BRG1

Summary

Gene Symbol: BRG1
Description: SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4
Alias: BAF190, BAF190A, BRG1, CSS4, MRD16, RTPS2, SNF2, SNF2L4, SNF2LB, SWI2, hSNF2b, transcription activator BRG1, ATP-dependent helicase SMARCA4, BRG1-associated factor 190A, BRM/SWI2-related gene 1, SNF2-beta, SNF2-like 4, brahma protein-like 1, global transcription activator homologous sequence, homeotic gene regulator, mitotic growth and transcription activator, nuclear protein GRB1, protein BRG-1, protein brahma homolog 1, sucrose nonfermenting-like 4
Species: human
Products:     BRG1

Top Publications

  1. Chiba H, Muramatsu M, Nomoto A, Kato H. Two human homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SWI2/SNF2 and Drosophila brahma are transcriptional coactivators cooperating with the estrogen receptor and the retinoic acid receptor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:1815-20 pubmed
    A set of genes (SWI1, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5 and SNF6) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are required for transcription of a variety of yeast genes...
  2. Strobeck M, Reisman D, Gunawardena R, Betz B, Angus S, Knudsen K, et al. Compensation of BRG-1 function by Brm: insight into the role of the core SWI-SNF subunits in retinoblastoma tumor suppressor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4782-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that Brm can compensate for BRG-1 loss as pertains to RB sensitivity. ..
  3. Bajpai R, Chen D, Rada Iglesias A, Zhang J, Xiong Y, Helms J, et al. CHD7 cooperates with PBAF to control multipotent neural crest formation. Nature. 2010;463:958-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In human NC cells CHD7 associates with PBAF (polybromo- and BRG1-associated factor-containing complex) and both remodellers occupy a NC-specific distal SOX9 enhancer and a ..
  4. Reisman D, Sciarrotta J, Wang W, Funkhouser W, Weissman B. Loss of BRG1/BRM in human lung cancer cell lines and primary lung cancers: correlation with poor prognosis. Cancer Res. 2003;63:560-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, Western blot data have shown that the SWI/SNF ATPase subunits cell, BRG1 and BRM (BRG1/BRM), are lost in approximately 30% of human non-small lung cancer cell lines...
  5. Cohen S, Chastain P, Rosson G, Groh B, Weissman B, Kaufman D, et al. BRG1 co-localizes with DNA replication factors and is required for efficient replication fork progression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:6906-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the BRG1 catalytic subunit of mammalian SWI/SNF-related complexes co-localizes with origin recognition complexes, GINS ..
  6. Muchardt C, Sardet C, Bourachot B, Onufryk C, Yaniv M. A human protein with homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF5 interacts with the potential helicase hbrm. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:1127-32 pubmed
    ..Recently, two human homologues of the SNF2/SWI2 protein have been isolated, hbrm and BRG-1...
  7. Cohet N, Stewart K, Mudhasani R, Asirvatham A, Mallappa C, Imbalzano K, et al. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme ATPases promote cell proliferation in normal mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:667-78 pubmed publisher
    The ATPase subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes, Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), can induce cell cycle arrest in BRM and BRG1 deficient tumor cell lines, and mice heterozygous for Brg1 are pre-disposed to ..
  8. Fan H, Trotter K, Archer T, Kingston R. Swapping function of two chromatin remodeling complexes. Mol Cell. 2005;17:805-15 pubmed
    ..By creating and characterizing chimeric proteins of BRG1 and SNF2h, the motor proteins of human SWI/SNF- and ISWI-based complexes, respectively, we found that a region that ..
  9. Mahmoudi T, Parra M, Vries R, Kauder S, Verrijzer C, Ott M, et al. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex is a cofactor for Tat transactivation of the HIV promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19960-8 pubmed
    ..This synergism depended on the acetyltransferase activity of p300 and on Tat Lys(50) and Lys(51). In conclusion, Tat-mediated activation of the HIV promoter requires the SWI/SNF complex in synergy with the coactivator p300. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Rao M, Casimiro M, Lisanti M, D Amico M, Wang C, Shirley L, et al. Inhibition of cyclin D1 gene transcription by Brg-1. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:647-55 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest the endogenous cyclin D1 promoter BRG-1 binding site functions as a molecular scaffold in the context of local chromatin upon which coactivators and corepressors are recruited to regulate cyclin D1. ..
