D, et al. Ig-like transcript 7, but not bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (also known as HM1.24, tetherin, or CD317), modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in primary human blood leukocytes. J Immunol. 2013;190:2622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The bone marrow stromal cell Ag 2 (BST2, aka HM1.24, tetherin, or CD317) is expressed by different cell types upon exposure to IFN-I and is a natural ligand for ILT7...
  88. Janvier K, Pelchen Matthews A, Renaud J, Caillet M, Marsh M, Berlioz Torrent C. The ESCRT-0 component HRS is required for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST-2/tetherin down-regulation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001265 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show an additional role for the ESCRT machinery in HIV-1 release. BST-2/tetherin is a restriction factor that impedes HIV release by tethering mature virus particles to the plasma membrane...
  89. Dafa Berger A, Kuzmina A, Fassler M, Yitzhak Asraf H, Shemer Avni Y, Taube R. Modulation of hepatitis C virus release by the interferon-induced protein BST-2/tetherin. Virology. 2012;428:98-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, the effects of Tetherin/BST-2 on HCV release were investigated. In Huh-7.5 hepatocytes, low expression levels of BST-2 were detected...
  90. Giese S, Marsh M. Tetherin can restrict cell-free and cell-cell transmission of HIV from primary macrophages to T cells. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004189 pubmed publisher
    Bst-2/Tetherin inhibits the release of HIV by tethering newly formed virus particles to the plasma membrane of infected cells...
  91. Van Damme N, Goff D, Katsura C, Jorgenson R, Mitchell R, Johnson M, et al. The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the interferon-induced cellular protein BST-2/HM1.24/CD317 is such a factor...