  2. Wang S, Zhang B, Faller D. Prohibitin requires Brg-1 and Brm for the repression of E2F and cell growth. EMBO J. 2002;21:3019-28 pubmed
  3. Becker T, Haferkamp S, Dijkstra M, Scurr L, Frausto M, Diefenbach E, et al. The chromatin remodelling factor BRG1 is a novel binding partner of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:4 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report that p16INK4a interacts with the chromatin remodelling factor BRG1. We investigated the cooperative roles of p16INK4a and BRG1 using a panel of cell lines and a melanoma cell model ..
  4. Lemon B, Inouye C, King D, Tjian R. Selectivity of chromatin-remodelling cofactors for ligand-activated transcription. Nature. 2001;414:924-8 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate functional selectivity amongst highly related complexes involved in gene regulation and help define a more complete set of factors and cofactors required to activate transcription. ..
  5. Kaeser M, Aslanian A, Dong M, Yates J, Emerson B. BRD7, a novel PBAF-specific SWI/SNF subunit, is required for target gene activation and repression in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified BRD7 as a novel component of the Polybromo-associated BRG1-associated factor (PBAF) complex in both ESCs and differentiated cells...
  6. Sif S, Stukenberg P, Kirschner M, Kingston R. Mitotic inactivation of a human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2842-51 pubmed
    ..b>Brg1 and hBrm, which are components of human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) complexes, were recently shown to be phosphorylated ..
  7. Xue Y, Canman J, Lee C, Nie Z, Yang D, Moreno G, et al. The human SWI/SNF-B chromatin-remodeling complex is related to yeast rsc and localizes at kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13015-20 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that SWI/SNF-B and Rsc represent a novel subfamily of chromatin-remodeling complexes conserved from yeast to human, and could participate in cell division at kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes. ..
  8. Kadam S, Emerson B. Transcriptional specificity of human SWI/SNF BRG1 and BRM chromatin remodeling complexes. Mol Cell. 2003;11:377-89 pubmed
    ..Each complex contains one of two highly homologous ATPases, BRG1 and BRM, yet little is known about their specialized functions...
  9. Naidu S, Love I, Imbalzano A, Grossman S, Androphy E. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling subunit BRG1 is a critical regulator of p53 necessary for proliferation of malignant cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:2492-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian SWI/SNF remodeling complexes incorporate either the Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) or Brahma (Brm) as the ATPase subunit...
  10. Easley R, Carpio L, Dannenberg L, Choi S, Alani D, Van Duyne R, et al. Transcription through the HIV-1 nucleosomes: effects of the PBAF complex in Tat activated transcription. Virology. 2010;405:322-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the BAF complex may play an important role in regulating splicing of the HIV-1 genome. ..
  11. Serber D, Rogala A, Makarem M, Rosson G, Simin K, Godfrey V, et al. The BRG1 chromatin remodeler protects against ovarian cysts, uterine tumors, and mammary tumors in a lineage-specific manner. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31346 pubmed publisher
    The BRG1 catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF-related complexes is required for mammalian development as exemplified by the early embryonic lethality of Brg1 null homozygous mice...
  12. Hsiao P, Fryer C, Trotter K, Wang W, Archer T. BAF60a mediates critical interactions between nuclear receptors and the BRG1 chromatin-remodeling complex for transactivation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6210-20 pubmed
    ..domain, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is able to interact with both nuclear receptor coactivators and the BRG1 chromatin-remodeling complex in vivo...
  13. Henderson A, Holloway A, Reeves R, Tremethick D. Recruitment of SWI/SNF to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:389-97 pubmed
    ..By adding BRG-1 back into a BRG-1-deficient cell line (C33A cells), we demonstrate that trichostatin A strongly induces the 5'-LTR-driven reporter transcription in a manner that is dependent upon BRG-1 recruitment. ..
  14. Park J, Park E, Lee H, Kim S, Hur S, Imbalzano A, et al. Mammalian SWI/SNF complexes facilitate DNA double-strand break repair by promoting gamma-H2AX induction. EMBO J. 2006;25:3986-97 pubmed
    ..Given the crucial role for gamma-H2AX in efficient DSB repair, these results suggest that the SWI/SNF complexes facilitate DSB repair, at least in part, by promoting H2AX phosphorylation by directly acting on chromatin. ..
  15. Sun A, Tawfik O, Gayed B, Thrasher J, Hoestje S, Li C, et al. Aberrant expression of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits BRG1/BRM is associated with tumor development and increased invasiveness in prostate cancers. Prostate. 2007;67:203-13 pubmed
    Brahma gene (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) are major components with ATPase enzymatic activities in the nucleosome remodeling SWI/SNF complex, and their expression pattern in human prostate cancers is unknown...
  16. Flowers S, Nagl N, Beck G, Moran E. Antagonistic roles for BRM and BRG1 SWI/SNF complexes in differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10067-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The catalytic core of the complex can be either of two closely related ATPases, BRM or BRG1, with the potential that the choice of alternative subunits is a key determinant of specificity...
  17. Zhou J, Zhang M, Fang H, El Mounayri O, Rodenberg J, Imbalzano A, et al. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates myocardin-induced smooth muscle-specific gene expression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:921-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that both Brg1 and Brm are required for maintaining expression of several smooth muscle-specific genes in primary cultures of ..
  18. Bartlett C, Orvis T, Rosson G, Weissman B. BRG1 mutations found in human cancer cell lines inactivate Rb-mediated cell-cycle arrest. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies showing mutations of BRG1, one of two mutually exclusive ATPase subunits, in human tumor cell lines and primary tissue samples have ..
  19. Maida Y, Yasukawa M, Okamoto N, Ohka S, Kinoshita K, Totoki Y, et al. Involvement of telomerase reverse transcriptase in heterochromatin maintenance. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1576-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a complex composed of human TERT (hTERT), Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), and nucleostemin (NS) that contributes to heterochromatin maintenance at centromeres and transposons...
  20. Neish A, Anderson S, Schlegel B, Wei W, Parvin J. Factors associated with the mammalian RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:847-53 pubmed
    ..p300 protein, is shown in these experiments to be associated with the holoenzyme complex as well as the BRG1 subunit of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex...
  21. Barker N, Hurlstone A, Musisi H, Miles A, Bienz M, Clevers H. The chromatin remodelling factor Brg-1 interacts with beta-catenin to promote target gene activation. EMBO J. 2001;20:4935-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that beta-catenin recruits Brg-1 to Tcf target gene promoters, facilitating chromatin remodelling as a prerequisite for transcriptional activation. ..
  22. Subtil Rodríguez A, Reyes J. BRG1 helps RNA polymerase II to overcome a nucleosomal barrier during elongation, in vivo. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:751-7 pubmed publisher
    ..By using this system, we show that BRG1, the enzymatic motor of the SWI-SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, is recruited to the positioned nucleosome in a ..
  23. Wang W, Xue Y, Zhou S, Kuo A, Cairns B, Crabtree G. Diversity and specialization of mammalian SWI/SNF complexes. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2117-30 pubmed
    ..The observed similarity between mammalian BAF190, BAF170, BAF155, BAF60, and BAF47 and yeast SNF2/SWI2, SWI3, SWI3, SWP73, and SNF5, respectively, underscores the ..
  24. Muchardt C, Reyes J, Bourachot B, Leguoy E, Yaniv M. The hbrm and BRG-1 proteins, components of the human SNF/SWI complex, are phosphorylated and excluded from the condensed chromosomes during mitosis. EMBO J. 1996;15:3394-402 pubmed
    ..time, three human homologues of yeast SNF/SWI proteins have been characterized: hbrm and BRG-1, homologues of SNF2/SWI2, and hSNF5, a homologue of SNF5...
  25. Wang F, Zhang R, Beischlag T, Muchardt C, Yaniv M, Hankinson O. Roles of Brahma and Brahma/SWI2-related gene 1 in hypoxic induction of the erythropoietin gene. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46733-41 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that Brahma (Brm) and Brahma/SWI2-related gene 1 (Brg-1), alternative ATPase subunits of SWI/SNF, potentiate reporter gene activation mediated by HIF-..
  26. Medina P, Romero O, Kohno T, Montuenga L, Pio R, Yokota J, et al. Frequent BRG1/SMARCA4-inactivating mutations in human lung cancer cell lines. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:617-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we screened for mutations the entire coding sequence of BRG1 (SMARCA4), which encodes the ATPase of the complex, in 59 lung cancer cell lines of the most common ..
  27. Dunaief J, Strober B, Guha S, Khavari P, Alin K, Luban J, et al. The retinoblastoma protein and BRG1 form a complex and cooperate to induce cell cycle arrest. Cell. 1994;79:119-30 pubmed
    ..Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that RB bound specifically to the protein BRG1. BRG1 shares extensive sequence similarity to Drosophila brahma, an activator of homeotic gene expression, and the ..
  28. Lechner M, Schultz D, Negorev D, Maul G, Rauscher F. The mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 binds diverse nuclear proteins through a common motif that targets the chromoshadow domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:929-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, this spectrum of direct binding partners suggests an expanded role for HP1 as factor participating in promoter-enhancer communication, chromatin remodeling/assembly, and sub-nuclear compartmentalization. ..
  29. Zhang H, Gavin M, Dahiya A, Postigo A, Ma D, Luo R, et al. Exit from G1 and S phase of the cell cycle is regulated by repressor complexes containing HDAC-Rb-hSWI/SNF and Rb-hSWI/SNF. Cell. 2000;101:79-89 pubmed
    ..HDAC-Rb-hSWI/SNF and Rb-hSWI/SNF then appear to maintain the order of cyclin E and A expression during the cell cycle, which in turn regulates exit from G1 and from S phase, respectively. ..
  30. Peterson C. Chromatin remodeling: nucleosomes bulging at the seams. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R245-7 pubmed
    ..Recent mechanistic studies suggest that these enzymes generate localized changes in DNA topology that drive formation of multiple, remodeled nucleosomal states. ..
  31. Hill D, de la Serna I, Veal T, Imbalzano A. BRCA1 interacts with dominant negative SWI/SNF enzymes without affecting homologous recombination or radiation-induced gene activation of p21 or Mdm2. J Cell Biochem. 2004;91:987-98 pubmed
    ..Prior reports have demonstrated that BRCA1 can exist in cells in a complex with the BRG1-based SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes and that SWI/SNF components contribute to p53-mediated ..
  32. Hsu C, Lee Y, Yeh S, Chen C, Wu C, Wang T, et al. 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is novel Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1)-associated protein that modulates p53/p21 senescence pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22533-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, MSP58, p53, and the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling subunit Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) form a ternary complex on the p21 promoter and collaborate to activate p21...
  33. Shanahan F, Seghezzi W, Parry D, Mahony D, Lees E. Cyclin E associates with BAF155 and BRG1, components of the mammalian SWI-SNF complex, and alters the ability of BRG1 to induce growth arrest. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:1460-9 pubmed
    ..b>BRG1 and BAF155, mammalian homologs of yeast SWI2 and SWI3, respectively, are found in cyclin E complexes and are ..
  34. Keenen B, Qi H, Saladi S, Yeung M, de la Serna I. Heterogeneous SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes promote expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor target genes in melanoma. Oncogene. 2010;29:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes are multiprotein complexes composed of one of two related ATPases, BRG1 or BRM, and 9-12-associated factors (BAFs)...
  35. Shen W, Xu C, Huang W, Zhang J, Carlson J, Tu X, et al. Solution structure of human Brg1 bromodomain and its specific binding to acetylated histone tails. Biochemistry. 2007;46:2100-10 pubmed
    Human brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) is a core protein in human SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex which regulates gene expression...
  36. Zhao Q, Wang Q, Ray A, Wani G, Han C, Milum K, et al. Modulation of nucleotide excision repair by mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that knockdown of Brg1, the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, negatively affects the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), but not ..
  37. Bai J, Mei P, Liu H, Li C, Li W, Wu Y, et al. BRG1 expression is increased in human glioma and controls glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:991-8 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of our study were to elucidate the role of BRG1 in the development of human glioma and to determine the effect of BRG1 on glioma cell growth, migration and invasion...
  38. Fryer C, Archer T. Chromatin remodelling by the glucocorticoid receptor requires the BRG1 complex. Nature. 1998;393:88-91 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that it may be possible to separate the transcriptional activation and chromatin remodelling activities of proteins that interact with hormone receptors. ..
  39. Liu H, Kang H, Liu R, Chen X, Zhao K. Maximal induction of a subset of interferon target genes requires the chromatin-remodeling activity of the BAF complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6471-9 pubmed
    ..Our results bring new mechanistic insights into the antiproliferative effects of the chromatin-remodeling BAF complex. ..
  40. Xu Y, Zhang J, Chen X. The activity of p53 is differentially regulated by Brm- and Brg1-containing SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37429-35 pubmed
    Brahma (Brm) and Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) ATPases share similarities in structure and function, but their presence in human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes is mutually exclusive...
  41. DiRenzo J, Shang Y, Phelan M, Sif S, Myers M, Kingston R, et al. BRG-1 is recruited to estrogen-responsive promoters and cooperates with factors involved in histone acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7541-9 pubmed
  42. Kadam S, McAlpine G, Phelan M, Kingston R, Jones K, Emerson B. Functional selectivity of recombinant mammalian SWI/SNF subunits. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2441-51 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we find that two SWI/SNF subunits (BRG1 and BAF155) are necessary and sufficient for targeted chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation by EKLF ..
  43. Strobeck M, DeCristofaro M, Banine F, Weissman B, Sherman L, Knudsen E. The BRG-1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex regulates CD44 expression. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9273-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that BRG-1 is a critical regulator of CD44 expression, thus implicating SWI/SNF components in the regulation of cellular adhesion and metastasis. ..
  44. Yamamichi Nishina M, Ito T, Mizutani T, Yamamichi N, Watanabe H, Iba H. SW13 cells can transition between two distinct subtypes by switching expression of BRG1 and Brm genes at the post-transcriptional level. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7422-30 pubmed
    The human adrenal carcinoma cell line, SW13, has been reported to be deficient in both BRG1 and Brm expression and therefore is considered to lack a functional SWI/SNF complex...
  45. Liu K, Luo Y, Lin F, Lin W. TopBP1 recruits Brg1/Brm to repress E2F1-induced apoptosis, a novel pRb-independent and E2F1-specific control for cell survival. Genes Dev. 2004;18:673-86 pubmed
    ..This regulation of E2F1 transcriptional activity is mediated by a pRb-independent, but Brg1/Brm-dependent mechanism...
  46. Ma Z, Chang M, Shah R, Adamski J, Zhao X, Benveniste E. Brg-1 is required for maximal transcription of the human matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46326-34 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the connection between the SWI/SNF complex and optimal expression of MMP-2 and highlight the critical function of Brg-1 in regulating the recruitment of Sp1, Sp3, AP-2, and polymerase II to the MMP-2 promoter. ..
  47. Singh M, Popowicz G, Krajewski M, Holak T. Structural ramification for acetyl-lysine recognition by the bromodomain of human BRG1 protein, a central ATPase of the SWI/SNF remodeling complex. Chembiochem. 2007;8:1308-16 pubmed
    ..In this report, we determined the structure of the bromodomain from human brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) protein, a subunit of an ATP-dependent switching/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) remodeling complex, and have also ..
  48. Phelan M, Sif S, Narlikar G, Kingston R. Reconstitution of a core chromatin remodeling complex from SWI/SNF subunits. Mol Cell. 1999;3:247-53 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, both BRG1 and hBRM, the ATPase subunits of human SWI/SNF complexes, are capable of remodeling mono-nucleosomes and ..
  49. Ohkawa Y, Marfella C, Imbalzano A. Skeletal muscle specification by myogenin and Mef2D via the SWI/SNF ATPase Brg1. EMBO J. 2006;25:490-501 pubmed
    ..occurred at late gene loci, concomitant with loss of HDAC2, the appearance of both the Mef2D regulator and the Brg1 chromatin-remodeling enzyme, and the opening of chromatin structure...
  50. Tu Z, Zhuang X, Yao Y, Zhang R. BRG1 is required for formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci induced by oncogenic RAS or BRCA1 loss. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1819-29 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanism by which BRCA1 regulates SAHF formation and senescence is unclear. BRG1 is a chromatin-remodeling factor that interacts with BRCA1 and pRB...
  51. Wang S, Zhang B, Faller D. BRG1/BRM and prohibitin are required for growth suppression by estrogen antagonists. EMBO J. 2004;23:2293-303 pubmed
    ..We show that an E2F repressor, prohibitin, and the chromatin modifiers Brg1/Brm are required for estrogen antagonist-mediated growth suppression through the estrogen receptor, and that their ..
  52. Ni Z, Abou El Hassan M, Xu Z, Yu T, Bremner R. The chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1 coordinates CIITA induction through many interdependent distal enhancers. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:785-93 pubmed publisher
    The chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1 is critical for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-mediated gene induction. Promoter-proximal elements are sufficient to mediate BRG1 dependency at some IFN-gamma targets...
  53. McKeown P, Merlini P, Berzuini C, Bernardinelli L, Peyvandi F, Tubaro M, et al. Genome-wide association of early-onset myocardial infarction with single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants. Nat Genet. 2009;41:334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs at nine loci were reproducibly associated with myocardial infarction, but tests of common and rare CNVs failed to identify additional associations with myocardial infarction risk. ..
  54. Easley R, Van Duyne R, Coley W, Guendel I, Dadgar S, Kehn Hall K, et al. Chromatin dynamics associated with HIV-1 Tat-activated transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we cover recent literature on viral microRNAs which have been shown to alter chromatin structure by inducing methylation or even by remodeling nucleosomes. ..
  55. Tsurusaki Y, Okamoto N, Ohashi H, Kosho T, Imai Y, Hibi Ko Y, et al. Mutations affecting components of the SWI/SNF complex cause Coffin-Siris syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012;44:376-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty affected individuals (87%) each had a germline mutation in one of six SWI/SNF subunit genes, including SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, SMARCE1, ARID1A and ARID1B...
  56. Huang M, Qian F, Hu Y, Ang C, Li Z, Wen Z. Chromatin-remodelling factor BRG1 selectively activates a subset of interferon-alpha-inducible genes. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:774-81 pubmed
    Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1 ) is a key component of the ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling SWI2-SNF2 complex and has been implicated in regulating gene expression, cell-cycle control and tumorigenesis...
  57. de la Serna I, Ohkawa Y, Berkes C, Bergstrom D, Dacwag C, Tapscott S, et al. MyoD targets chromatin remodeling complexes to the myogenin locus prior to forming a stable DNA-bound complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3997-4009 pubmed
    ..Microarray analysis performed in the presence or absence of a dominant-negative BRG1 ATPase demonstrated that approximately one-third of MyoD-induced genes were highly dependent on SWI/SNF enzymes...
  58. Rosson G, Bartlett C, Reed W, Weissman B. BRG1 loss in MiaPaCa2 cells induces an altered cellular morphology and disruption in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205:286-94 pubmed
    b>BRG1 and Brahma are critical and mutually exclusive subunits of the multi-constituent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. These complexes play a key role in transcriptional regulation by dynamically altering chromatin architecture...
  59. Lin H, Wong R, Martinka M, Li G. BRG1 expression is increased in human cutaneous melanoma. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the catalytic subunit, BRG1, is not well defined in cancer...
  60. Bochar D, Wang L, Beniya H, Kinev A, Xue Y, Lane W, et al. BRCA1 is associated with a human SWI/SNF-related complex: linking chromatin remodeling to breast cancer. Cell. 2000;102:257-65 pubmed
    ..We show that BRCA1 can directly interact with the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex...
  61. Lee D, Kim J, Seo T, Hwang S, Choi E, Choe J. SWI/SNF complex interacts with tumor suppressor p53 and is necessary for the activation of p53-mediated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22330-7 pubmed
  62. Bultman S, Gebuhr T, Magnuson T. A Brg1 mutation that uncouples ATPase activity from chromatin remodeling reveals an essential role for SWI/SNF-related complexes in beta-globin expression and erythroid development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2849-61 pubmed
    The Brg1 catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF-related complexes has been implicated in many developmental and physiological processes, but null homozygotes die as blastocysts prior to implantation...
  63. Gong F, Fahy D, Liu H, Wang W, Smerdon M. Role of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the cellular response to UV damage. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1067-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast, SW13 cells with ectopic Brg1 expression regain active Swi/Snf and become significantly more resistant to UV radiation...
  64. Xu Y, Thuraisingam T, Marino R, Radzioch D. Recruitment of SWI/SNF complex is required for transcriptional activation of the SLC11A1 gene during macrophage differentiation of HL-60 cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12839-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation by PMA induced the binding of ATF-3 and the recruitment of two components of the SWI/SNF complex, BRG1 and ?-actin, to this element in an ATF-3-dependent manner...
  65. Wu K, Bottazzi M, de La Fuente C, Deng L, Gitlin S, Maddukuri A, et al. Protein profile of tax-associated complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:495-508 pubmed
    ..remodeling SWI/SNF complex was assessed using in vitro chromatin remodeling assays, chromatin remodeling factor BRG1 mutant cells, and RNA interference experiments...
  66. Pal S, Yun R, Datta A, Lacomis L, Erdjument Bromage H, Kumar J, et al. mSin3A/histone deacetylase 2- and PRMT5-containing Brg1 complex is involved in transcriptional repression of the Myc target gene cad. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7475-87 pubmed
    ..methyltransferase PRMT5, which is involved in cyclin E repression, can be found in association with Brg1 and hBrm-based hSWI/SNF complexes...
  67. Agbottah E, Deng L, Dannenberg L, Pumfery A, Kashanchi F. Effect of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex on HIV-1 Tat activated transcription. Retrovirology. 2006;3:48 pubmed
    ..in vitro binding as well as in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we detected the presence of both BRG1 and acetylated Tat in the same complex...
  68. Chi Y, Senyuk V, Chakraborty S, Nucifora G. EVI1 promotes cell proliferation by interacting with BRG1 and blocking the repression of BRG1 on E2F1 activity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49806-11 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that EVI1 physically interacts with BRG1 and its functional homolog BRM in mammalian cells...
  69. Zhang J, Ohta T, Maruyama A, Hosoya T, Nishikawa K, Maher J, et al. BRG1 interacts with Nrf2 to selectively mediate HO-1 induction in response to oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7942-52 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the role of BRG1, a catalytic subunit of SWI2/SNF2-like chromatin-remodeling complexes, in Nrf2-mediated gene expression...
  70. Kothandapani A, Gopalakrishnan K, Kahali B, Reisman D, Patrick S. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:1973-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells...
  71. Doan D, Veal T, Yan Z, Wang W, Jones S, Imbalzano A. Loss of the INI1 tumor suppressor does not impair the expression of multiple BRG1-dependent genes or the assembly of SWI/SNF enzymes. Oncogene. 2004;23:3462-73 pubmed
    ..component of mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes that contain SNF2 family ATPases BRM (Brahma) or BRG1 (Brahma Related Gene 1) and that contribute to the regulation of many genes...
  72. He W, Dorn D, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Moore M, Massague J. Hematopoiesis controlled by distinct TIF1gamma and Smad4 branches of the TGFbeta pathway. Cell. 2006;125:929-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, Smad2/3-TIF1gamma and Smad2/3-Smad4 function as complementary effector arms in the control of hematopoietic cell fate by the TGFbeta/Smad pathway. ..
  73. Nielsen A, Sanchez C, Ichinose H, Cerviño M, Lerouge T, Chambon P, et al. Selective interaction between the chromatin-remodeling factor BRG1 and the heterochromatin-associated protein HP1alpha. EMBO J. 2002;21:5797-806 pubmed
    ..Here, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that HP1alpha, but neither HP1beta nor HP1gamma, forms a complex with the BRG1 chromatin-remodeling factor in HeLa cells. In vitro, BRG1 interacts directly and preferentially with HP1alpha...
  74. Wang X, Nagl N, Wilsker D, Van Scoy M, Pacchione S, Yaciuk P, et al. Two related ARID family proteins are alternative subunits of human SWI/SNF complexes. Biochem J. 2004;383:319-25 pubmed
    ..is associated with SWI/SNF-related complexes and indicates that p270 and ARID1B, similar to the ATPase subunits BRG1 and hBRM, are alternative, mutually exclusive subunits of the complexes...
  75. Medina P, Carretero J, Ballestar E, Angulo B, Lopez Rios F, Esteller M, et al. Transcriptional targets of the chromatin-remodelling factor SMARCA4/BRG1 in lung cancer cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:973-82 pubmed
    b>BRG1, also called SMARCA4, is the catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex and influences transcriptional regulation by disrupting histone-DNA contacts in an ATP-dependent manner...
  76. Napolitano M, Cipollaro M, Cascino A, Melone M, Giordano A, Galderisi U. Brg1 chromatin remodeling factor is involved in cell growth arrest, apoptosis and senescence of rat mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2904-11 pubmed
    ..To this end, in MSCs we caused a forced expression of the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF (Brg1 - also known as Smarca4) by adenoviral transduction...
  77. Park J, Venteicher A, Hong J, Choi J, Jun S, Shkreli M, et al. Telomerase modulates Wnt signalling by association with target gene chromatin. Nature. 2009;460:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The telomerase protein component TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) interacts with BRG1 (also called SMARCA4), a SWI/SNF-related chromatin remodelling protein, and activates Wnt-dependent reporters in ..
  78. Dal Molin M, Hong S, Hebbar S, Sharma R, Scrimieri F, de Wilde R, et al. Loss of expression of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling subunit BRG1/SMARCA4 is frequently observed in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>BRG1, a central component of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF regulating transcription, is inactive in several ..
  79. Underhill C, Qutob M, Yee S, Torchia J. A novel nuclear receptor corepressor complex, N-CoR, contains components of the mammalian SWI/SNF complex and the corepressor KAP-1. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40463-70 pubmed
    ..blotting, we have identified several novel components of the N-CoR-1 complex including the SWI/SNF-related proteins BRG1, BAF 170, BAF 155, BAF 47/INI1, and the corepressor KAP-1 that is involved in silencing heterochromatin...
  80. Fukuoka J, Fujii T, Shih J, Dracheva T, Meerzaman D, Player A, et al. Chromatin remodeling factors and BRM/BRG1 expression as prognostic indicators in non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:4314-24 pubmed
    ..signals of BRM, Ini-1, retinoblastoma, mSin3A, HDAC1, and HAT1 clustered together, whereas nuclear signals of BRG1, BAF155, HDAC2, BAF170, and RbAP48 formed a second cluster...
  81. Singh M, D Silva L, Holak T. DNA-binding properties of the recombinant high-mobility-group-like AT-hook-containing region from human BRG1 protein. Biol Chem. 2006;387:1469-78 pubmed
    ..The AT-hook region binds to linear DNA by unwinding it. These properties resemble the characteristics of the HMGA1/2 proteins and their interaction with DNA. ..
  82. Saladi S, Keenen B, Marathe H, Qi H, Chin K, de la Serna I. Modulation of extracellular matrix/adhesion molecule expression by BRG1 is associated with increased melanoma invasiveness. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:280 pubmed publisher
    ..SWI/SNF enzymes are multisubunit complexes that contain either BRG1 or BRM as the catalytic subunit...
  83. Wang W, Cote J, Xue Y, Zhou S, Khavari P, Biggar S, et al. Purification and biochemical heterogeneity of the mammalian SWI-SNF complex. EMBO J. 1996;15:5370-82 pubmed
    ..proteins [referred to as BRG1-associated factors (BAFs)] from several mammalian cell lines using an antibody to the SWI2-SNF2 homolog BRG1. Microsequencing revealed that the 47 kDa BAF is identical to INI1...
  84. Reyes J, Muchardt C, Yaniv M. Components of the human SWI/SNF complex are enriched in active chromatin and are associated with the nuclear matrix. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:263-74 pubmed
    ..Dual labeling failed to reveal significant colocalization of BRG1 or hBRM proteins with RNA polymerase II or with nuclear speckles involved in splicing...
  85. Medina P, Carretero J, Fraga M, Esteller M, Sidransky D, Sanchez Cespedes M. Genetic and epigenetic screening for gene alterations of the chromatin-remodeling factor, SMARCA4/BRG1, in lung tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;41:170-7 pubmed
    The SMARCA4/BRG1 gene product is a component of the SWI-SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and regulates gene expression by disrupting histone-DNA contacts in an ATP-dependent manner...
  86. Yan Z, Cui K, Murray D, Ling C, Xue Y, Gerstein A, et al. PBAF chromatin-remodeling complex requires a novel specificity subunit, BAF200, to regulate expression of selective interferon-responsive genes. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1662-7 pubmed
    ..Our study provides in vivo evidence that PBAF and BAF regulate expression of distinct genes, and suggests that BAF200 plays a key role in PBAF function. ..
  87. Watanabe T, Semba S, Yokozaki H. Regulation of PTEN expression by the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling protein BRG1 in human colorectal carcinoma cells. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:146-54 pubmed publisher
    Aberrant expression of Brahma-related gene-1 (BRG1), a core component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, has been implicated in cancer development; however, the biological significance of BRG1 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) ..
  88. Okamoto N, Yasukawa M, Nguyen C, Kasim V, Maida Y, Possemato R, et al. Maintenance of tumor initiating cells of defined genetic composition by nucleostemin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptase (hTERT)] and the SWItch-Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI-SNF) complex protein brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), and the expression of each of these components is necessary to facilitate the cancer stem cell state...
  89. Khavari P, Peterson C, Tamkun J, Mendel D, Crabtree G. BRG1 contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription. Nature. 1993;366:170-4 pubmed
    ..We have isolated a human complementary DNA encoding a 205K nuclear protein, BRG1, that contains extensive homology to SWI2 and Drosophila brahma...
  90. Wong A, Shanahan F, Chen Y, Lian L, Ha P, Hendricks K, et al. BRG1, a component of the SWI-SNF complex, is mutated in multiple human tumor cell lines. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6171-7 pubmed
    Human BRG1 is a component of the evolutionarily conserved SWI-SNF chromatin remodeling complex...
  91. Pattenden S, Klose R, Karaskov E, Bremner R. Interferon-gamma-induced chromatin remodeling at the CIITA locus is BRG1 dependent. EMBO J. 2002;21:1978-86 pubmed
    ..STAT1, IRF-1 and USF-1, activators implicated in CIITA expression, IFN-gamma did not induce CIITA in cells lacking BRG1 and hBRM, the ATPase subunits of SWI/SNF...
  92. Inoue H, Furukawa T, Giannakopoulos S, Zhou S, King D, Tanese N. Largest subunits of the human SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex promote transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41674-85 pubmed
    ..specific to hOsa1 or hOsa2 demonstrate the presence of both proteins in SWI/SNF-A but not in the related polybromo-BRG1-associated factors complex purified from HeLa cells...